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2) The rare consonants (j,k,q,x,z) will appear more frequently in the plaintext. An attack by frequency analysis would involve analyzing the frequencies of the digraphs of plaintext. The Playfair cipher is a cryptographic technique that is used to encrypt/decrypt a message. Hill Cipher is a cryptographic algorithm to encrypt and decrypt an alphabetic text. File:Hill's message protector fig4 cropped.png. gtu computer engineering materials, books , practicals , papers Thesewerefirstdescribedin1929 PlayFair Cipher is a symmetrical encryption process based on a polygrammic substitution. row 3, column 2. In the Hill cipher Each letter is represented by a number modulo 26. The scheme was invented in 1854 by Charles Wheatstone, but bears the name of Lord Playfair who promoted the use of the cipher.. 6 Caesar+Hill+Playfair Cipher demo for IIS ( Introduction to Information Security ) - ypingcn/Cipher Playfair Cipher: The Playfair cipher is a written code or symmetric encryption technique that was the first substitution cipher used for the encryption of data. In this post, we will discuss the Hill Cipher. It was championed by Lord Playfair (hence the name) and used by Britain in the Boer War and both World Wars and also by Australia and New Zealand in World War II. The Playfair Cipher was an ingenious new way to encipher messages. Wheatstone invented the cipher for secrecy in telegraphy, but it carries the name of his friend Lord Playfair, first Baron Playfair of St. Andrews, who promoted its use. It was the first of its kind, and opened up the world of cryptography to a whole new type of cipher: the polygraphic cipher. Here 1 st subkey is predefined and 2 nd subkey is the value of the 1 st character of the plain text 3 rd In this paper, we have developed a block cipher by including the features of a generalized Playfair cipher and a modified Hill cipher. The Playfair cipher was the first cipher to encrypt pairs of letters in cryptologic history. Also Read: Caesar Cipher in Java. rust security cryptography algorithm cipher playfair rot13 hill-cipher railfence scytale caesar-cipher vigenere-cipher affine-cipher autokey polybius porta adfgvx Updated Oct 5, 2020 Rust Auto key cipher • Playfair cipher • Vigegeire cipher • Hill cipher Auto key cipher: In this cipher, key is stream of subkeys in which subkey is used to encrypt the corresponding character in the plain text. But in the Playfair program, the row and column numbers are going to be very important. 3. The Playfair cipher was the first cipher to encrypt pairs of letters in cryptologic history. There are two parts in the Hill cipher – Encryption and Decryption. Hill Cipher AIM: To implement a program to encrypt and decrypt using the Hill cipher substitution technique ALGORITHM: 1. History of the Playfair Cipher The Playfair cipher was created in 1854 by Charles Wheatstone. The first recorded description of the Playfair cipher was in a document signed by Wheatstone on 26 March 1854. The scheme was invented in 1854 by Charles Wheatstone, but was named after Lord Playfair who promoted the use of the cipher. When compared with monoalphabetic cipher Playfair cipher is much more advanced. Wheatstone invented the cipher for secrecy in telegraphy, but it carries the name of his friend Lord Playfair, first Baron Playfair of St. Andrews, who promoted its use. Comments. A stream cipher is a polyalphabetic cipher if the value of key does depend on the position of the plain text character in the plain text stream. Tool to decrypt/encrypt with Playfair automatically. Hill Cipher. 4) Which of the following ciphers is a block cipher? It is said that it was rejected for use by the British Foreign Office due to its perceived complexity. View Notes - CIS3360-17Summer-Playfair-Hill-Transpo.pdf from CIS 3360 at University of Central Florida. Introduced in 1854, it involved the use of keys that arrange alphabetical letters in geometric patterns in order to encode messages. Beaufort Cipher Tool; Playfair Cipher. Invented by Lester S. Hill in 1929, the Hill cipher is a polygraphic substitution cipher based on linear algebra. Add a Solution. Playfair cipher is a multi- alphabet letter encryption cipher, which deals with letters in plaintext as single units and renders these units into Ciphertext letters. It is a GUI program that ask the user to enter the encription key and then type the plain text and then press Encript button to encript and the cipher text will be desplayed. The Playfair cipher was invented in 1854 by Charles Wheatstone, but named after lord Playfair who heavily promoted the use of the cipher. A ciphertext is a formatted text which is not understood by anyone. Basically Hill cipher is a cryptography algorithm to encrypt and decrypt data to ensure data security. In classical cryptography, the Hill cipher is a polygraphic substitution cipher based on linear algebra.Invented by Lester S. Hill in 1929, it was the first polygraphic cipher in which it was practical (though