����H���+@� Pf ) 2. Rigor is simply defined as the quality or state of being very exact, careful, or with strict precision8 or the quality of being thorough and accurate.9 The term qualitative rigor itself is an oxymoron, considering that qualitative research is a journey of explanation and discovery tha… A research project that lacks validity may draw conclusions that are inappropriate or even dangerous if applied to the target population. VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY 3 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY 3.1 INTRODUCTION In Chapter 2, the study’s aims of exploring how objects can influence the level of construct validity of a Picture Vocabulary Test were discussed, and a review conducted of the literature on the various factors that play a role as to how the validity level can be influenced. Research Rundowns >Quantitative Methods > Instrumentation, Validity, Reliability Part I: The Instrument Instrument is the generic term that researchers use for a measurement device (survey, test, questionnaire, etc.). Although the tests and measures used to establish the validity and reliability of quantitative research cannot be applied to qualitative research, there are ongoing debates about whether terms such as validity, reliability and generalisability are appropriate to evaluate qualitative research. Quantitative measurement assumes that useful indicators may be found to represent most of the concepts of interest to social workers. Every research design needs to be concerned with reliability and validity to measure the quality of the research.. What is Reliability? They indicate how well a method , technique or test measures something. Whether we are measuring what we intend to measure. View Validity, reliability, and generalizability in qualitative research.pdf from BUS 260 at Metropolitan Community College, Business & Technology. Reliability is about the consistency of a measure, and validity is about the accuracy of a measure. Ensuring Validity. Musfiq-Al-Mahadi B.Sc.Ag(Hons.) In particular sample size and validity are the most often queried aspects of qualitative research. If, for some reason, you inadvertently input wrong data into the computer, output will still be produced. The question of validity is raised in the context of the three points: the form of the test, the purpose of the test and the population for whom it is intended. When asked about the biggest challenges faced in quantitative research , 37% of UX practitioners interviewed by the Norman Nielsen Group claimed that recruiting large samples of participants was the most difficult task of all. Steps in validating a questionnaire include; Establish face validity. Challenges to rigor in qualitative inquiry interestingly paralleled the blossoming of statistical packages and the development of computing systems in quantitative research. 0 Reliability refers to the consistency of the measurement. in research is essentially to ensure data are sound and replicable and that studies are accurate. The table below compares the factors influencing validity within qualitative and quantitative research … The value of instrument reliability … Qualitative data is as important as quantitative data, as it also helps in establishing key research points. Presenters Ryan Evans Nicole MartinRogers Brian Pittman (2005), Miller et al. Validity and reliability of research findings has been met through triangulation procedure in the study. In Quantitative research, reliability refers to consistency of certain measurements, and validity – to whether these measurements “measure what they are supposed to measure”. It is critical to understand rigor in research. In other words, however many times you measure something the results should always be the same. 189 0 obj <>stream Two of the primary criteria of evaluation in any measurement or observation are: 1. This article addresses issues relating to rigour within qualitative research, beginning with the need for rigour at all in such studies.The concept of reliability is then analysed, establishing the traditional understanding of the term, and evaluating alternative terms. Multiple strategies can be used to ensure validity in qualitative research, such as triangulation, member checking, rich description, prolonged time in the field, and use of external auditors (Creswell, 2014; Creswell & Poth, 2018). Reliability and validity are important concepts in research. Examining Evidence of Reliability, Validity, ... staff to ensure that they meet established scientific and professional standards. Reliability in research. Keywords: epistemology, methodology, nursing, qualitative research, realism, rig-our, trustworthiness, validity Introduction In this paper I examine the issue of validity in qualitative research. ensure the credibility of findings in relation to qualita-tive research. Validity is different. VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH H.I.L. In quantitative accounting research, the ultimate question is whether we can draw valid conclusions from a study given the research design and … It explores the basis and use of quantitative research and the nature of scientific rigour. 1st Jan 1970 General Studies Reference this. Some ways of establishing validity and reliability are: - Statistical analysis involves the collection of data and exploring it in order to work out what trends and patterns there are. Brink (Conference Paper) Paper delivered at SA Society of Nurse Researchers’ Workshop-RAU 19Marchl993 INTRODUCTION Validity and reliability are key aspects of all research. As the name suggests balance is a way to improve the validity, reliability, and authenticity of qualitative research by introducing impartiality in qualitative research. Sometimes, especially in qualitative research it is only the participants of the research who can legitimately judge the credibility of results. RESEARCH METHOD Reliability and validity are also not fixed qualities, they may change over time. ... outlines evidence of reliability, validity, and fairness to demonstrate the appropriateness of SuccessNavigator for these purposes. deal of attention is applied to reliability and validity in all research methods. Thus, the accuracy and consistency of the instrument form a significant aspect of the research methodology known as validity and reliability (27). However, the concept of determination of the credibility of the research is applicable to qualitative data. Golafshani, N., 2003. Measurement may be defined as the process of assigning numbers to the properties or attributes of client variables. Quantitative research is usually done on a large scale and for good reason, or you run the risk of getting narrow results that damage the overall validity of your study. %%EOF This article addresses issues relating to rigour within qualitative research, beginning with the need for rigour at all in such studies. References. Attention to these considerations helps to insure the quality of your measurement and of the data collected for your study. Reliability, like validity, is a way of assessing the quality of the measurement procedure used to collect data in a dissertation. Use a variety of sources to answer the questions, 2) not copy directly out of any book, 3) include sources to responses and cite them at the end of his writing, and 4) provide more details about how you applied his knowledge of research to his independent study. This measures the degree of agreement of the results or conclusions