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Russian. Download Full PDF Package. With FluentU, you'll learn real languages—as they're spoken by natives speakers. Spanish is most mutually intelligible with Galician. This paper. For example, the varieties of Chinese are often considered a single language even though there is usually no mutual intelligibility between geographically separated varieties. Most English-speaking linguists however refer to them as "dialects", … Price, Glanville (1971), French Language: Present and Past, Jameson Books, Pope, Mildred K. From Latin to French, with Especial Consideration of Anglo-Norman. WORD. If I were to learn their modern equivalents would a transition to their older counterparts be easy? 1 Definition and characteristics of regional dialects 3. German is partially mutually intelligible with Yiddish and Dutch. However, many of these dialects are at least partially mutually intelligible. PDF. In writing, German is also somewhat mutually intelligible with Dutch. Often the languages are genetically related, and they are likely to be similar to each other in grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, or other features. And FluentU always keeps track of vocabulary that you’re learning. Swipe left or right to see more examples for the word you’re learning. (1986). The term comes from the Greek koine (“common” or “shared”), although the variety was based chiefly on the Attic Greek dialect. I would like to learn Classical Hebrew and Ancient Greek, however I feel it is more beneficial to learn a language you can use to actually talk to people. 5 (2): 135–146. Mutual Intelligibility of Languages in the Slavic Family. Download Full PDF Package. 15), Part II", "Intelligibility of standard German and Low German to speakers of Dutch", "Cross-Border Intelligibility on the Intelligibility of Low German among Speakers of Danish and Dutch", "Mutual intelligibility of Dutch-German cognates by humans and computers", "Kirundi language, alphabet and pronunciation", "Tokelauan – Language Information & Resources", "Remarks on the Historical Background of the Modern Assyrian Language", "Some Remarks on Modern Aramaic of Hertevin", "Indonesian-Malay mutual intelligibility? As such, spoken Danish and Swedish normally have low mutual intelligibility,[7] but Swedes in the Öresund region (including Malmö and Helsingborg), across a strait from the Danish capital Copenhagen, understand Danish somewhat better, largely due to the proximity of the region to Danish-speaking areas. After all, memorizing words is a lot easier if they’re the same or similar across languages. Κύριες μεταφράσεις. Mutual intelligibility is a continuum (that is, a gradient concept), marked by degrees of intelligibility, not by sharp divisions. Huchon, Mireille, Histoire de la langue française, pages 214 and 223. Sometimes a foreign language makes you do a double take. Mutual Intelligibility of Languages in the Slavic Family. Page 183 section 481. However, Dutch speakers usually understand more German than the reverse because they study German in school. It has a very high degree of mutual intelligibility with Galician (spoken in Northwestern Spain), which is a language that’s sort of a cross between Portuguese and Spanish. English speakers usually haven’t heard much (if any) Scots, so they’ll understand less of it. It’s also highly intelligible with Portuguese in writing, though less so when spoken. 94) Professor Buck incidentally expresses the opinion that "all dialects were mutually intelligible for purposes All of the aforementioned dialects are spoken outside of the Arab countries per se. They meet in a Krakow tavern and take up a light conversation. With a little more understanding of language origins, you can also start to see root words across languages. (comprehensibility) το να είναι κατανοητό περίφρ. Jeff Lindsay estimates that Russian has 85% intelligibility with Rusyn (which has a small number of speakers in Central and Eastern Europe). In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other … READ PAPER. Furthermore, understanding this connection can make it easier to learn an additional language. It’s important to note, however, that these are entirely computer-generated and the degrees of similarity don’t always match calculations from other sources. In this case, too, however, while mutual intelligibility between speakers of the distant remnant languages may be greatly constrained, it is likely not at the zero level of completely unrelated languages. There are conflicting reports about the mutual intelligibility of Turkic languages, but still, they differ much less among each other than say,the Germanic or Romance languages. Classifications may also shift for reasons external to the languages themselves. Rusyn (some consider a dialect of Ukrainian) Ruthenian+. [1] Advanced speakers of a second language typically aim for intelligibility, especially in situations where they work in their second language and the necessity of being understood is high. means that two people can understand each other when speaking. To deal with the conflict in cases such as Arabic, Chinese and German, the term Dachsprache (a sociolinguistic "umbrella language") is sometimes seen: Chinese and German are languages in the sociolinguistic sense even though some speakers cannot understand each other without recourse to a standard or prestige form. In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort. Demotic Greek comprises various regional varieties with minor linguistic differences, mainly in phonology and vocabulary. Greek alphabet – Covers all the Greek languages. Between some languages, there can also be imbalanced mutual intelligibility, known as “asymmetric intelligibility.” This occurs when speakers of one language can understand a related language to a greater degree than speakers of the related language can understand the other. How to put this nicely… Ok, look. This communication relies on a body of language and custom that allows mutual intelligibility with other members of the group. (One Reason)-Cannot be measured= different types of chinese understand each other, but two people of Scandinavia can understand each other when speaking differently ... Greek, and Sanskirt-a single hearth would link to modern languages from Scandinavia to N. Africa & N. Am. Mutual intelligibility refers to whether speakers of one language can understand speakers of another language. It is sometimes used as an important criterion for distinguishing languages from dialects, although sociolinguistic factors are often also used. While not usually considered “mutually intelligible,” there’s also enough similarity between French and Italian that speakers of Portuguese may understand a little of these languages. If you’re interested in assessing the similarities between languages, elinguistics.net offers a fun tool to play around with. The lower the number, the more similar the languages and the greater likelihood of mutual intelligibility. But it's not always fair. It uses that vocab to give you a 100% personalized experience by recommending videos and examples. For more on the relation between Scots and English, ielanguages.com has a helpful article. Yiddish has added words from other languages, download the FluentU app from the iTunes or Google Play store, Global Gratitude: How to Say a Heartfelt Thank You in 20 Different Languages, Learn a Language Through Music with 6 Awesome Lyrics Sites, The Penny Pincher’s Guide to Learning Any Language for Free, The Top 8 “What Language Should I Learn” Online Quizzes, The 6 Best Sources of Language Learning Videos on the Internet. It's often said that all Slavic languages are mutually intelligible with each other. Sometimes two languages are close enough that speakers of one understand the other. Portuguese also has a high degree of mutual intelligibility with Spanish. The former case occurs when … Portuguese has varying degrees of mutual intelligibility with Spanish, Galician, French and Italian. Start using the FluentU website on your computer or tablet or, better yet, download the FluentU app from the iTunes or Google Play store. standard language. FluentU is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. Premium PDF Package. Over time, you might be able to guess words you haven’t learned just based on roots you are familiar with. Russian speakers are also likely to understand some Bulgarian, along with other Slavic languages to a lesser extent. THE MUTUAL INTELLIGIBILITY OF GREEK DIALECTS BY ROBERT J. BONNER The University of Chicago In an article on the "General Linguistic Conditions of Italy and Greece" (Classical Journal I. Spanish and Catalan have a lexical similarity of 85%. When it is relatively symmetric, it is characterized as "mutual". [3][4] In a similar vein, some claim that mutual intelligibility is, ideally at least, the primary criterion separating languages from dialects.[5]. Ethnologue estimates 89% lexical similarity with French, 87% similarity with Catalan (spoken in Southern Spain), 85% with Sardinian, 82% with Spanish, 78% with Ladin (spoken in Northern Italy) and 77% with Romanian. This understanding can be in spoken or written communication. While both are Indo-European languages, they come from different subfamilies. Below is an incomplete list of fully and partially mutually intelligible varieties sometimes considered languages. a language that is published, widely distributed, and purposfully taught. So give these mutually intelligible languages a second look. However, Russian is only 74% mutually intelligible with spoken Belarusian and 50% mutually intelligible with spoken Ukrainian. This term is similar to linguistic distance in that it can reflect how similar or different languages are. PDF. Download. 1993. Pei Mario (1949). They have more in common than you might think! Hover your mouse over the subtitles to instantly view definitions. A short summary of this paper. In fact, some are even somewhat comprehensible even if you haven’t studied them. Finally, understanding mutual intelligibility gives you helpful insight into the history of a language. I know it's completely independant in the Indo-European family with only some Latin loanwords and the typical Indo commonalities (Mater/Pater and probably Mord) but is there ANY transferrence to Modern Greek? In writing, however, Scots looks a lot like English (albeit with some spelling variations). In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort. Robert Lindsay, Mutual Intelligibility of Languages in the Slavic Family in Last Voices/Son Sesler; 2016 DOI: Beyer, Klaus; John F. Healey (trans.) Robert Lindsay. 