barely) to operate on more than three symbols at once. v2. Anwar Besa. Complications also It will be written as - Programming2.The rules of encryption are -3. Levels of difficulty: Hard / perform operation: Algorithm Implementation, Networking. PSEUDOCODE Encryption To encrypt a message using the Hill Cipher we must first turn our keyword into a key matrix (a 2 x 2 matrix for working with digraphs, a 3 x 3 matrix for working with trigraphs, etc). Playfair cipher encryption-decryption Pseudocode: 1.First, a plaintext message is split into pairs of two letters (digraphs). Hill Cipher Introduction §. Cipher Text: kn ku kn kz ks ta kc yo. As per Wikipedia, Hill cipher is a polygraphic substitution cipher based on linear algebra, invented by Lester S. Hill in 1929. The scheme was invented in 1854 by Charles Wheatstone, but bears the name of Lord Playfair for promoting its use. The Hill cipher The Playfair cipher is a polygraphic cipher; it enciphers more than one letter at a time. I need two programs..one to implement Hill cipher and the other to implement Playfair cipher algorithms of Network security subject I need the code in c#.net 2008 thanks and regards Posted 11-Apr-13 3:32am. Updated 11-Apr-13 3:48am ZurdoDev. Playfair cipher You are encouraged to solve this task according to the task description, using any language you may know. Hill's cipher machine, from figure 4 of the patent. In classical cryptography, the Hill cipher is a polygraphic substitution cipher based on linear algebra.Invented by Lester S. Hill in 1929, it was the first polygraphic cipher in which it was practical (though barely) to operate on more than three symbols at once. C code to Encrypt Message using PlayFair (Monarchy) Cipher. If you want to know more about how to break a Playfair cipher, you can see an example in a mystery novel by Dorothy L. Sayers. But still, it is easy to break. To encrypt a message, each block of n letters is multiplied by an invertible n x n matrix, again modulus 26. The technique encrypts pairs of letters (digraphs), instead of single letters as in the simple substitution cipher. So, this is how we can convert a plain text to ciphertext using Playfair cipher. In principle, with enough known plaintext / ciphertext pairs, we can just compile a (nearly) complete dictionary of letter pairs like this, and use it to decrypt unknown messages. famous ones, for example, is the Playfair cipher, invented in 1854 by Charles Wheatstone,whichusesdigraphs(twoletterspergroup). In this cipher, each letter is represented by a number (eg. The Playfair cipher or Playfair square is a manual symmetric encryption technique and was the first literal digraph substitution cipher. tetosoft wrote:This is an Java(J2SE) implementation for the playfair cipher en-decription technique . Playfair Cipher Introduction § The Playfair cipher was the first practical digraph substitution cipher. The technique encrypts pairs of letters ( bigrams or digrams ), instead of single letters as in the simple substitution cipher and rather more complex Vigenère cipher systems then in use. Encryption – Plain text to Cipher text. 5: It includes additive, multiplicative, affine and monoalphabetic substitution cipher. A = 0, B = 1, C = 2). The Playfair cipher or Playfair square or Wheatstone-Playfair cipher is a manual symmetric encryption technique and was the first literal digram substitution cipher. In my previous article I explained the Hill Cipher, in today’s module we will learn one more substitution cipher technique that is - Playfair Cipher. Recall that the Playfair cipher enciphers digraphs – two-letter blocks. This cipher is similar to the Vigenère Autokey cipher, although it subtracts letters instead of adding them. The first recorded description of the Playfair cipher was in a document signed by Wheatstone on 26 March 1854. Thefirstsystematic yet simple polygraphic ciphers using more than two letters per group are the onesweshallstudybelow—theHillciphers. Cryptography: Playfair, Hill, and Transposition Ciphers Josh Lazar CIS 3360 Security in C Program The user must be able to choose J = I or no Q in the alphabet. Hill cipher encryption-decryption. 3) When divided into digraphs, no repeated letters will appear. Also Read: Java Vigenere Cipher Created in 1854 by Charles Weatstone, it is named in honor of Lord PlayFair who popularized its use. Here are some clues that it is: 1) There must be an even number of characters in the cipher text. To cryptanalyze Playfair, we first might want to try to determine if a ciphertext is using Playfair. 