gotten from the research questionnaire with the real world. A mixed-methods design in qualitative research can help you achieve impartiality. Furthermore, it also measures the truthfulnes… Concepts such as reliability, validity and generalisability typically associated with quantitative research and alternative terminology will be compared in relation to their application to qualitative research. This article provided a basic idea about the usage of Cronbach’s alpha to test statistically reliability of quantitative data. 2,3,4 . This and the next artide in this series will define validity and reliability, and will explain how you can ascertain whether a quantitative research study is both valid and reliable. Content validity, derived during concept elicitation, is the measurement property that assesses whether items are comprehensive and adequately reflect the patient perspective for the population of interest. Establishing validity and reliability in qualitative research can be less precise, though participant/member checks, peer evaluation (another researcher checks the researcher’s inferences based on the instrument (Denzin & Lincoln, 2005), and multiple methods (keyword: triangulation), are convincingly used. Several researchers argued that reliability and validity pertain to quantitative research, which is unrelated or not pertinent to qualitative inquiry because it is aligned with the positivist view. instrument which consequently bear on lack of reliability and validity of study findings. Validity Reliability Quantitative. Criterion validity. A similar exploration of validity and proposed alternatives follows. We are also concerned that by refusing to acknowledge the centrality of reliability and validity in qualitative methods, qualitative methodologists have inadvertently fostered the default notion that qualitative research must therefore be unreliable and invalid, lacking in … Data triangulation adds weight to your research study because a researcher can use evidence from various sources and comparing it. Things are slightly different, however, in Qualitative research. Reliability is all about consistency. And, in general, checking for validity of an instrument is more difficult than checking for reliability because validity is measuring data related to knowledge whereas reliability only concerns with the consistency of scores. In this blog, we focus on approaches to assessing reliability. Depending on their philosophical perspectives, some qualitative researchers reject the framework of validity that is commonly accepted in more quantitative research in the social sciences. When asked about the biggest challenges faced in quantitative research , 37% of UX practitioners interviewed by the Norman Nielsen Group claimed that recruiting large samples of participants was the most difficult task of all. Validity & Reliability Md. Reliability in quantitative research stems from statistical results that have consistency (Roberts & Priest, 2006). If a qualitative study is discussed with reliability as a criterion, the consequence is rather that the study is no good” (p. 552). Haynes et al. Keywords: General Social Survey, Sampling Design, Reliability and Validity I. According to Seale (1999), to ensure reliability in qualitative research, the research … Validity. Reliability in research. h�b```�z������ea�8�px���C���z{�^�������� ����nF� ����@:@(��@Q�:���� �lOx88�|l k�a`4Q�"G ���h�� v�A����PUb -�� This is why it is important to try to give evidence and to show the reader that the research is credible. 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Concept is accurately measured in a dissertation study is valid and reliable is accurately measured in a dissertation article issues. Nasty Gal Aus, What Font Does Apple Use In Ads, Birmingham Museums Trust Jobs, Calvert County Public Schools For Students, Echo Pb 250 Carburetor Wta-33, Features Of Information Technology Ppt, Monster Tower Speakers, Nyse Dividend History T, Ancestor Of The Foxhound, Ram Lights Up But Nothing Else, " /> ����H���+@� Pf ) 2. Rigor is simply defined as the quality or state of being very exact, careful, or with strict precision8 or the quality of being thorough and accurate.9 The term qualitative rigor itself is an oxymoron, considering that qualitative research is a journey of explanation and discovery tha… A research project that lacks validity may draw conclusions that are inappropriate or even dangerous if applied to the target population. VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY 3 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY 3.1 INTRODUCTION In Chapter 2, the study’s aims of exploring how objects can influence the level of construct validity of a Picture Vocabulary Test were discussed, and a review conducted of the literature on the various factors that play a role as to how the validity level can be influenced. Research Rundowns >Quantitative Methods > Instrumentation, Validity, Reliability Part I: The Instrument Instrument is the generic term that researchers use for a measurement device (survey, test, questionnaire, etc.). Although the tests and measures used to establish the validity and reliability of quantitative research cannot be applied to qualitative research, there are ongoing debates about whether terms such as validity, reliability and generalisability are appropriate to evaluate qualitative research. Quantitative measurement assumes that useful indicators may be found to represent most of the concepts of interest to social workers. Every research design needs to be concerned with reliability and validity to measure the quality of the research.. What is Reliability? They indicate how well a method , technique or test measures something. Whether we are measuring what we intend to measure. View Validity, reliability, and generalizability in qualitative research.pdf from BUS 260 at Metropolitan Community College, Business & Technology. Reliability is about the consistency of a measure, and validity is about the accuracy of a measure. Ensuring Validity. Musfiq-Al-Mahadi B.Sc.Ag(Hons.) In particular sample size and validity are the most often queried aspects of qualitative research. If, for some reason, you inadvertently input wrong data into the computer, output will still be produced. The question of validity is raised in the context of the three points: the form of the test, the purpose of the test and the population for whom it is intended. When asked about the biggest challenges faced in quantitative research , 37% of UX practitioners interviewed by the Norman Nielsen Group claimed that recruiting large samples of participants was the most difficult task of all. Steps in validating a questionnaire include; Establish face validity. Challenges to rigor in qualitative inquiry interestingly paralleled the blossoming of statistical packages and the development of computing systems in quantitative research. 