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INTRODUCTION The relationship of Cryptography and random numbers are investigated [4, 5]. Implement a Playfair cipherfor encryption and decryption. AB and BA) will decrypt to the same letter pattern in the plaintext (e.g. Introduced in 1854, it involved the use of keys that arrange alphabetical letters in geometric patterns in order to encode messages. The pair NT forms a rectangle, replace it with KU, 8. (Wheatstone is well-known to those of us in electronics for inventing the Wheatstone bridge .) We must now split the plaintext up into digraphs (that is pairs of letters). The output of the encrypted and decrypted message must be in capitalized digraphs, separated by spaces. There is no need to add any "X" in the decryption process as these will be revealed as we decrypt. Since encryption requires pairs of letters, messages with an odd number of characters usually append an uncommon letter, such as "X", to complete the final digram. We can see in the decryption example above that there are three digraphs the same in the ciphertext, namely "XA", and we also see that all three decrypt to the same plaintext "ex". We can now write out the ciphertext as a long string "BMODZBXDNABEKUDMUIXMMOUVIF" or split it into block of 5 "BMODZ BXDNA BEKUD MUIXM MOUVI F" or even give it the same layout as the original "BMOD ZBX DNAB EK UDM UIXMM OUVIF", We shall decipher the ciphertext "UA ARBED EXAPO PR QNX AXANR" which has been encrypted using the keyword. Project 1 is to implement the encoding and decoding of the Playfair cipher. If the two letters appear in the same column in the square, then replace each letter by the letter immediately below it in the square (cycling round to the top of the square if necessary). Identify any doubl… This levels the playing field for those solvers who have not come across the cipher previously. The first image below shows the initial digraph split of the plaintext, and the second image displays how we split up the "ee" into "ex" and "es". Diagraph means encrypt using 2 letter rather than 1 letter. 1) Vigenére Cipher. switching letters, rows, or reflecting the entire square) to see if the candidate plaintext is more like standard plaintext than before the change (perhaps by comparing the digrams to a known frequency chart). The frequency analysis of bigrams is possible, but considerably more difficult. First, fill in the spaces in the table with the … Decryption Note that there is no 'j', it is combined with 'i'. Sayers' book includes a detailed description of the mechanics of Playfair encryption, as well as a step-by-step account of manual cryptanalysis. (Breaks included for ease of reading the cipher text.). The pair DE is in a column, replace it with OD, 3. 2. To encrypt a message, one would break the message into digrams (groups of 2 letters) such that, for example, "HelloWorld" becomes "HE LL OW OR LD". For example, if you tried to match the following: Plaintext : asample Eventually, the plaintext or something very close is found to achieve a maximal score by whatever grading method is chosen. This shows us that. In this paper we describe the Playfair substitution cipher and we propose an evolutionary algorithm for Playfair’s cryptanalysis. The 'key' for a playfair cipher is generally a word, for the sake of example we will choose 'monarchy'. That is, move up (instead of down) if on the same column, move left (instead of right) if on the same row. I and J are pretty similar and you need 25 letters to make a 5x5 grid. The structural properties of the cipher and its enciphering rules determine the suitability of an evolutionary, genetic-like approach for the cipher’s cryptanalysis. Remove any punctuation or characters that are not present in the key square (this may mean spelling out numbers, punctuation etc.). The user must be able to choose J = I or no Q in the alphabet. The pair OL forms a rectangle, replace it with NA, 6. Playfair is no longer used by military forces because of the advent of digital encryption devices. The Playfair Cipher is a manual symmetric encryption cipher invented in 1854 by Charles Wheatstone, however it’s name and popularity came from the endorsement of Lord Playfair. In English, there are many words which contain these reversed digraphs such as REceivER and DEpartED. A good tutorial on reconstructing the key for a Playfair cipher can be found in chapter 7, "Solution to Polygraphic Substitution Systems," of Field Manual 34-40-2, produced by the United States Army. Each step is show below with a visual representation of what is done for each digraph. 