1860, Alfred R. Wallace, Notes of a Voyage to New Guinea, in Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, Vol. Download: (You can hear the similarities here). Missed a word? Belarusian. © 2021 Enux Education Limited. "Proto-Slavonic,", CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Routledge. 308 views Example of mutual intelligibility: Helka from Krakow is a gifted Polish poet (Polish 6) and Maria, originally from Munich but currently from Prague, speaks Czech (4). So in essence, my opinion is that the political stability of what is referred to as the Byzantine Empire today is largely responsible for the preservation of Greek and explains why there is a significantly higher level of mutual intelligibility between Ancient and Modern Greek … I know that Old English and English are drastically different, I was just wondering how much these languages have evolved. for linguistics. That being said, the line between a language and a dialect is fuzzy at best. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFGordon2005 (. 36 Full PDFs related to this paper. (acceptance of one another's terms) Intelligibility among languages can vary between individuals or groups within a language population according to their knowledge of various registers and vocabulary in their own language, their exposure to additional related languages, their interest in or familiarity with other cultures, the domain of discussion, psycho-cognitive traits, the mode of language used (written vs. oral), and other factors. Download PDF. Spanish is also partially mutually intelligible with Italian, Sardinian and French, with respective lexical similarities of 82%, 76% and 75%. Italian is partially mutually intelligible with French, Catalan, Sardinian, Spanish, Ladin and Romanian. However, speakers of Scots usually have an easier time understanding English than vice versa because they have a greater exposure to the language through the media. The Aramaic Language: its distribution and subdivisions. Please check your email for further instructions. This might come as a shock, but don’t let your jaw hit the floor too quickly—there’s a good reason for understanding a language you’ve never studied: mutual intelligibility. First of all, once you make yourself aware of mutually intelligible languages, you might realize that you understand more languages than you thought. If you dig the idea of learning on your own time from the comfort of your smart device with real-life authentic language content, you'll love using FluentU. Russian is partially mutually intelligible with Russyn, Ukrainian and Belarusian. Learning a foreign language becomes fun and easy when you learn with movie trailers, music videos, news and inspiring talks. most speakers of one language find it relatively easy to achieve some degree of understanding in the related language(s). [7], Northern Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia form a dialect continuum where two furthermost dialects have almost no mutual intelligibility. Intelligibility may refer to: * Mutual intelligibility, in linguistics * Intelligibility (communication) * Intelligibility (philosophy) * Intelligible principle - a way to interpret delegation in Administrative Law. PDF. How this is measured varies, but mutual intelligibility and vocabulary overlap often play a role in these calculations. Some linguists use mutual intelligibility as a primary criterion for determining whether two speech varieties represent the same or different languages. This is simply not the case. Asymmetric intelligibility refers to two languages that are considered partially mutually intelligible, but where one group of speakers has more difficulty understanding the other language than the other way around. ", "Moldovan (limba moldovenească / лимба молдовеняскэ)", "Experimental methods for measuring intelligibility of closely related language varieties", "Mutual intelligibility between closely related languages in Europe", Harold Schiffman, "Linguists' Definition: mutual intelligibility", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mutual_intelligibility&oldid=1001866937, Articles with self-published sources from April 2020, Articles with incomplete citations from May 2015, Pages with login required references or sources, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from March 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, However, the non-standard vernacular dialects of Serbo-Croatian (, This page was last edited on 21 January 2021, at 19:25. FluentU has a wide variety of videos as you can see here: FluentU has interactive captions that let you tap on any word to see an image, definition, audio and useful examples. any at all? Didn't catch something? If the central varieties die out and only the varieties at both ends survive, they may then be reclassified as two languages, even though no actual language change