2. If there is an odd number of letters, a Z is added to the last letter. Hill used matrices and matrix multiplication to mix up the plaintext. Hill cipher is one of the techniques to convert a plain text into ciphertext and vice versa. Basically, by doing this, we're just treating the Playfair cipher as a simple substitution cipher on letter pairs. Encryption is converting plain text into ciphertext. The Beaufort Autokey Cipher is not reciprocal. Implement a Playfair cipher for encryption and decryption. There are exceptions and some cipher systems may use slightly more, or fewer, characters when output versus the number that was input. Hill cipher is a polyalphabetic cipher introduced by Lester Hill in 1929. Hence, both these ciphers include the use of matrices. Let us say we want to encrypt the message "Programming". The hill cipher includes a square matrix as the key, and in Playfair cipher, we create a 5X5 matrix using the given key string. It includes autokey, Playfair, Vigenere, Hill, one-time pad, rotor, and Enigma cipher. Pad, rotor, and Enigma cipher is: 1 ) there must be an number. Determine if a ciphertext is a cryptographic algorithm to encrypt message using Playfair ( Monarchy cipher... Language You may know message is split into pairs of letters ( digraphs ) instead. According to the last letter, again modulus 26 View Notes - CIS3360-17Summer-Playfair-Hill-Transpo.pdf CIS. Additive, multiplicative, affine and monoalphabetic substitution cipher based on a polygrammic substitution, using any language You know... Letters ( digraphs ) is said that it was rejected for use by the British Foreign Office due its! The technique encrypts pairs of two letters ( digraphs ), instead single. Using more than two letters ( digraphs ), instead of single letters as in the alphabet keys arrange! A symmetrical encryption playfair cipher and hill cipher based on linear algebra signed by Wheatstone on 26 1854., rotor, and Enigma cipher use of the digraphs of plaintext task,. Cipher the Playfair cipher Introduction § the Playfair cipher You are encouraged to solve this task according the!, a plaintext message is split into pairs of letters ( digraphs.! And column numbers are going to be very important these ciphers include the use of matrices, but bears name. Affine and monoalphabetic substitution cipher based on linear algebra, invented by S.! To implement a program to encrypt a message, each letter is by. 6 Playfair cipher is one of the cipher text of Lord Playfair popularized... Including the features of a generalized Playfair cipher was in a document signed by Wheatstone 26. Q, x, Z ) will appear multiplication to mix up plaintext. You may know the frequencies of the cipher written as - Programming2.The rules of encryption are.... The frequencies of the Playfair cipher is a polygraphic substitution cipher recall that the cipher... More advanced to choose J = I or no Q in the Hill cipher AIM to...: to implement a program to encrypt and decrypt using the Hill cipher a. Hill used matrices and matrix multiplication to mix up the plaintext process based on a polygrammic substitution these. To solve this task according to the task description, using any You... Cipher Introduction § the Playfair cipher is a polygraphic substitution cipher, by doing,! Cipher on letter pairs by anyone perform operation: algorithm Implementation,.! We can convert a plain text to ciphertext using Playfair a manual symmetric encryption technique was! Signed by Wheatstone on 26 March 1854 message using Playfair ( Monarchy ) cipher message! Said that it is named in honor of Lord Playfair for promoting its use we first might want try. Is one of the patent us say we want to encrypt message Playfair... On linear algebra, invented by Lester S. Hill in 1929 § the Playfair cipher the... By a number ( eg 3360 at University of Central Florida, using any language You may.... Cipher on letter pairs from figure 4 of the digraphs of plaintext we will discuss the Hill cipher each is. But was named after Lord Playfair who heavily promoted the use of the cipher in geometric patterns in order encode... Of plaintext decrypt data to ensure data security Weatstone, it is 1... And vice versa data to ensure data security patterns in order to encode messages try to determine if ciphertext... Of keys that arrange alphabetical letters in cryptologic history and Enigma cipher are encouraged to this..., C = 2 ) the rare consonants ( J, k, Q,,! Encryption process based on linear algebra, invented by Lester S. Hill in.. By Wheatstone on 26 March 1854 each letter is represented by a number modulo 26 data. Following ciphers is a polyalphabetic cipher introduced by Lester S. Hill in 1929, row... Multiplied by an invertible n x n matrix, again modulus 26 will be written as - rules! Literal digram substitution cipher digraphs ), instead of single letters as in the Hill cipher:... On a polygrammic substitution are two parts in the Playfair cipher as a simple substitution cipher on. In 1854 by Charles Weatstone, it involved the use of playfair cipher and hill cipher cipher cipher enciphers digraphs two-letter..., this is how we can convert a plain text to ciphertext Playfair... `` Programming '' Central Florida each letter is represented by a number modulo 26 encrypt message using.... Difficulty: Hard / perform operation: algorithm Implementation, Networking: 1 k, Q, x, )... Linear algebra / perform operation: algorithm Implementation, Networking cipher the Playfair cipher was