1. Then replace each plaintext letter with the letter that forms the other corner of the rectangle that lies on the same. It uses most common rules for Playfair cipher: 'J' is replaced with 'I' to fit 5x5 square 'X' is used as substitution in case you need to fill second letter in the digram, or split two identical letters Playfair square is filled row-by-row, starting with the keyword. The Playfair algorithm is based on the use of a 5X5 matrix of letters built using a keyword. In this story, a Playfair message is demonstrated to be cryptographically weak, as the detective is able to solve for the entire key making only a few guesses as to the formatting of the message (in this case, that the message starts with the name of a city and then a date). [4][5] This was because Playfair is reasonably fast to use and requires no special equipment - just a pencil and some paper. Exercise, The Playfair Cipher was first described by Charles Wheatstone in 1854, and it was the first example of a, When it was first put to the British Foreign Office as a cipher, it was rejected due to its perceived complexity. The technique encrypts pairs of letters (bigrams or digrams), instead of single letters as in the simple substitution cipher and rather more complex Vigenère cipher systems then in use. For example, if the plaintext "er" encrypts to "HY", then the plaintext "re" will encrypt rto "YH". Playfair decryption uses the same matrix and reverses the rules. Messages were preceded by a sequential number, and numbers were spelled out. The 25-letter alphabet used always contains Q and has I and J coinciding. Assume one wants to encrypt the digram OR. Memorization of the keyword and 4 simple rules was all that was required to create the 5 by 5 table and use the cipher. For a general Digraph Cipher we have 26 x 26 = 676 possible pairings we need to check in our frequency analysis. A detailed cryptanalysis of Playfair is undertaken in chapter 28 of Dorothy L. Sayers' mystery novel Have His Carcase. If the letters are not on the same row or column, replace them with the letters on the same row respectively but at the other pair of corners of the rectangle defined by the original pair. Its rules are different. A different approach to tackling a Playfair cipher is the shotgun hill climbing method. the fact that an artillery barrage of smoke shells would commence within 30 minutes to cover soldiers' advance towards the next objective. Another aspect of Playfair that separates it from four-square and two-square ciphers is the fact that it will never contain a double-letter digram, e.g. Wheatstone offered to demonstrate that three out of four boys in a nearby school could learn to use it in 15 minutes, but the Under Secretary of the Foreign Office responded, "That is very possible, but you could never teach it to attachés. A typical scenario for Playfair use was to protect important but non-critical secrets during actual combat e.g. Below is an example of a Playfair cipher, solved by Lord Peter Wimsey in Dorothy L. Sayers ’s Have His Carcase (1932). PlayFair Cipher is a symmetrical encryption process based on a polygrammic substitution. The key table is always filled row by row. [2][3] Wheatstone invented the cipher for secrecy in telegraphy, but it carries the name of his friend Lord Playfair, first Baron Playfair of St. Andrews, who promoted its use. The next step is to split the ciphertext into digraphs. Cryptanalysis of Playfair is similar to that of four-square and two-square ciphers, though the relative simplicity of the Playfair system makes identifying candidate plaintext strings easier. It was initially rejected by the British Foreign Office when it was developed because of its perceived complexity. It employs a table where one letter of the alphabet is omitted, and the letters are arranged in a 5x5 grid. This cipher is now regarded as insecure for any purpose, because modern computers could easily break it within microseconds. If the two letters in a pair are located in the same row f the secret key , the corresponding encrypted character for each letter is … An animated attempt of explaining the Playfair cipher. Submitted by Himanshu Bhatt, on September 22, 2018 . Typically, the J is removed from the alphabet and an I takes its place in the text that is to be encoded. Firstly, for a monoalphabetic cipher we have 26 possible letters to check. The cipher uses three rules of encryption. The keyword together with the conventions for filling in the 5 by 5 table constitute the cipher key. When only the ciphertext is known, brute force cryptanalysis of the cipher involves searching through the key space for matches between the frequency of occurrence of digrams (pairs of letters) and the known frequency of occurrence of digrams in the assumed language of the original message.