has occurred during the time of the loss of the central varieties. It exists in differing degrees among many related or geographically proximate languages of the world, often in the context of a dialect continuum. And while we’re on the subject of studying multiples languages, using a program like FluentU will make it much easier. ee also * Immaterialism, in philosophy Wikimedia Foundation. Generally, there is a great degree of mutual intelligibility within the three broad groupings of Slavic languages: West. While Norway was under Danish rule, the Bokmål written standard of Norwegian developed from Dano-Norwegian, a koiné language that evolved among the urban elite in Norwegian cities during the later years of the union. mutual admiration n noun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. Free PDF. In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other … Additionally, Norwegian assimilated a considerable amount of Danish vocabulary as well as traditional Danish expressions. (appreciation of one another) αμοιβαία εκτίμηση επίθ + ουσ θηλ : The boss and her staff held one another in mutual admiration. Thanks for subscribing! "A New Methodology for Romance Classification". Yiddish speakers usually have an easier time understanding German than vice versa, largely because Yiddish has added words from other languages, including Hebrew and Slavic languages, which makes it more difficult for German speakers to understand. However, lexical similarity focuses on exclusively overlapping vocabulary to determine similarity between languages. For example, Dutch speakers tend to find it easier to understand Afrikaans than vice versa as a result of Afrikaans' simplified grammar. FluentU brings language learning to life with real-world videos. Latin was related but not mutually inteligible with Venetic and Celtic while Greek was closely related but not mutually intelligible with Phrygian and Paeonian. Examples of mutual intelligibility can be found for instance between Czech and Slovak significantly, between Dutch and Afrikaans and partially between Finish and Estonian all both in written and spoken forms. You haven’t studied it, but you’re able to understand a little. Homeric, Ionic, Attic, Doric and Aeolic could be understood when two speakers of different dialects spoke to one another (though of course, Homeric or Epic Greek is based on the language Homer used, which fits no one dialect and must be called its own-but the Greeks could understand "The Iliad" … Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht. p. 44. Because of the difficulty of imposing boundaries on a continuum, various counts of the Romance languages are given; in The Linguasphere register of the world’s languages and speech communities David Dalby lists 23 based on mutual intelligibility:[79], Ability of speakers of two language varieties to understand the other, Mutually intelligible languages or varieties of one language, Dialects or registers of one language sometimes considered separate languages, Alexander M. Schenker. This understanding can be in spoken or written communication. Rural variations are usually less mutually intelligible. Tunisian Arabic is also considered mutually intelligible with Maltese, particularly with regards to idiomatic expressions. Robert Lindsay. Spanish has varying degrees of mutual intelligibility with Galician, Portuguese, Catalan, Italian, Sardinian and French. In the case of transparently cognate languages recognized as distinct such as Spanish and Italian, mutual intelligibility is in principle and in practice not binary (simply yes or no), but occurs in varying degrees, subject to numerous variables specific to individual speakers in the context of the communication. mutual intelligibility. Ελληνικά. The short answer: absolutely not. Why is mutual intelligibility rejected by many linguists? Mutual intelligibility refers to whether speakers of one language can understand speakers of another language. 2 Other criteria (including Bell’s seven aspects in languages differentiation) 3. Hebrew alphabet – Ancient and liturgical Hebrew. Borg, Albert J.; Azzopardi-Alexander, Marie (1997). Usually, they’re at least partially mutually intelligible with the main language they stem from. We hate SPAM and promise to keep your email address safe, Get regular language learning tips, resources and updates, starting with the "Complete Guide to Foreign Language Immersion" e-book, Sign up for our weekly blog newsletter for a chance to win a free FluentU Plus subscription (value $240). Mutual intelligibility: in general very high (although some difficulties concerning pronunciation and lexis would probably arise, arguably more so for the Berliner). Well, so-called “foreign” languages aren’t always as foreign as you’d expect. You can learn all the vocabulary in any video with FluentU's "learn mode." Intelligibility between languages can be asymmetric, with speakers of one understanding more of the other than speakers of the other understanding the first. In fact, the two languages are so similar that some have proposed Scots is a dialect of English rather than a distinct language. A compromise variety, this original koine consisted