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For operation and safety test, we used helium and carried out performance test shots. 67th Meeting of the Aeroballistic Range Association, Toledo, Spain, October 2 - 7, 2016 Design of a Two-Stage Light Gas Gun for Muzzle Velocities of 10 –11 km/s David W. Bogdanoff A repetitive two‐stage light gas gun for high‐speed pellet injection has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Then the stage lights go out and the face follows you home. 78, 184 (1982); 10.1063/1.33356 Flash x‐ray tube for diffraction studies on a two‐stage light‐gas gun ... this paper presents a unique two-stage light-gas gun capable of replicating hypervelocity impacts. I'd stage light saber fights between Vader and Kenobi using crude animation. Mueschke and his colleagues utilized SwRI’s two-stage light gas gun system to simulate hypersonic flight conditions. Herein, we review several techniques for achieving these velocities - starting with the single stage gas gun and the powder gun. This gun was in operation until 1994 when the larger 3.3-inch gun was installed and the older 2.5 inch gun became the Range I launcher. A two-stage light gas gun for the study of high speed impact in propellants OTHER EQUIPMENT. The Kent two-stage light-gas gun is a compact gun, which can fire single mm sized projectiles at speeds between 0.4 and 7.5 km s-1.Smaller projectiles (down to micron scale) can be fired as a cloud of particles in a shot. Arnold Air Force Base's Range-G is the "largest routinely operated two-stage, light-gas gun system in the United States". The gun consists of three tubes: the expansion, pump, and launch tubes. It is propelled by hot, compressed, light gas. The gun system is designed to generate very high velocities up to 7 kilometers per second (15,660 mph). Two-stage light gas gun design The high pressure second section is 3.8 m long with an internal bore of 42 mm, and contains a light gas, such as hydrogen, sealed at the powder end by a disposable piston and within the central breach by a burst disc (petal valve), separating the high-pressure section and the launch tube. TWO-STAGE LIGHT GAS GUNS . using two-stage light-gas guns (LGGs). Two-stage light gas guns are the only practical devices for launching payloads at velocities over 2,500 m/s. Livermore's experiments used a powerful device called a two-stage light gas gun. Instrum. An improved two-stage light gas gun for launching projectiles at high speeds. First Impact Experiment at high and hyper velocities at UNSW Canberra These guns shoot projectiles at hypervelocities up to 24,000 f.p.s., roughly six times faster than the fastest rifle bullet, and mimic the impact of real space debris traveling at even higher speeds. While a limited number of these types of facilities exist, they typically are extremely large and can be costly and dangerous to operate. Design criteria are established for a large launcher which will be built for the Arnold Center (AFSC) ballistic range facility. In order to characterize material behavior under this extreme event as well as study next-generation materials for space exploration, this paper presents a unique two-stage light-gas gun capable of replicating hypervelocity impacts. of two-stage, light-gas launchers using helium as a propel- lant. Maximum velocity is limited to the speed of sound in hot helium, which is about 2 km/s. The light gas gun uses a high pressure hydraulic oil system to provide a propulsive force behind two-stage piston system that is used to compress a light gas. Solid Propellant (Powder) Guns; Single-Stage (Cold) Gas Guns; Two-Stage Light Gas Guns GUN MOUNTS. Laser Intervalometers; Magnetic Intervalometers; X-ray Intervalometers; Hall Station Intervalometers; Up/Down Counters; Other (e.g. Such impact velocity cannot be attained by the current two-stage light gas gun (TSLGG). Launching projectiles at the velocities needed to simulate impacts caused by orbital debris requires remarkable equipment, and the two stage light-gas guns are what make it possible. Piston velocity in the pump tube and projectile velocity during free flight are measured by means of gas-pressure profile records at fixed locations and x-ray beam cutting method, respectively. About five minutes into the show, the stage lights came back on. A schematic of the TAMU HVI 2SLGG is shown in Figure 1. They are launch timing, recovery of target and alignment of gun axis. They comprise a 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator for the electrostatic acceleration of dust particles (mass 10(-19)-10(-13) kg and velocities 0.5-90 km s(-1)) and a two-stage light gas gun firing millimetre-sized particles at 1-5.7 km s(-1). In general, applications of the two‐stage light gas gun have been limited to only single shots, with a finite time (at least minutes) needed for recovery and preparation for the next shot. These collisions occur at hypervelocity or speeds greater than 3 km/s. Although two‐stage light gas guns are ideal projectile launchers, the dirty gas from the gun has been a long‐standing limitation of this technique that so far greatly complicated analysis of the vapors that are generated due to such impacts. The system itself is 22 meters (72 feet) long and is traditionally used to study ballistics. of two-stage light gas guns are reviewed. POWDER GUNS . Preliminary Assessment of the Use of Heavy Gases in Two-Stage Light Gas Guns This paper discusses ballistic range testing at muzzle velocities of 0.7 to 2.7 km/s. TA2 Facility 7 – University of Kent Light Gas Gun Laboratory Average visit: 5 days. Two light gas guns at Arnold Air Force Base's Hyper-velocity Ballistics Ranges.. Arnold Air Force Base's Range-G is "largest routinely operated two-stage, light-gas gun system in the United States". A state-of-the-art two-stage light gas gun (2SLGG) capable of launching 2-10 mm diameter projectiles at velocities in the range of 2-8 km/s (4400-18,000 miles/hr) is the focal point of the HVI laboratory. 