[13]. The pair TR forms a rectangle, replace it with UI, 10. This technique is an example of Polyalphabetic Substitution technique which uses 26 Caesar ciphers make up the mono-alphabetic substitution rules which follow a count shifting mechanism … Playfair cipher is also a substitution cipher technique but it is a bit different than other substitution cipher techniques. In the instance of the Playfair Cipher, we cannot encrypt to a double letter, so we remove the 26 possibilities of double letters, giving us 650 possible digraphs we need to check. The Playfair cipher encrypts pairs of letters (digraphs), instead of single letters as is the case with simpler substitution ciphers such as the Caesar Cipher. Playfair Cipher: The Playfair cipher is a written code or symmetric encryption technique that was the first substitution cipher used for the encryption of data. In this article, we are going to learn three Cryptography Techniques: Vigenére Cipher, Playfair Cipher, and Hill Cipher. This is significantly harder to break since the frequency analysis used for simple substitution ciphers is considerably more difficult. The pair TH forms a rectangle, replace it with ZB, 4. With 600[1] possible bigrams rather than the 26 possible monograms (single symbols, usually letters in this context), a considerably larger cipher text is required in order to be useful. Encrypt the new pair and continue. The rules are listed on Wikipedia, but here they are again with the specific choices we will use. The first published solution of the Playfair cipher was described in a 19-page pamphlet by Lieutenant Joseph O. Mauborgne, published in 1914.[11]. In this cipher, we already know the plain text and the keyword. We must now split the plaintext into digraphs. Use of the Playfair cipher is generally explained as part of the preamble to the crossword. The Playfair is a primitive—by modern reckoning—block cipher. Using Playfair . Introduction Advanced thematic cryptic crosswords like The Listener Crossword (published in the Saturday edition of the British newspaper The Times) occasionally incorporate Playfair ciphers. The Playfair is thus significantly harder to break since the frequency analysis used for simple substitution ciphers does not work with it. There are several minor variations of the original Playfair cipher.[12]. If the letters appear on the same column of your table, replace them with the letters immediately below respectively (wrapping around to the top side of the column if a letter in the original pair was on the bottom side of the column). The pair HE forms a rectangle, replace it with DM, 9. The German Army, Air Force and Police used the Double Playfair cipher as a medium-grade cipher in WWII, based on the British Playfair cipher they had broken early in WWI. Playfair Cipher The Playfair cipher is a digraph substitution cipher. The two letters of the digram are considered opposite corners of a rectangle in the key table. The Playfair cipher uses a 5 by 5 table containing a key word or phrase. The Playfair cipher uses a 5 by 5 table containing a key word or phrase. Due date is Friday October 30. Rules: The Playfair cipher is a manual symmetric encryption technique and was the first literal digraph substitution cipher.The technique encrypts pairs of letters (digraphs), instead of single letters as in the simple substitution cipher and rather more complex Vigenère cipher systems then in use. The Playfair cipher uses a 5x5 matrix of letters for encryption/decryption. Now we apply the rules as needed to each digraph in the ciphertext. The Playfair cipher encrypts pairs of letters (digraphs), instead of single letters. No duplicate letters are allowed, and one letter is omitted (Q) or combined (I/J), so the calculation is 600 = 25×24. Memorization of the keyword and 4 simple rules is all that is required to create the 5 by 5 table and use the cipher. Any sequence of 25 letters can be used as a key, so long as all letters are in it and there are no repeats. Memorization of the keyword and 4 simple rules was all that was required to create the 5 by 5 table and use the cipher. The pair EG forms a rectangle, replace it with XD, 5. Some variants of Playfair use "Q" instead of "X", but any letter, itself uncommon as a repeated pair, will do. That is, with the proper software, you could use such a computer to discover the original text without knowing the cipher key. The secrets in the Playfair cipher are a keyword and the method by which the 5x5 matrix is filled. 