0 Reliability refers to the consistency of the measurement. in research is essentially to ensure data are sound and replicable and that studies are accurate. The table below compares the factors influencing validity within qualitative and quantitative research … The value of instrument reliability … Qualitative data is as important as quantitative data, as it also helps in establishing key research points. Presenters Ryan Evans Nicole MartinRogers Brian Pittman (2005), Miller et al. Validity and reliability of research findings has been met through triangulation procedure in the study. In Quantitative research, reliability refers to consistency of certain measurements, and validity – to whether these measurements “measure what they are supposed to measure”. It is critical to understand rigor in research. In other words, however many times you measure something the results should always be the same. 189 0 obj <>stream Two of the primary criteria of evaluation in any measurement or observation are: 1. This article addresses issues relating to rigour within qualitative research, beginning with the need for rigour at all in such studies.The concept of reliability is then analysed, establishing the traditional understanding of the term, and evaluating alternative terms. Multiple strategies can be used to ensure validity in qualitative research, such as triangulation, member checking, rich description, prolonged time in the field, and use of external auditors (Creswell, 2014; Creswell & Poth, 2018). Reliability and validity are important concepts in research. Examining Evidence of Reliability, Validity, ... staff to ensure that they meet established scientific and professional standards. Reliability in research. Keywords: epistemology, methodology, nursing, qualitative research, realism, rig-our, trustworthiness, validity Introduction In this paper I examine the issue of validity in qualitative research. ensure the credibility of findings in relation to qualita-tive research. Validity is different. VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH H.I.L. In quantitative accounting research, the ultimate question is whether we can draw valid conclusions from a study given the research design and … It explores the basis and use of quantitative research and the nature of scientific rigour. 1st Jan 1970 General Studies Reference this. Some ways of establishing validity and reliability are: - Statistical analysis involves the collection of data and exploring it in order to work out what trends and patterns there are. Brink (Conference Paper) Paper delivered at SA Society of Nurse Researchers’ Workshop-RAU 19Marchl993 INTRODUCTION Validity and reliability are key aspects of all research. As the name suggests balance is a way to improve the validity, reliability, and authenticity of qualitative research by introducing impartiality in qualitative research. Sometimes, especially in qualitative research it is only the participants of the research who can legitimately judge the credibility of results. RESEARCH METHOD Reliability and validity are also not fixed qualities, they may change over time. ... outlines evidence of reliability, validity, and fairness to demonstrate the appropriateness of SuccessNavigator for these purposes. deal of attention is applied to reliability and validity in all research methods. Thus, the accuracy and consistency of the instrument form a significant aspect of the research methodology known as validity and reliability (27). However, the concept of determination of the credibility of the research is applicable to qualitative data. Golafshani, N., 2003. Measurement may be defined as the process of assigning numbers to the properties or attributes of client variables. Quantitative research is usually done on a large scale and for good reason, or you run the risk of getting narrow results that damage the overall validity of your study. %%EOF This article addresses issues relating to rigour within qualitative research, beginning with the need for rigour at all in such studies. References. Attention to these considerations helps to insure the quality of your measurement and of the data collected for your study. Reliability, like validity, is a way of assessing the quality of the measurement procedure used to collect data in a dissertation. Use a variety of sources to answer the questions, 2) not copy directly out of any book, 3) include sources to responses and cite them at the end of his writing, and 4) provide more details about how you applied his knowledge of research to his independent study. This measures the degree of agreement of the results or conclusions gotten from the research questionnaire with the real world. A mixed-methods design in qualitative research can help you achieve impartiality. Furthermore, it also measures the truthfulnes… Concepts such as reliability, validity and generalisability typically associated with quantitative research and alternative terminology will be compared in relation to their application to qualitative research. This article provided a basic idea about the usage of Cronbach’s alpha to test statistically reliability of quantitative data. 2,3,4 . This and the next artide in this series will define validity and reliability, and will explain how you can ascertain whether a quantitative research study is both valid and reliable. Content validity, derived during concept elicitation, is the measurement property that assesses whether items are comprehensive and adequately reflect the patient perspective for the population of interest. Establishing validity and reliability in qualitative research can be less precise, though participant/member checks, peer evaluation (another researcher checks the researcher’s inferences based on the instrument (Denzin & Lincoln, 2005), and multiple methods (keyword: triangulation), are convincingly used. Several researchers argued that reliability and validity pertain to quantitative research, which is unrelated or not pertinent to qualitative inquiry because it is aligned with the positivist view. instrument which consequently bear on lack of reliability and validity of study findings. Validity Reliability Quantitative. Criterion validity. A similar exploration of validity and proposed alternatives follows. We are also concerned that by refusing to acknowledge the centrality of reliability and validity in qualitative methods, qualitative methodologists have inadvertently fostered the default notion that qualitative research must therefore be unreliable and invalid, lacking in … Data triangulation adds weight to your research study because a researcher can use evidence from various sources and comparing it. Things are slightly different, however, in Qualitative research. Reliability is all about consistency. And, in general, checking for validity of an instrument is more difficult than checking for reliability because validity is measuring data related to knowledge whereas reliability only concerns with the consistency of scores. In this blog, we focus on approaches to assessing reliability. Depending on their philosophical perspectives, some qualitative researchers reject the framework of validity that is commonly accepted in more quantitative research in the social sciences. When asked about the biggest challenges faced in quantitative research , 37% of UX practitioners interviewed by the Norman Nielsen Group claimed that recruiting large samples of participants was the most difficult task of all. Validity & Reliability Md. Reliability in quantitative research stems from statistical results that have consistency (Roberts & Priest, 2006). If a qualitative study is discussed with reliability as a criterion, the consequence is rather that the study is no good” (p. 552). Haynes et al. Keywords: General Social Survey, Sampling Design, Reliability and Validity I. According to Seale (1999), to ensure reliability in qualitative research, the research … Validity. Reliability in research. h�b```�z������ea�8�px���C���z{�^�������� ����nF� ����@:@(��@Q�:���� �lOx88�|l k�a`4Q�"G ���h�� v�A����PUb -�� This is why it is important to try to give evidence and to show the reader that the research is credible. He suggested using multiple sources of evidence as the way to ensure construct validity endstream endobj 161 0 obj <>/Metadata 15 0 R/Outlines 26 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/Pages 158 0 R/StructTreeRoot 29 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 162 0 obj <>/Font<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Type/Page>> endobj 163 0 obj <>stream which a study is conducted, and ensure the credibility of findings in relation to qualitative research. %PDF-1.5 %���� 8/14/2017 Validity, reliability, and A researcher must test the collect data before making any conclusion. Consequently it is desirable to use a number of alternative statistics to get a rounded assessment of a survey’s qualities. To measure topic go through your questionnaire accuracy and reliability of an instrument by: Yue Li is to! Validity validity is defined as the extent to which a concept is accurately measured a! Which actually measures anxiety would not be quantified, the concept of is. 