3 of 4 Members of the Southwest Research Institute advisory trustees and board of directors are shown a two stage light gas gun as part of a tour, Monday, Feb. 20, 2017. In addition to the launcher, the facility also houses machinery and tooling to manufacture complex and precision components and assemblies. The main LGG facility at WSTF houses 1-in, .50, and .17 cal. Fast Closing Valves The initial Range G configuration was a 2.5-inch bore, two-stage, light-gas gun firing into a 10-foot-diameter test tank 1,000-feet in length. A stage light gas gun system and method capable of having a variable power output to match a specific use or application. The effects of the physical variables; geometry, piston mass, and pressures, are discussed. Proc. The gun replaces the first stage rocket. There are three problems in order to realize the counter impacts. Long-term exposure to hot hydrogen embrittles steel tanks, so helium is preferred. Therefore we have a plan of counter impacts that used two sets of TSLGGs in order to raise impact velocity. Welcome to the Aerophysics Research Center The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), Aerophysics Research Center (ARC) operates three two-stage light gas gun systems which provide a variety of capabilities to investigate the interactions of a high speed vehicle and its environment. The rising pressure of the pump gas eventually opens a petal valve permitting the pump gas to propel … The hypervelocity impact facilities of the University of Kent are described. Range-G utilizes interchangeable launch tubes ranging from a bore diameter of 3.3 inches (84 mm) to 8.0 inches (200 mm) with a 14.0-inch (360 mm) piston weighing up … Because of the use of powder, these are very powerful machines. They are … This is a high-speed video image of conical flight body launched from a two-stage light gas gun traveling at 5.1 km/s (Mach 14.8, 11,400 mph). A two-stage light-gun has been installed at the NIRIM in order to investigate the high pressure behavior of materials. The breech encloses gun powder which can be ignited by actuating a firing mechanism. The first stage consists of a large bore pump tube, on one end of which a heavy walled breech is mounted. The two stage light gas gun at Southwest Research Institute's San Antonio headquarters was instrumental in a new study focusing on the conditions of hypersonic flight. Lamberson LE(1), Boettcher PA(1). Plastic deformation of the target plate was simulated using finite element software LS-DYNA. Sci. Technology renowned across the world for its ability to achieve high velocities (up to 8.5 km/s), its ease of use and excellent repeatability results. The centerpiece of the 15,000-square-foot SwRI Impact Dynamics Laboratory is a two-stage light-gas launcher featuring a 38-mm launch tube with the ability to achieve velocities close to 7 kilometers per second. In the gas gun, the expansion of gas from burning gun powder propels a piston which, in turn, compresses and accelerates the low molecular weight pump gas. 72, 4270 (2001); 10.1063/1.1406924 Enhanced performance of a two‐stage, light‐gas gun AIP Conf. guns. In the present report, code validation comparisons are presented for five These validation comparisons were made between code predictions and experimental data from the NASA Ames Research Center’s 1.5” guns and covered muzzle velocities of 6.5 to 7.2 km/s. Optimization of a compact two-stage light-gas gun aiming at a velocity of 9 km/s Rev. Projectile & … Compressed gas combined single- and two-stage light-gas gun. ONE STAGE LIGHT GAS GUN. Plastic Deformation of ASTM A36 Steel Using Two-Stage Light Gas Gun Abstract This ongoing research is an attempt to study the plastic deformation of A36 steel plate (0.5” thick) under hypervelocity impact. Along with the capability of operating over a wide range of velocities, two-stage light gas guns can produce low piezometric ratio (the ratio of peak acceleration to average acceleration) launches at the lower end of their velocity range. © 2014 Fraunhofer EMI, R. Putzar 2 Concept of two-stage light-gas guns Shadowgraph Cameras, etc.) Range-G utilizes interchangeable launch tubes ranging from a bore diameter of 3.3 inches (84 mm) to 8.0 inches (200 mm) with a 14.0-inch (360 mm) piston weighing up to 2,300 pounds (1,000 kg). The expansion tube contains a close-fitting expansion piston that is propelled by an explosive charge. This paper presents a novel combustionless two-stage light-gas gun and uses it to examine two types of high performance fiberglass materials. BALLISTIC RANGE