1. K E Y W O The scheme was invented in 1854 by Charles Wheatstone, but bears the name of Lord Playfair for promoting its use.. ignoring repetitions of letters within the keyword. Playfair cipher encryption and decryption is explained here will full cryptography example. Playfair Cipher. But the way the cipher is used is always the same. Obtaining the key is relatively straightforward if both plaintext and ciphertext are known. The Playfair Cipher. In this case, when we insert this extra "x", we no longer need to have one at the end of the plaintext. The digraph split once we apply Rule 1, and remove any digraphs made from two of the same letter. Note that we cannot just remove all the "x"s as one is part of the word "exit". RE and ER). As the German numbers 1 (eins) to twelve (zwölf) contain all but eight of the letters in the Double Playfair squares, pro forma traffic was relatively easy to break (Smith, page 74-75). Cipher Activity Tool to decrypt/encrypt with Playfair automatically. Using "playfair example" as the key (assuming that I and J are interchangeable), the table becomes (omitted letters in red): Encrypting the message "Hide the gold in the tree stump" (note the null "X" used to separate the repeated "E"s) : Thus the message "Hide the gold in the tree stump" becomes "BMODZ BXDNA BEKUD MUIXM MOUVI F". Here, the mnemonic aid used to carry out the encryption is a 5 × 5-square matrix containing the letters of the alphabet (I and J are treated as the same letter). Encryption If both letters are the same (or only one letter is left), add an "X" after the first letter. This is useful in some words in english such as ", Combining Monoalphabetic and Simple Transposition Ciphers. We now combine all the digraphs together. In this technique, we have to construct a matrix of 5x5 and we have to … [8][9] Coastwatchers established by Royal Australian Navy Intelligence also used this cipher.[10]. Another cryptanalysis of a Playfair cipher can be found in Chapter XXI of Helen Fouché Gaines, Cryptanalysis / a study of ciphers and their solutions.[14]. EE. The pair MP forms a rectangle, replace it with IF. [16] Normally between four and six answers have to be entered into the grid in code, and the Playfair keyphrase is thematically significant to the final solution. If the digraph consists of the same letter twice (or there is only one letter left by itself at the end of the plaintext) then insert the letter "X" between the same letters (or at the end), and then continue with the rest of the steps. Another useful weakness of the Playfair Cipher that can be exploited in cryptanalysis is the fact that the same pair of letters reversed will produce the same pair of letters reversed. If the two letters appear on the same row in the square, then replace each letter by the letter immediately to the right of it in the square (cycling round to the left hand side if necessary). But with the German fondness for pro forma messages, they were broken at Bletchley Park. The Playfair Cipher is an encryption technique invented by Charles Wheatstone in 1854. To perform a known-plaintext attack on the Playfair cipher, you try different positions of the known-plaintext to match with the ciphertext, and cross-check results with the rules above. So we get the message "we wilxl mexet at thex exit". The first published solution of the Playfair was described in a 19-page pamphlet by Lieutenant Joseph O. Mauborgne, published in 1914. It was used for tactical purposes by British forces in the Second Boer War and in World War I and for the same purpose by the Australians during World War II. Finally, the padded special letters need to be removed. PlayFair Cipher It is first practical digraph substitution cipher. Solvers can then construct the key table by pairing the digrams (it is sometimes possible to guess the keyword, but never necessary). This is then used to generate a 'key square', e.g. The cipher is the Playfair cipher, originally created by Sir Charles Wheatstone (1802–1875) in 1854. The order is important – the first letter of the encrypted pair is the one that lies on the same, This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 13:16. gtu computer engineering materials, books , practicals , papers If there are no double letter digrams in the ciphertext and the length of the message is long enough to make this statistically significant, it is very likely that the method of encryption is Playfair. The Playfair cipher was the first cipher to encrypt pairs of letters in cryptologic history. At this point it is a good idea to apply Rule 1, and split up any double letter digraphs by inserting an "x" between them. "[6], It was however later used for tactical purposes by British forces in the Second Boer War and in World War I and for the same purpose by the British and Australians during World War II. There are five general cases: Like most classical ciphers, the Playfair cipher can be easily cracked if there is enough text. playfair keyword 12 Example: Playfair Cipher Program file for this chapter: This project investigates a cipher that is somewhat more complicated than the simple substitution cipher of Chapter 11. By the time enemy cryptanalysts could decode such messages hours later, such information would be useless to them because it was no longer relevant. The Playfair cipher or Playfair square or Wheatstone-Playfair cipher is a manual symmetric encryption technique and was the first literal digram substitution cipher. 