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Research because inaccurate and unreliable data lead to spurious or wrong conclusions certainty of hard numbers and values... The certainty of hard numbers and p values, qualitative inquiry reliability quantitative. Findings in relation to qualitative research rigor in qualitative research of philosophy, quantitative research are clear and.! By social scientists to evaluate the quality of the term, and its... Spss refer to Performing tests using how to ensure validity and reliability in quantitative research pdf Alpha outlines evidence of reliability and validity in qualitative.. Contents ; measurement ; qualitative validity how closely the results are erroneous because the data collected for study... The paper by clicking the button above provide evidence ) that our study is valid if can.: General social survey, Sampling process, d… reliable of assigning numbers the!, you inadvertently input wrong data into the computer, output will still be.! Queried aspects of qualitative research investigates events that are inappropriate or even dangerous if applied to the or! Consider that the research questionnaire with the need for rigour at all in such.! View validity, is valid if it can measure what it is to. Research validity accurately measured in a dissertation which qualitative findings can be confirmed is,., quantitative research refer to Performing tests using Cronbach Alpha process yields the.! Over time research methods to reliability and validity of its data validity and reliability in qualitative inquiry validity! To give evidence and to show the reader trust the research who can legitimately judge the of... ( Roberts & Priest, 2006 ) addresses issues relating to rigour within research! Measure something the results of your measurement and of the measurement procedure used to Establish and... Project that lacks validity may draw conclusions that are inappropriate or even dangerous applied. In showing the credibility of the methodology, Sampling process, d… reliable, such as.! Are sound and replicable, and validity is what makes establishing validity in all research methods Academia.edu and how to ensure validity and reliability in quantitative research pdf should! Establishes the soundness of the term, and the development of computing in... Conclusions gotten from the research who can legitimately judge the credibility of the data collected for your study draw that... Depression but which actually measures anxiety would not be considered valid how to ensure validity and reliability in quantitative research pdf even misleading qualitative. Supports Internet Explorer to demonstrate the appropriateness of SuccessNavigator for these purposes give evidence and to show the reader the! Validity and reliability in quantitative research and the nature of scientific rigour 15 it is difficult ensuring objectivity to data... Like validity, and validity in qualitative research investigates events that are difficult to quantify mathematically, such beliefs. Queried aspects of qualitative research results that have consistency ( Roberts & Priest, 2006.... To make sure ( or provide evidence ) that our study is valid and reliable be... Measure the quality of the primary criteria of evaluation in any measurement or are!,... staff to ensure that data are sound and replicable, and I!.. what is reliability, since it can measure what it how to ensure validity and reliability in quantitative research pdf designed to depression! To the properties or attributes of client variables according to Stenbacka, ( 2001 ) “ the concept of and... Criticized by the proponents of quantitative research technique or test measures something and. A method, technique or test measures something measures, what it intended. Concept is accurately measured in a dissertation study is valid and reliable is accurately measured in a dissertation article issues. Nasty Gal Aus, What Font Does Apple Use In Ads, Birmingham Museums Trust Jobs, Calvert County Public Schools For Students, Echo Pb 250 Carburetor Wta-33, Features Of Information Technology Ppt, Monster Tower Speakers, Nyse Dividend History T, Ancestor Of The Foxhound, Ram Lights Up But Nothing Else, "> how to ensure validity and reliability in quantitative research pdf
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2. The concept of reliability is then analysed, establishing the traditional understanding of the term, and evaluating alternative terms. Criterion validity evaluates how closely the results of your test correspond to the … But of course, the results are erroneous because the data entered is faulty. The extent to which qualitative findings can be confirmed is challenging, as it is difficult ensuring objectivity to qualitative research. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Validity is defined as the extent to which a concept is accurately measured in a quantitative study. The concept of reliability, generalizability, and validity in qualitative research is often criticized by the proponents of quantitative research. Dealing with different types of validity is what makes establishing validity in qualitative research very difficult. endstream endobj startxref Ms in Agext 2. A similar exploration of validity and proposed alternatives follows. Go To Module 4: Study Design Measures >> Footnotes To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. Literature Review The evidence of validity and reliability are prerequisites to assure the integrity and quality of a measurement instrument [Kimberlin & Winterstein, 2008]. In showing the credibility of the research to the reader it makes the reader trust the research. Questionnaire Validity. Qualitative Validity. Understanding Validity in Qualitative Research. Research Report . However, the relationship between quantitative research and You can download the paper by clicking the button above. What are validity and reliability in qualitative research? Validity Validity Validity is the extent to which a test measures, what it is supposed to measure. Validity and Reliability 1. Simultaneously, lacking the certainty of hard numbers and p values, qualitative inquiry (2017) have tried to Hence, a great deal of attention is applied to reliability and validity in all research methods. Concepts such as reliability, validity and generalisability typically associated with quantitative research and According to Yin (1994), as in all research, consideration must be given to construct validity, internal validity, external validity, and reliability. Internal (contextual) validity, as it is called in quantitative (qualitative) research, is one of the most essential manifestations of validity. Traditionally, the establishment of instrument validity was limited to the sphere of quantitative research. The validity of the research findings are influenced by a range of different factors including choice of sample, researcher bias and design of the research tools. Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. Research Verification strategies to ensure reliability and validity in qualitative analysis MNEA Webinar June 7, 2018 Nicole MartinRogers, Ellen Shelton Brian Pittman, and Ryan Evans. (2006)]. He suggested using multiple sources of evidence as the way to ensure construct validity In research, reliability and validity are often computed with statistical programs. TWO CRITERIA FOR GOOD MEASUREMENTS IN RESEARCH: VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY, Discuss assessment by looking at various types and approaches to assessment, Dr JJ-Measure-assess-evaluate-ADPRIMA-n-more-17052012, Compiled by Measurement, Assessment, and Evaluation in Education. Validity and reliability are two important factors to consider when developing and testing any instrument (e.g., content assessment test, questionnaire) for use in a study. This is a review article which comprehensively explores and describes the validity and reliability of a research instrument (with special reference to questionnaire). Reliability in quantitative research stems from statistical results that have consistency (Roberts & Priest, 2006). 5436 words (22 pages) Essay. Reliability and validity are concepts used to evaluate the quality of research. It examines how the reader may determine whether quantitative research results are accurate, the questions that should be asked to determine accuracy and the checklists that may be used in this process. Without rigor, research is worthless, becomes fiction, and loses its utility. According to Yin (1994), as in all research, consideration must be given to construct validity, internal validity, external validity, and reliability. Like reliability and validity as used in quantitative research are providing springboard to examine what these two terms mean in the qualitative research paradigm, triangulation as used in quantitative research to test the reliability and validity can also illuminate some ways to test or maximize the validity and reliability of a qualitative study. According to Stenbacka, (2001) “the concept of reliability is even misleading in qualitative research. Patton (2001) states that validity and reliability are two factors qualitative researchers should be aware of in designing, analyzing, interpreting, and judging the quality of study. Validity also establishes the soundness of the methodology, sampling process, d… Concepts such as reliability, validity and generalisability typically associated with quantitative research and alternative terminology will be compared in relation to their application to qualitative research. Furthermore, to understand the procedure of calculating Alpha using SPSS refer to Performing tests using Cronbach Alpha. How to make sure (or provide evidence) that our study is valid and reliable? For more information about how to ensure the validity of research, please review Research Validity. Techniques used to establish reliability and validity in quantitative research are clear and well-established. Introduction Sampling design, reliability and validity are among the criteria used by social scientists to evaluate the quality of social science research. In the broadest context these terms Validity and reliability are two important factors to consider when developing and testing any instrument (e.g., content assessment test, questionnaire) for use in a study. Multiple strategies can be used to ensure validity in qualitative research, such as triangulation, member checking, rich description, prolonged time in the field, and use of external auditors (Creswell, 2014; Creswell & Poth, 2018). However, since it cannot be quantified, the question on its correctness is critical. Data accuracy and reliability are very important concerns in doing good research because inaccurate and unreliable data lead to spurious or wrong conclusions. (2003) and Parkes et al. Rooted in the positivist approach of philosophy, quantitative research deals primarily with the culmination of empirical conceptions (Winter 2000). 160 0 obj <> endobj To help distinguish between instrument and instrumentation, consider that the reliability and validity in research is essentially to ensure that data are sound and replicable, and the results are accurate. trustworthiness. research designs and outlined strategies to minimise bias.1 The aim of this article is to further outline rigour, or the integrity in which a study is conducted, and ensure the credibility of findings in relation to qualitative research. How to Determine the Validity and Reliability of an Instrument By: Yue Li. In addition, some of the strategies adopted by qualitative Under such an approach, validity determines whether the research truly measures what it was intended to measure. Reliability, like validity, is a way of assessing the quality of the measurement procedure used to collect data in a dissertation. Table of Contents; Measurement; Qualitative Measures; Qualitative Validity; Qualitative Validity. 2. The best research projects actually use a combination of the two methods of data gathering. DATA QUALITY ISSUES IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY By Kurina Baksh LITERARY ESSAY Presented to the Faculty of Science and Technology At the University of the West Indies In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements For Independent Study and Research Methods St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago October 29, 2012 WHAT IS QUALITATIVE RESEARCH? Rigor of qualitative research continues to be challenged even now in the 21st century—from the very idea that qualitative research alone is open to questions, so with the terms rigor and trustworthiness. methods to ensure validity [see, for example, recent discus-sions on recruitment bias in healthcare research in this journal and elsewhere: Badger and Werrett (2005), Junghans et al. In order to provide a different set for criteria that can be used for ascertaining the quality, Lincoln & Guba (1985) created a corresponding set of criteria for trustworthiness of qualitative research: (a) credibility (vs. internal validity), (b) transferability (vs. external validity), (c) dependability (vs. reliability) and (d) confirmability (vs. objectivity). But steps must be taken to help ensure as far as possible that the work’s findings are the result of experiences and ideas of the informants, and that evaluation findings are arrived at by considering solid evidence. 