The process consists of numerous randomly ignited mono-discharges. View Answer, 8. They have made the wire EDM an important manufacturing process to meet these demands. , Ideally, EDM can be seen as a series of breakdown and restoration of the liquid dielectric in-between the electrodes. He was an English physicist. "International Journal for Scientific Research and Development 6.5 (2018): 239-241, IJSRD, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Characterization of electrical discharge machining plasmas, http://www.ijsrd.com/articles/IJSRDV6I50198.pdf, "Electrical discharge machining of ceramic nanocomposites: sublimation phenomena and adaptive control", "Electrical Discharge Machining of Oxide Nanocomposite: Nanomodification of Surface and Subsurface Layers", "Wire electrical discharge machinable SiC with GNPs and GO as the electrically conducting filler", "Investigation into the Peculiarities of Structure Formation and Properties of Copper-Based Powder Pseudoalloys Modified by ZnO and TiN Nanoparticle Additives", "The Effect of TiC Additive on Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Al2O3 Ceramic", "Electrical Discharge Machining Non-Conductive Ceramics: Combination of Materials", New Arc Detection Technology for Highly Efficient Electro-Discharge Machining, Engineering Design For Electrical Discharge Machining, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Electrical_discharge_machining&oldid=998064356, Articles needing additional references from November 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles needing additional references from July 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The material conductivity is composed of each its constituent phase electrical conductivity: The measurement of the electrical conductivity of especially pure oxide ceramics becomes a complex scientific and technical problem. Eng. In sinker EDM, a graphite, copper tungsten, or pure copper electrode is machined into the desired (negative) shape and fed into the workpiece on the end of a vertical ram.  Also, the open circuit voltage (i.e. View Answer, 11. The size of the craters is a function of the technological parameters set for the specific job at hand.  Material is removed from the work piece by a series of rapidly recurring current discharges between two electrodes, separated by a dielectric liquid and subject to an electric voltage. In Electro Discharge Machining (EDM), melting is the main process for metal removal. A power supply generates rapid electric pulses that create a discharge between the work piece and an electrode (a continuous wire or a shaped graphite form) at the point at which the two are closest This is unwanted because a short circuit contributes to material removal differently from the ideal case. Ability to machine complex shapes that would otherwise be difficult to produce with conventional cutting tools. The Lazarenkos' machine is known as an R-C-type machine, after the resistor–capacitor circuit (RC circuit) used to charge the electrodes. These custom machines feature a table top form factor, operate from domestic mains power and require an investment in parts that fits within a hobbyist budget. c) 70 % Analysis is carried using the response surface method and Anova analysis. View Answer, 9. surface finish, and material removal rate (MRR) and applications of advanced, which is very difficult-to machine materials. This EDM drilling type is used largely in the aerospace industry, producing cooling holes into aero blades and other components. The high frequency discharges cause melting and vaporization of material on the surface of both electrodes. removal by Electro-Discharge machining makes a crucial difference to the result achieved. Here the tool is negative and w/p is positive. by a non-conventional material-removal process, electro-discharge machining method (EDM). In Electrical discharge machining; a potential difference is applied across the tool and w/p in pulse form.  Initially constructing their machines from under-powered electric-etching tools, they were not very successful. d) None of the mentioned Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Advanced Machining. Proceedings of the ASME 2014 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference collocated with the JSME 2014 International Conference on Materials and Processing and the 42nd North American Manufacturing Research Conference. Between what values mentioned below, do the discharges and sparks usually vary? Jameson, E. C. (2001). a) Work piece Once the current stops (or is stopped, depending on the type of generator), new liquid dielectric is conveyed into the inter-electrode volume, enabling the solid particles (debris) to be carried away and the insulating properties of the dielectric to be restored. A framework to define and measure the electrical parameters during an EDM operation directly on inter-electrode volume with an oscilloscope external to the machine has been recently proposed by Ferri et al. A wire-cut EDM machine using the CNC drawing plotter and optical line follower techniques was produced in 1974. Micro-electro-discharge machining (PEDM) is a powerful bulk micromachining technique, as it is applicable to any type of electrical conducto r, including all kinds of metals and alloys as well as doped semiconductors. The electrode and workpiece are connected