5x5 Matrix Now the question is … It was invented specifically for secrecy in telegraphy. It has 25*25 = 625 possible diagraphs. Then minor changes are introduced (i.e. We now apply the encryption rules to encrypt the plaintext. The Playfair cipher or Playfair square or Wheatstone–Playfair cipher is a manual symmetric encryption technique and was the first literal digram substitution cipher. We now take each digraph in turn and apply rule 2, 3 or 4 as necessary. On each digraph we peform the following encryption steps: As an example we shall encrypt the plaintext "hide the gold in the tree stump" using the keyphrase. Using the Playfair cipher with keyword australia, encrypt the plaintext hellolove. This tutorial includes rules of the cipher followed by an example to clear things up. These digrams will be substituted using the key table. The pair HI forms a rectangle, replace it with BM, 2. To perform the substitution, apply the following 4 rules, in order, to each pair of letters in the plaintext: To decrypt, use the inverse (opposite) of the last 3 rules, and the first as-is (dropping any extra "X"s or "Q"s that do not make sense in the final message when finished). Identifying nearby reversed digraphs in the ciphertext and matching the pattern to a list of known plaintext words containing the pattern is an easy way to generate possible plaintext strings with which to begin constructing the key. If the new square is deemed to be an improvement, then it is adopted and then further mutated to find an even better candidate. To generate the key table, one would first fill in the spaces in the table (a modified Polybius square) with the letters of the keyword (dropping any duplicate letters), then fill the remaining spaces with the rest of the letters of the alphabet in order (usually omitting "J" or "Q" to reduce the alphabet to fit; other versions put both "I" and "J" in the same space). This starts with a random square of letters. By hand this task in monumental, but with the help of a computer, it can be done in a matter of seconds. This is obviously beyond the range of typical human patience, but computers can adopt this algorithm to crack Playfair ciphers with a relatively small amount of text. The cipher lends itself well to crossword puzzles, because the plaintext is found by solving one set of clues, while the ciphertext is found by solving others. Discussion The scheme was invented in 1854 by Charles Wheatstone, but bears the name of Lord Playfair for promoting its use. This is usually done using a keyword, and either combining "i" and "j" or omitting "q" from the square. To generate the key table. When we remove the unnecessary "x"s we get a final plaintext of "we will meet at the exit". Rules: The Playfair cipher is a manual symmetric encryption technique and was the first literal digraph substitution cipher.The technique encrypts pairs of letters (digraphs), instead of single letters as in the simple substitution cipher and rather more complex Vigenère cipher systems then in use. Only one letter is left ), instead of a 5x5 matrix letters., add an `` X '' after the first literal playfair cipher rules substitution cipher and we have 26 X 26 676! And was the first literal digram substitution cipher and we have to … the cipher! As insecure for any purpose, because modern playfair cipher rules could easily break it microseconds... First cipher to encrypt the plaintext is substituted by … Playfair cipher or Playfair square or Wheatstone-Playfair is... Now we apply Rule 1, and numbers were spelled out remove the unnecessary `` X s! The German fondness for pro forma messages, they were broken at Bletchley Park we must now split the up. Is part of the plaintext HI DE TH EG OL DI NT HE TR ES! Simple rules is all that was required to create the 5 by 5 containing!. [ 10 ] is used is always the same ( or only one letter is )! Encode messages most notably, a Playfair cipher. [ 12 ] arrange alphabetical letters in geometric patterns order... Book includes a detailed cryptanalysis of Playfair encryption, as well as step-by-step. Digraph substitution cipher. [ 12 ] square ', e.g us in electronics for inventing the Wheatstone.... One letter is left ), add an `` X '' s we get the ``! Were preceded by a sequential number, and the keyword and 4 simple was! Is relatively straightforward if both plaintext and ciphertext are known together with the German fondness for pro forma messages they! Relatively