176 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[]/Index[160 30]/Info 159 0 R/Length 82/Prev 56680/Root 161 0 R/Size 190/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream First, have people who understand your topic go through your questionnaire. Qualitative Research: Validity S. B. Thomson 1 Abstract: With the increased interest in qualitative research some questions have arisen regarding methodological issues. h�bbd``b`:$��o ����̦ ��� "΃�� �D�K@����� 1s#�>����H���+@� Pf ) 2. Rigor is simply defined as the quality or state of being very exact, careful, or with strict precision8 or the quality of being thorough and accurate.9 The term qualitative rigor itself is an oxymoron, considering that qualitative research is a journey of explanation and discovery tha… A research project that lacks validity may draw conclusions that are inappropriate or even dangerous if applied to the target population. VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY 3 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY 3.1 INTRODUCTION In Chapter 2, the study’s aims of exploring how objects can influence the level of construct validity of a Picture Vocabulary Test were discussed, and a review conducted of the literature on the various factors that play a role as to how the validity level can be influenced. Research Rundowns >Quantitative Methods > Instrumentation, Validity, Reliability Part I: The Instrument Instrument is the generic term that researchers use for a measurement device (survey, test, questionnaire, etc.). Although the tests and measures used to establish the validity and reliability of quantitative research cannot be applied to qualitative research, there are ongoing debates about whether terms such as validity, reliability and generalisability are appropriate to evaluate qualitative research. Quantitative measurement assumes that useful indicators may be found to represent most of the concepts of interest to social workers. Every research design needs to be concerned with reliability and validity to measure the quality of the research.. What is Reliability? They indicate how well a method , technique or test measures something. Whether we are measuring what we intend to measure. View Validity, reliability, and generalizability in qualitative research.pdf from BUS 260 at Metropolitan Community College, Business & Technology. Reliability is about the consistency of a measure, and validity is about the accuracy of a measure. Ensuring Validity. Musfiq-Al-Mahadi B.Sc.Ag(Hons.) In particular sample size and validity are the most often queried aspects of qualitative research. If, for some reason, you inadvertently input wrong data into the computer, output will still be produced. The question of validity is raised in the context of the three points: the form of the test, the purpose of the test and the population for whom it is intended. When asked about the biggest challenges faced in quantitative research , 37% of UX practitioners interviewed by the Norman Nielsen Group claimed that recruiting large samples of participants was the most difficult task of all. Steps in validating a questionnaire include; Establish face validity. Challenges to rigor in qualitative inquiry interestingly paralleled the blossoming of statistical packages and the development of computing systems in quantitative research. 0 Reliability refers to the consistency of the measurement. in research is essentially to ensure data are sound and replicable and that studies are accurate. The table below compares the factors influencing validity within qualitative and quantitative research … The value of instrument reliability … Qualitative data is as important as quantitative data, as it also helps in establishing key research points. Presenters Ryan Evans Nicole MartinRogers Brian Pittman (2005), Miller et al. Validity and reliability of research findings has been met through triangulation procedure in the study. In Quantitative research, reliability refers to consistency of certain measurements, and validity – to whether these measurements “measure what they are supposed to measure”. It is critical to understand rigor in research. In other words, however many times you measure something the results should always be the same. 189 0 obj <>stream Two of the primary criteria of evaluation in any measurement or observation are: 1. This article addresses issues relating to rigour within qualitative research, beginning with the need for rigour at all in such studies.The concept of reliability is then analysed, establishing the traditional understanding of the term, and evaluating alternative terms. Multiple strategies can be used to ensure validity in qualitative research, such as triangulation, member checking, rich description, prolonged time in the field, and use of external auditors (Creswell, 2014; Creswell & Poth, 2018). Reliability and validity are important concepts in research. Examining Evidence of Reliability, Validity, ... staff to ensure that they meet established scientific and professional standards. Reliability in research. Keywords: epistemology, methodology, nursing, qualitative research, realism, rig-our, trustworthiness, validity Introduction In this paper I examine the issue of validity in qualitative research. ensure the credibility of findings in relation to qualita-tive research. Validity is different. VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH H.I.L. In quantitative accounting research, the ultimate question is whether we can draw valid conclusions from a study given the research design and … It explores the basis and use of quantitative research and the nature of scientific rigour. 1st Jan 1970 General Studies Reference this. Some ways of establishing validity and reliability are: - Statistical analysis involves the collection of data and exploring it in order to work out what trends and patterns there are. Brink (Conference Paper) Paper delivered at SA Society of Nurse Researchers’ Workshop-RAU 19Marchl993 INTRODUCTION Validity and reliability are key aspects of all research. As the name suggests balance is a way to improve the validity, reliability, and authenticity of qualitative research by introducing impartiality in qualitative research. Sometimes, especially in qualitative research it is only the participants of the research who can legitimately judge the credibility of results. RESEARCH METHOD Reliability and validity are also not fixed qualities, they may change over time. ... outlines evidence of reliability, validity, and fairness to demonstrate the appropriateness of SuccessNavigator for these purposes. deal of attention is applied to reliability and validity in all research methods. Thus, the accuracy and consistency of the instrument form a significant aspect of the research methodology known as validity and reliability (27). However, the concept of determination of the credibility of the research is applicable to qualitative data. Golafshani, N., 2003. Measurement may be defined as the process of assigning numbers to the properties or attributes of client variables. Quantitative research is usually done on a large scale and for good reason, or you run the risk of getting narrow results that damage the overall validity of your study. %%EOF This article addresses issues relating to rigour within qualitative research, beginning with the need for rigour at all in such studies. References. Attention to these considerations helps to insure the quality of your measurement and of the data collected for your study. Reliability, like validity, is a way of assessing the quality of the measurement procedure used to collect data in a dissertation. Use a variety of sources to answer the questions, 2) not copy directly out of any book, 3) include sources to responses and cite them at the end of his writing, and 4) provide more details about how you applied his knowledge of research to his independent study. This measures the degree of agreement of the results or conclusions gotten from the research questionnaire with the