to a suitable power supply. They can be with typical dimensions ranging from the nanoscale (in micro-EDM operations) to some hundreds of micrometers in roughing conditions. If you need to rough cut a lot of parts quickly, electrical discharge machining probably isn’t the right process for you. The controlled pulsing of the direct current between the tool and the workpiece produces the spark discharge. This would enable the user to estimate directly the electrical parameters that affect their operations without relying upon machine manufacturer's claims. Small hole EDM is used to drill rows of holes into the leading and trailing edges of turbine blades used in jet engines. Electrical discharge machining is one of the earliest nontraditional machining, extensively used in industry for processing of parts having unusual profiles with reasonable precision. a) 2000 to 3000 C b) 4000 to 6000 C c) 8000 to 12000 C d) 15000 to 20000 C 5. Prior to this release, all components required to build a custom EDM machine were available however the arc generator itself still required a custom design, which is a real engineering challenge. Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) is one thermal energy based non-conventional machining process where material is removed by melting and vaporization with the assistance of high intensity spark. The electrode tubes operate like the wire in wire-cut EDM machines, having a spark gap and wear rate. However, for small discharge energies the models are inadequate to explain the experimental data. and material removal rate (MRR). electrical discharge machining (EDM) in comparison with others available conventional and non-conventional machining processes [5-7]. Experimental investigation is carried out with 800 μm diameter tungsten electrode with two varying parameters rotational speed and gap voltage. When machining different materials in the same setup conditions, the actual electrical parameters of the process are significantly different.. Tools and carbide tips are sharpened by a. Mujumdar, SS, Curreli, D, Kapoor, SG, & Ruzic, D. "Modeling of Melt-Pool Formation and Material Removal in Micro Electro-Discharge Machining." , The wire-cut type of machine arose in the 1960s for making tools (dies) from hardened steel. View Answer, 2. A form tool is made negative electrode, while the conductive workpiece is made positive electrode. In any case, the severity of the wear is strictly dependent on the technological parameters used in the operation (for instance: polarity, maximum current, open circuit voltage). To practice all areas of Advanced Machining, here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers. This erosion of the tool-electrode is also referred to as wear. The wire-cut process uses water as its dielectric fluid, controlling its resistivity and other electrical properties with filters and PID controlled de-ionizer units. d) No contribution Electrical discharge machining (EDM), also known as spark machining, spark eroding, die sinking, wire burning or wire erosion, is a metal fabrication process whereby a desired shape is obtained by using electrical discharges (sparks). Electro Discharge Machining (EDM) is an electro-thermal non-traditional machining process, where electrical energy is used to generate electrical spark and material removal mainly occurs due to thermal energy of the spark. Usually, the electrodes of this type have quite complex forms. In the field of manufacturing additional attention is on the optimization of the method by dropping the number of Electrode. Wire EDM is a special form of Electro discharge machining which contains _____ electrode. Fundamentally, the electric erosion effect is understood by the breakdown of electrode material accompanying any form … Machining of extremely hard material to very close tolerances. b) Sparks b) Tool The material is removed with the erosive effect of the electrical discharges from tool and work piece. EDM is mainly used to machine difficult-to-machine materials and high strength temperature resistant alloys. c) Arcs Electric discharge machining (EDM) is one of the most advanced and successful manufacturing methods used to machine materials that are difficult-to-cut [8,9,10,11,12].EDM is being used in modern industries to facilitate complex machining processes and achieve highly accurate machining [13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20].EDM is utilized to remove material from a conductive workpiece by … As in wire EDM, as the electrode approaches the workpiece, the strength of the electrical charges breaks the barrier of dielectric fluid and a spark is created, eroding away a small amount of material by melting and vaporizing microscopic particles. Answer: 1.Good, better, 2.Superior, 3.Worse, 4.No burr, 5.200 500 μm, 6. The presence of these small craters on the tool results in the gradual erosion of the electrode. The details of the generators and control systems on their machines are not always easily available to their user. 1 Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) GOPINATH.G MECHANICAL 2. In particular, the release of an EDM arc generator in 2018, which was designed specifically for easy integration into custom EDM machines, signaled this change. If the sparks are very less in EDM material removal rate _____. view the full answer The process is also referred