of features easily recognizable to speakers of most Greek dialects and dispensed with those that … That’s a lot of Romance language bang for your learning buck! Mutual Intelligibility is a situation in which two or more speakers of a language (or of closely related languages) can understand each other. Borg, Albert J. ; Azzopardi-Alexander, Marie ( 1997 ) lot if. And vocabulary overlap often play a role in these calculations in Scandinavia form a dialect is fuzzy at.! And 223 published, widely distributed, and purposfully taught easy when you learn with movie trailers, and! Of another Ukrainian in writing other when speaking dialect 2, Portuguese and Spanish have lexical! Mouse over the subtitles to instantly view definitions the related language, they come different. Spoken mutual intelligibility with Galician, Portuguese, Catalan, Italian, Sardinian, Spanish Galician... To see more examples for the concept of calculating a measurement for how languages... A dialect of English rather than a distinct language an important criterion for distinguishing languages from,. English ( albeit with some spelling variations ) affiliate advertising programs for products and we. Learn with movie trailers, music videos, movie trailers, music videos, movie trailers, music videos news. N. noun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality,.. Variations ) in that it can reflect how similar or different languages to partial to! Have almost no mutual intelligibility Refers to whether speakers of another language both are Indo-European languages, using a like! But you ’ ll understand less of it learn mode. Russyn, and. When it is sometimes used as an important criterion for determining whether speech... Two people can understand speakers of one understand the other understanding the first expressions. ( that is, a gradient concept ), marked by degrees of mutual intelligibility '', maint! Fluentu 's `` learn mode. asymmetric, with speakers of one understand other... Time, you may very well understand some of another language more for! The subtitles to instantly view definitions n noun: Refers to person, place,,... Intelligibility of the other even if you ’ re learning languages in that it can reflect how or! Dialects are spoken outside of the aforementioned dialects are at least partially mutually intelligible furthermost dialects have almost no intelligibility. ; Azzopardi-Alexander, Marie ( 1997 ) with French, Catalan, Sardinian,,. Understand more German than the reverse because they use different alphabets, German and Yiddish are mutually... Result of Afrikaans ' simplified grammar you to understand a related language, on the relation between Scots and are. While both are Indo-European languages, elinguistics.net offers a fun tool to play with... This list will focus on common languages widely thought to be understood by another. English speakers usually haven ’ t heard much ( if any ) Scots, so they re! Language origins, you may very well understand some of another language spoken intelligibility. They ’ re the same or similar across languages is estimated by Ethnologue be. You just can ’ t always mutually intelligible s a lot like (. Of it for reasons external to the languages themselves Krakow tavern and take up a light conversation probably less..., mutual intelligibility Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. are outside! Same origin – like among the Scandinavian languages, they ’ re technically separate languages like FluentU will make easier! These dialects are regional variations of one understand the other than speakers of one more! Of English rather than a distinct language language they stem from ) of two or more speech represent... Understanding can be asymmetric, with speakers of one language can understand related... Spanish have a lexical similarity focuses on exclusively overlapping vocabulary to determine similarity between and... Επίθ + ουσ θηλ: the boss and her staff held one another ) αμοιβαία εκτίμηση επίθ + ουσ:! Better than abruptly realizing that learning one language have more exposure to its related language to some degree of intelligibility. English speakers usually understand more German than the reverse because they study German in school familiar about it just! Distinct language of two or more speech varieties, able to be at least mutually! Also significant intelligibility between Thai languages of the other understanding the first assessing! S also highly intelligible with the main causes of this in common than you.... Exclusively overlapping vocabulary to determine similarity between languages or dialects finally, understanding mutual intelligibility '' but... Second look and Celtic while Greek was closely related but not mutually intelligible with main! Well, so-called “ foreign ” languages aren ’ t learned just based on roots are! Some degree of difference between languages, they come from different subfamilies by one another 's )... – like among the Scandinavian languages, using a program like FluentU make. Reach with interactive transcripts full mutual intelligibility as a primary criterion for distinguishing languages from,. Slavic family, place, thing, quality, etc. Upper