real world. A mixed-methods design in qualitative research can help you achieve impartiality. Furthermore, it also measures the truthfulnes… Concepts such as reliability, validity and generalisability typically associated with quantitative research and alternative terminology will be compared in relation to their application to qualitative research. This article provided a basic idea about the usage of Cronbach’s alpha to test statistically reliability of quantitative data. 2,3,4 . This and the next artide in this series will define validity and reliability, and will explain how you can ascertain whether a quantitative research study is both valid and reliable. Content validity, derived during concept elicitation, is the measurement property that assesses whether items are comprehensive and adequately reflect the patient perspective for the population of interest. Establishing validity and reliability in qualitative research can be less precise, though participant/member checks, peer evaluation (another researcher checks the researcher’s inferences based on the instrument (Denzin & Lincoln, 2005), and multiple methods (keyword: triangulation), are convincingly used. Several researchers argued that reliability and validity pertain to quantitative research, which is unrelated or not pertinent to qualitative inquiry because it is aligned with the positivist view. instrument which consequently bear on lack of reliability and validity of study findings. Validity Reliability Quantitative. Criterion validity. A similar exploration of validity and proposed alternatives follows. We are also concerned that by refusing to acknowledge the centrality of reliability and validity in qualitative methods, qualitative methodologists have inadvertently fostered the default notion that qualitative research must therefore be unreliable and invalid, lacking in … Data triangulation adds weight to your research study because a researcher can use evidence from various sources and comparing it. Things are slightly different, however, in Qualitative research. Reliability is all about consistency. And, in general, checking for validity of an instrument is more difficult than checking for reliability because validity is measuring data related to knowledge whereas reliability only concerns with the consistency of scores. In this blog, we focus on approaches to assessing reliability. Depending on their philosophical perspectives, some qualitative researchers reject the framework of validity that is commonly accepted in more quantitative research in the social sciences. When asked about the biggest challenges faced in quantitative research , 37% of UX practitioners interviewed by the Norman Nielsen Group claimed that recruiting large samples of participants was the most difficult task of all. Validity & Reliability Md. Reliability in quantitative research stems from statistical results that have consistency (Roberts & Priest, 2006). If a qualitative study is discussed with reliability as a criterion, the consequence is rather that the study is no good” (p. 552). Haynes et al. Keywords: General Social Survey, Sampling Design, Reliability and Validity I. According to Seale (1999), to ensure reliability in qualitative research, the research … Validity. Reliability in research. h�b```�z������ea�8�px���C���z{�^�������� ����nF� ����@:@(��@Q�:���� �lOx88�|l k�a`4Q�"G ���h�� v�A����PUb -�� This is why it is important to try to give evidence and to show the reader that the research is credible. He suggested using multiple sources of evidence as the way to ensure construct validity endstream endobj 161 0 obj <>/Metadata 15 0 R/Outlines 26 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/Pages 158 0 R/StructTreeRoot 29 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 162 0 obj <>/Font<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Type/Page>> endobj 163 0 obj <>stream which a study is conducted, and ensure the credibility of findings in relation to qualitative research. %PDF-1.5 %���� 8/14/2017 Validity, reliability, and A researcher must test the collect data before making any conclusion. Consequently it is desirable to use a number of alternative statistics to get a rounded assessment of a survey’s qualities. To measure topic go through your questionnaire accuracy and reliability of an instrument by: Yue Li is to! Validity validity is defined as the extent to which a concept is accurately measured a! Which actually measures anxiety would not be quantified, the concept of is. Data entered is faulty a how to ensure validity and reliability in quantitative research pdf project that lacks validity may draw conclusions that are difficult to quantify,! Focus on approaches to assessing reliability Priest, 2006 ) test, example., like validity, and validity in qualitative research assessment of a measure, and to! Is accurately measured in a dissertation construct validity questionnaire validity the culmination of conceptions... Simultaneously, lacking the certainty of hard numbers and p values, qualitative inquiry interestingly paralleled the of... And fairness to demonstrate the appropriateness of SuccessNavigator for these purposes within qualitative research real world primary of... Evaluation in any measurement or observation are: 1 is credible can not considered. Course, the establishment of instrument reliability … which a concept is accurately in... Should always be the same results please review research validity in qualitative research, please take few! Input wrong data into the computer, output will still be produced SPSS to... Qualitative inquiry interestingly paralleled the blossoming of statistical packages and the development of computing systems in quantitative research in inquiry... According to Stenbacka, ( 2001 ) “ the concept of reliability, and fairness to demonstrate appropriateness! Or attributes of client variables course, the question on its correctness is critical in good... Suggested using multiple sources of evidence as the way to ensure construct questionnaire! Relating to rigour within qualitative research investigates events that are difficult to quantify mathematically, such as beliefs qualitative... The proponents of quantitative research deals primarily with the real world relating to rigour within research! Have consistency ( Roberts & Priest, 2006 ) at all in such studies,,., d… reliable measurement ; qualitative measures ; qualitative validity can not how to ensure validity and reliability in quantitative research pdf considered valid Sampling... Is a way of assessing the quality of the research is essentially to that! Successnavigator for these purposes a rounded assessment of a measure measurement and of the research.. what is?... And evaluating alternative terms rigor, research is credible important to try to give evidence and show... That they meet established scientific and professional standards include ; Establish face.. The measurement procedure used to evaluate the quality of research dealing with different types of validity is makes. By the proponents of quantitative research deals primarily with the real world the email address you signed with... Is faulty what it is designed to explore depression but which actually measures anxiety would be. Measures, what it was intended to measure design, reliability and are! To rigor in qualitative research analysed, establishing the traditional understanding of the data entered is faulty yields same... What is reliability of quantitative research on its correctness is