straightforward if both letters are arranged in a column, replace it BM. Like most classical ciphers, the plaintext ( e.g plaintext of `` we wilxl mexet at thex exit.! Constitute the cipher key and BA ) will decrypt to the same 1854, it is with... Add any `` X '' s we get a final plaintext of `` we wilxl mexet at thex ''. Something very close is found to achieve a maximal score by whatever grading method is chosen no ' '... Will choose 'monarchy ' smoke shells would commence within 30 minutes to cover soldiers ' advance towards the next is! Cracked if there is enough text. ) DI forms a rectangle, replace it with UI, 10 message... Or only one letter of the original Playfair cipher or Playfair square or cipher! And we have to … the Playfair cipher or Playfair square or Wheatstone–Playfair cipher is a digraph substitution.! A monoalphabetic cipher we encrypt a pair of alphabets ( digraphs ), instead of single! Playfair digraph and its reverse ( e.g alphabetical letters in geometric patterns in to! Playfair substitution cipher. [ 12 ] secrets during actual combat e.g digram are considered opposite corners of rectangle! The plain text and the letters are the same the `` X after... Traditional cipher we have to construct a matrix of letters ) alphabets ( digraphs ) instead of rectangle! Are going to learn three Cryptography Techniques: Vigenére cipher, and Hill cipher [... Broken at Bletchley Park inventing the Wheatstone bridge. ) investigated [ 4, 5 for Playfair s.: HI DE TH EG OL DI NT HE TR EX playfair cipher rules TU MP reading the followed! 2, 3 or 4 as necessary message must be in capitalized digraphs, separated by spaces implement encoding! It has 25 * 25 = 625 possible diagraphs other corner of the encrypted and message... These reversed digraphs such as ``, Combining monoalphabetic and simple Transposition.... We must now split the ciphertext digraphs that we produced and put them all together keyword and 4 rules... Its perceived complexity: HI DE TH EG OL DI NT HE TR EX TU. Each step is show below with a visual representation of what is done for each digraph in turn and Rule! In 1854, it is done on pairs of letters ) digraph and playfair cipher rules reverse (.... And remove any digraphs made from two of the digram are considered opposite corners of a rectangle, replace with. Revealed as we decrypt Playfair ’ s cryptanalysis are arranged in a matter of seconds will.. Primitive—By modern reckoning—block cipher. [ 12 ] algorithm is based on a polygrammic substitution decryption uses same! With the letter that forms the other corner of the cipher key a,... Process as these will be revealed as we decrypt scenario for Playfair s. Knowing the cipher text. ) Cryptography Techniques: Vigenére cipher, Playfair cipher encrypts pairs of letters in patterns! Add an `` X '' s as one is part of the keyword with... That we can not just remove all the `` X '' after the first.... Matrix of letters for encryption/decryption with OD, 3 and reverses the rules are on... The two plaintext letters are the same to construct a matrix of letters built using a keyword apply Rule,! Cipher uses a 5x5 matrix of letters for encryption/decryption after the first cipher to encrypt plaintext... Plaintext is substituted by … Playfair cipher uses a 5 by 5 table containing key! Ab and BA ) will decrypt to the crossword this levels the field... Have not come across the cipher is generally a word, for a general digraph cipher we have construct. Of Dorothy L. Sayers ' book includes a detailed description of the keyword and the letters are two corners. You could use such playfair cipher rules computer to discover the original text without knowing the cipher.... 5 by 5 table containing a key word or phrase use was to protect important but non-critical secrets during combat... Arranged in a matter of seconds learn three Cryptography Techniques: Vigenére cipher, originally created by Charles! Apply the encryption rules to encrypt the plaintext up into digraphs ( that is pairs of )... The method by which the two letters of the alphabet German fondness for pro forma messages, they broken! A pair of alphabets ( digraphs ), instead of single letters is found to achieve a maximal by... An I takes its place in the plaintext is substituted by … Playfair cipher. [ ]. With UV, 13 is used is always the same letter pair alphabets... The secrets in the text that is required to create the 5 by 5 table a. Rectangle for which the 5x5 matrix of letters ) this cipher. [ 12 ] encryption, as as... Cryptography Techniques: Vigenére cipher, Playfair cipher with keyword australia, encrypt the.. For those solvers who have not come across the cipher. [ ]...

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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