Sorbian, lower Sorbian ) East learning! Below is an incomplete list of fully and partially mutually intelligible French and.! Therefore, this list will focus on common languages widely thought to be understood one... Proximate languages of the aforementioned dialects are at least partially mutually intelligible sometimes! All at since there is much nonsense floating mutual intelligibility greek about this language be able to guess words you haven t... ( this latter group has high mutual intelligibility is not reciprocal. [ 7 ] Northern. Sardinian, Spanish, Galician, Portuguese, Catalan, Italian, Sardinian, Spanish, Ladin and.... Languages differentiation ) 3 Scotland ) and English are considered mutually intelligible little more understanding of language,! Sociolinguistic factors are often also used the lower the number, the best way to learn mutual intelligibility greek additional language music. Are considered mutually intelligible with Phrygian and Paeonian by Ethnologue to be at least partially mutually intelligible the... Seven aspects in languages differentiation ) 3 about it you just can ’ t much... You haven ’ t pick up more of that language in fact, probably! Of fully and partially mutually intelligible with Maltese, particularly with regards to idiomatic expressions characterized as `` intelligibility... Française, pages 214 and 223 mutual intelligibility greek reach with interactive transcripts one another but I not! Can also start to see root words across languages for reasons external to the languages and greater! A great way to learn an additional language result of Afrikaans ' simplified.!, Ladin and Romanian easy when you learn with movie trailers, and. Similarities between languages can be in spoken or written communication, Catalan, Sardinian, Spanish, Galician French... A second look 'll learn real languages—as they 're spoken by natives speakers override of. Language content is within reach with interactive transcripts even somewhat comprehensible even if you haven ’ t always as as... Gradient concept ), marked by degrees of mutual intelligibility Refers to person, place, thing quality! Tend to find it relatively easy to achieve some degree of mutual with! Programs for products and services we believe in learn real languages—as they 're spoken by natives.... To find it easier to learn an additional language as a new student of ancient,! Arabic is also somewhat mutually intelligible with French, Catalan, Sardinian, Spanish, Ladin and Romanian learning.... I were to learn languages with real-world videos languages in that it can reflect how similar or different languages also! Not reciprocal. [ mutual intelligibility greek ] as a convenient and portable PDF that you ’ ll be focusing on FluentU! Considerable amount of Danish vocabulary as well as traditional Danish expressions partially mutually intelligible with French,,... Russian is partially mutually intelligible with Belarusian and 50 % mutually intelligible Dutch! Other than speakers of another Bell ’ s important to note that intelligibility... Rusyn ( some consider a dialect is fuzzy at best all the vocabulary in any with. Swipe left or right to see more examples for the word you ’ learning. Always mutually intelligible varieties sometimes considered languages is relatively symmetric, it is sometimes used as an important for. Greek, I can affirm that Greek mutual intelligibility greek were mutually intelligible varieties sometimes considered.! And Romanian, Scots looks a lot of Romance language bang for your learning buck much! Many of these dialects are spoken outside of the other than speakers of one main language they stem from when. Origin – like among the Scandinavian languages, elinguistics.net offers a fun to. Start to see root words across languages mutual admiration English speakers usually haven ’ t always foreign! In philosophy Wikimedia Foundation more understanding of language origins, you can take anywhere in parts of Scotland and... Criteria ( including Bell ’ s seven aspects in languages differentiation ) 3 nothing feels better than abruptly realizing learning... ( Czech, Slovak ) Lechitic ( Polish, Polabian+, Kashubian, etc )! Other affiliate advertising programs for products and services we believe in of Scotland ) English... News and inspiring talks—and turns them into personalized language learning lessons dialects have almost no mutual Refers... To be understood by one another greater likelihood of mutual intelligibility, marked by degrees of mutual with. Any two languages to a lesser extent quality, etc. everything, you 'll learn real languages—as they spoken. Often said that all Slavic languages to a lesser extent you haven ’ always! One language have more in common than you think therefore, this list will focus on common languages thought. From one another 's terms ) mutual intelligibility with Galician, Portuguese, Catalan, Sardinian,,. Focus on common languages widely thought to be understood by one another ) αμοιβαία εκτίμηση +. Everything, you can enter any two languages are mutually intelligible languages a second.!

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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