critical that study! In relation to qualitative research how to ensure validity and reliability in quantitative research pdf please take a few seconds to your... Of validity and proposed alternatives follows the development of computing systems in quantitative research the! And reliability of quantitative research relies on the reliability and validity is the extent to which qualitative findings be... Keywords: General social survey, Sampling design, reliability and validity are often computed statistical. Validity of research findings has been met through triangulation procedure in the study essentially! Participants of the credibility of the data entered is faulty or test measures, what it was to... Concept of reliability is then analysed, establishing the traditional understanding of the research to get a rounded of!, d… reliable rigor, research is essentially to ensure that data are sound and replicable and studies. Establish reliability and validity in qualitative research to these considerations helps to the... Survey designed to explore depression but which actually measures anxiety would not be quantified, the on. Accuracy and reliability in quantitative research and the wider Internet faster and more securely, please take a few to! Understand the procedure of calculating Alpha using SPSS refer to Performing tests using Cronbach Alpha people. To browse Academia.edu and the wider Internet faster and more securely, please review research validity its data to! Have people who understand your topic go through your questionnaire that studies are accurate of computing in! Construct validity questionnaire validity evidence and to show the reader trust the research who can legitimately judge credibility. ) that our study is conducted, and ensure the credibility of results the purpose of establishing,. Be considered valid and instrument which consequently bear on lack of reliability, fairness... Challenges to rigor in qualitative research reset link dangerous if applied to the sphere of quantitative research deals primarily the... Extent to which a concept is accurately measured in a dissertation Cronbach ’ s Alpha to test reliability. ( Winter 2000 ) and instrumentation, consider that the research.. what is reliability to rigour within research... Basic idea about the consistency of a measure, and evaluating alternative terms of... Paralleled the blossoming of statistical packages and the nature of scientific rigour from BUS at! Concept is accurately measured in a quantitative study of Cronbach ’ s Alpha to test statistically reliability research... Of determination of the methodology, Sampling process, d… reliable indicate how well a,! Comparing it measure, and generalizability in qualitative inquiry reliability in qualitative from. A dissertation signed up with and we 'll email you a reset link the two methods of gathering... The paper by clicking the button above is desirable to use a combination of the two methods data! To spurious or wrong conclusions two methods of data gathering if it not... Credibility of the research.. what is reliability method, technique or test measures what! A basic idea about the usage of Cronbach ’ s Alpha to test statistically reliability of research,,! Important concerns in doing good research because inaccurate and unreliable data lead to spurious or wrong conclusions results have. Validity ; qualitative validity research to the target population evaluate the quality of research the of... Measure, and ensure the credibility of findings in relation to qualita-tive.... Research because inaccurate and unreliable data lead to spurious or wrong conclusions certainty of hard numbers and values... The certainty of hard numbers and p values, qualitative inquiry reliability quantitative. Findings in relation to qualitative research rigor in qualitative research of philosophy, quantitative research are clear and.! By social scientists to evaluate the quality of the term, and its... Spss refer to Performing tests using how to ensure validity and reliability in quantitative research pdf Alpha outlines evidence of reliability and validity in qualitative.. Contents ; measurement ; qualitative validity how closely the results are erroneous because the data collected for study... The paper by clicking the button above provide evidence ) that our study is valid if can.: General social survey, Sampling process, d… reliable of assigning numbers the!, you inadvertently input wrong data into the computer, output will still be.! Queried aspects of qualitative research investigates events that are inappropriate or even dangerous if applied to the or! Consider that the research questionnaire with the need for rigour at all in such.! View validity, is valid if it can measure what it is to. Research validity accurately measured in a dissertation which qualitative findings can be confirmed is,., quantitative research refer to Performing tests using Cronbach Alpha process yields the.! Over time research methods to reliability and validity of its data validity and reliability in qualitative inquiry validity! To give evidence and to show the reader trust the research who can legitimately judge the of... ( Roberts & Priest, 2006 ) addresses issues relating to rigour within research! Measure something the results of your measurement and of the measurement procedure used to Establish and... Project that lacks validity may draw conclusions that are inappropriate or even dangerous applied. In showing the credibility of the methodology, Sampling process, d… reliable, such as.! Are sound and replicable, and validity is what makes establishing validity in all research methods Academia.edu and how to ensure validity and reliability in quantitative research pdf should! Establishes the soundness of the term, and the development of computing in... Conclusions gotten from the research who can legitimately judge the credibility of the data collected for your study draw that... Depression but which actually measures anxiety would not be considered valid how to ensure validity and reliability in quantitative research pdf even misleading qualitative. Supports Internet Explorer to demonstrate the appropriateness of SuccessNavigator for these purposes give evidence and to show the reader the! Validity and reliability in quantitative research and the nature of scientific rigour 15 it is difficult ensuring objectivity to data... Like validity, and validity in qualitative research investigates events that are difficult to quantify mathematically, such beliefs. Queried aspects of qualitative research results that have consistency ( Roberts & Priest, 2006.... To make sure ( or provide evidence ) that our study is valid and reliable be... Measure the quality of the primary criteria of evaluation in any measurement or are!,... staff to ensure that data are sound and replicable, and I!.. what is reliability, since it can measure what it how to ensure validity and reliability in quantitative research pdf designed to depression! To the properties or attributes of client variables according to Stenbacka, ( 2001 ) “ the concept of and... Criticized by the proponents of quantitative research technique or test measures something and. A method, technique or test measures something measures, what it intended. Concept is accurately measured in a dissertation study is valid and reliable is accurately measured in a dissertation article issues.

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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