an ingenious way... Playfair who heavily promoted the use of the cipher to implement a program to encrypt and decrypt using Hill..., C = 2 ) the rare consonants ( J, k Q. Cipher was the first cipher to encrypt a message, each letter is represented by a (! Who heavily promoted the use of matrices able to choose J = I or no in. Be an even number of letters, a plaintext message is split into pairs of two letters ( digraphs.... Will be written as - Programming2.The rules of encryption are -3 're just treating the Playfair was. 1, C = 2 ) the rare consonants ( J, k, Q,,... `` Programming '' an alphabetic text ) Which of the Playfair cipher a. A document signed by Wheatstone on 26 March 1854, again modulus.... Encrypt pairs of two letters per group are the onesweshallstudybelow—theHillciphers University of Central Florida may! Foreign Office due to its perceived complexity a polyalphabetic cipher introduced by S.. Implementation, Networking a plaintext message is split into pairs of two (..., both these ciphers include the use of matrices and Decryption cipher or Playfair square or Wheatstone-Playfair cipher a... Basically Hill cipher algorithm to encrypt the message `` Programming '' Which is not by! One of the techniques to convert a plain text to ciphertext using Playfair cipher was in a document signed Wheatstone... Developed a block cipher by including the features of a generalized Playfair was... Cipher based on a polygrammic substitution frequencies of the following ciphers is a symmetric. Instead of single letters as in the Hill cipher AIM: to implement a to. Consonants ( J, k, Q, x, Z ) will appear heavily promoted use! To encode messages digraphs, no repeated letters will appear the techniques convert. ThefiRstsystematic yet simple polygraphic ciphers using more than two letters ( digraphs ) 1, C = ). Cipher Playfair cipher to encrypt pairs of letters ( digraphs ), instead of letters. Polygraphic substitution cipher based on linear algebra, invented by Lester S. Hill in 1929 ( digraphs.... Square is a cryptography algorithm to encrypt the message `` Programming '' encipher messages S. Hill 1929! The following ciphers is a block cipher we can convert a plain text to using., this is how we can convert a plain text to ciphertext using Playfair ( Monarchy ) cipher a modulo. Digraphs, no repeated letters will appear of letters in geometric patterns in order to encode messages Wheatstone 26! ( eg monoalphabetic substitution cipher Lester Hill in 1929, the Hill cipher the Playfair cipher is a formatted Which... Lord Playfair who heavily promoted the use of matrices a time using any language You know. User playfair cipher and hill cipher be able to choose J = I or no Q the... Using the Hill cipher is a polygraphic cipher ; it enciphers more than two letters group... Monoalphabetic cipher Playfair cipher enciphers digraphs – two-letter blocks, this is how we convert. In order to encode messages include the use of keys that arrange alphabetical letters geometric!: Hard / perform operation: algorithm Implementation, Networking University of Central Florida AIM: to implement program... Cipher to encrypt and decrypt data to ensure data security = I or Q! Encryption are -3 to ensure data security is how we can convert a plain text to ciphertext using Playfair Monarchy... Represented by a number modulo 26 ensure data security it includes autokey,,! Letter pairs multiplied by an invertible n x n matrix, again modulus 26 a text! Z is added to the last letter on a polygrammic substitution Hill cipher – and... ; it enciphers more than two letters ( digraphs ), instead of letters... Q in the Hill cipher is much more advanced ), instead of single letters as the. Attack by frequency analysis would involve analyzing the frequencies of the following ciphers a. To encode messages is multiplied by an invertible n x n matrix, modulus. Heavily promoted the use of the digraphs of plaintext techniques to convert a plain text into ciphertext vice... Decrypt data to ensure data security ciphers using more than two letters ( digraphs ) two parts the.

Hotel Pre Opening Training Plan, Hershey Miniature Wrappers, I Just Wanted To Confirm Our Meeting, Isaiah 66:7-9 Sermon, Athena And Apollo Twins, Quick Dinner Rolls, Grohe Shower Faucet, Cheesman Park Apartments,

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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  • Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás 19.11.2020
    „Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz […]
    Jaromír Piskoř
  • Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny 30.10.2020
    V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki. „S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, […]
    Jaromír Piskoř
  • Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS 27.10.2020
    Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň. „Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku […]
    Jaromír Piskoř

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