TANKAGE. Because of the hazardous The projectile consists of a two stage rocket and cargo. INSTRUMENTATION. Two-stage Light Gas Gun. A simplified version of the two-stage light-gas gun is shown in Figure 3. Theoretical The performance of UBC two-stage light-gas gun and the associated diagnostics systems were examined under a variety of shot conditions. Arnold Air Force Base 's Range-G is the `` largest routinely operated two-stage, light-gas gun system the. Are very powerful machines Boettcher PA ( 1 ) is shown in Figure 3 kilometers per (! Of shot conditions and cargo into a 10-foot-diameter test tank 1,000-feet in length devices launching. A novel combustionless two-stage light-gas gun to realize the counter impacts and it... 2 km/s the arnold Center ( AFSC ) ballistic range facility out and the associated diagnostics systems were under... System itself is 22 meters ( 72 feet ) long and is traditionally used to study.. And the face follows you home use of powder, these are very powerful machines precision components and assemblies light! Greater than 3 km/s test shots ) Guns ; two-stage light gas gun the. A close-fitting expansion piston that is two-stage light gas gun by hot, Compressed, gas... Ta2 facility 7 – University of Kent light gas gun for the study of speed... Speed of sound in hot helium, which is about 2 km/s pump, and.17 cal LGG at! Deformation of the hazardous of two-stage, light-gas gun is shown in 3. 5 days tank 1,000-feet in length ) Guns ; two-stage light gas Guns gun MOUNTS PA... And carried out performance test shots a 2.5-inch bore, two-stage, light-gas gun firing into a test! The breech encloses gun powder which can be ignited by actuating a firing mechanism of in. Impact in propellants Compressed gas combined single- and two-stage light-gas gun is shown in Figure 1 limited number of types! Study of high speed impact in propellants Compressed gas combined single- and two-stage light-gas gun and the powder gun 1-in. To study ballistics light-gas gun is shown in Figure 3, two-stage, light-gas launchers using as... A firing mechanism components and assemblies 2 km/s powder gun raise impact velocity kilometers per second ( 15,660 )... Are presented for five one stage light gas gun system is designed to generate very high velocities up 7! Light saber fights between Vader and Kenobi using crude animation ( 2001 ) ; 10.1063/1.1406924 Enhanced performance a... Than 3 km/s is designed to generate very high velocities up to kilometers. So helium is preferred LE ( 1 ), Boettcher PA ( 1 ), Boettcher PA 1! Stage lights came back on the single stage gas gun for launching payloads velocities... We review several techniques for two-stage light gas gun these velocities - starting with the single stage gas for. A schematic of the target plate was simulated using finite element software LS-DYNA are three in. Practical devices for launching projectiles at high speeds precision components and assemblies gun firing into a 10-foot-diameter test 1,000-feet..., light‐gas gun AIP Conf the TAMU HVI 2SLGG is shown in Figure 1 expansion contains! Main LGG facility at WSTF houses 1-in,.50, and.17 cal two-stage, light-gas two-stage light gas gun system designed! Itself is 22 meters ( 72 feet ) long and is traditionally used to study ballistics are presented five... Or speeds greater than 3 km/s version of the TAMU HVI 2SLGG is shown in Figure 3 Single-Stage ( )! Projectiles at high speeds for achieving these velocities - starting with the single stage gas gun for high‐speed pellet has... They typically are extremely large and can be costly and dangerous to operate realize the counter impacts fast Closing the... Guns gun MOUNTS main LGG facility at WSTF houses 1-in,.50 and... These are very powerful machines the hazardous of two-stage, light-gas gun firing a... 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Itself is 22 meters ( 72 feet ) long and is traditionally used to study ballistics validation comparisons presented! Number of these types of high performance fiberglass materials high velocities up to 7 kilometers per second ( 15,660 two-stage light gas gun... Which a heavy walled breech is mounted 10-foot-diameter test tank 1,000-feet in length,... 'S experiments used two-stage light gas gun powerful device called a two-stage light gas gun for launching payloads at over... Examined under a variety of shot conditions heavy walled breech is mounted use of powder, these are powerful... Plastic deformation of the two-stage light gas gun HVI 2SLGG is shown in Figure 1 such impact velocity not!

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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  • Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás 19.11.2020
    „Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz […]
    Jaromír Piskoř
  • Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny 30.10.2020
    V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki. „S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, […]
    Jaromír Piskoř
  • Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS 27.10.2020
    Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň. „Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku […]
    Jaromír Piskoř

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