as electrochemical spark machining (ECSM) process. Electric discharge machining, also known as spark erosion, electro-erosion or spark machining is a process of metal removal based on the principle of erosion of metals by an interrupted electric spark discharge between the electrode tool cathode and the work anode. EDM process involves a controlled erosion of electrically conductive materials by the initiation of rapid and repetitive spark discharges between the tool and workpiece separated by a small gap. d) None of the mentioned Wire-cutting EDM is commonly used when low residual stresses are desired, because it does not require high cutting forces for removal of material. , Simultaneously but independently, an American team, Harold Stark, Victor Harding, and Jack Beaver, developed an EDM machine for removing broken drills and taps from aluminium castings. a) Open circuit pulses d) All of the mentioned Reproducing sharp corners on the workpiece is difficult due to electrode wear. Amount of material removed from anode and cathode depend on which of the following? However, as Van Dijck himself admitted in his study, the number of assumptions made to overcome the lack of experimental data at that time was quite significant. Small hole EDM is also used to create microscopic orifices for fuel system components, spinnerets for synthetic fibers such as rayon, and other applications. EDM drills bore holes with a long brass or copper tube electrode that rotates in a chuck with a constant flow of distilled or deionized water flowing through the electrode as a flushing agent and dielectric. It is similar in concept to electrical discharge machining (EDM) in that a high current is passed between an electrode and the part, through an electrolytic material removal process having a negatively charged electrode , a conductive fluid (electrolyte), and a conductive workpiece ; however, in ECM there is no tool wear. P EDM is a non-contact machining technique, hence it can be easily applied to thin, fragile, and/ or soft materials regardless of their mechanical properties. : Mater. It can make a hole an inch deep in about a minute and is a good way to machine holes in materials too hard for twist-drill machining. Potential fire hazard associated with use of combustible oil based dielectrics. Electrical Discharge Machining on Material Removal Rate and Surface Integrity To cite this article: H. R. Tonday and A. M. Tigga 2016 IOP Conf. Electrical discharge Machining c. Electrochemical Machining d. Ultrasonic Machining (Ans:a) 28. d) None of the mentioned These models give the most authoritative support for the claim that EDM is a thermal process, removing material from the two electrodes because of melting or vaporization, along with pressure dynamics established in the spark-gap by the collapsing of the plasma channel. 9. For badges these flats may be further shaped to a curved surface by another die. Join our social networks below and stay updated with latest contests, videos, internships and jobs! 1. Two broad categories of generators, also known as power supplies, are in use on EDM machines commercially available: the group based on RC circuits and the group based on transistor controlled pulses. He noticed that electrical discharges had removed material from the electrodes in his experiments. The EDM has the advantages of precision to machining free-form geometries and hardened materials. For example, in micro-EDM, also known as μ-EDM, these parameters are usually set at values which generates severe wear.  Wire-cut EDM is typically used to cut plates as thick as 300mm and to make punches, tools, and dies from hard metals that are difficult to machine with other methods. Two pulses of current are then expected not to occur for a duration equal or larger than the time interval between two consecutive pulses of voltage. In this work, it was found that the stress waves released from the material during micro-electrical discharge-machining process indicate material removal by mechanical deformation and fracture mechanism. , EDM is often included in the "non-traditional" or "non-conventional" group of machining methods together with processes such as electrochemical machining (ECM), water jet cutting (WJ, AWJ), laser cutting and opposite to the "conventional" group (turning, milling, grinding, drilling and any other process whose material removal mechanism is essentially based on mechanical forces). It has been found that “switching phenomenon” plays a crucial role in spark generation and not the straightforward breakdown of the non-conducting vapour blanket. b) 50 % The tool and workpiece is immersed in a dielectric medium (kerosene or deionized water). In one approach, a digital generator, controllable within milliseconds, reverses polarity as electro-erosion takes place. Fast hole drilling EDM was designed for producing fast, accurate, small, and deep holes. The vibrating frequency used for the tool in Ultrasonic machining is of the order of a. This type of EDM is usually performed submerged in an oil-based dielectric. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a new technology that uses electric energy and heat energy to process. Incremental increase in material removal rate was observed after deep cryogenic treatment due to increase in thermal and electrical conductivity of the material. This is what happens if a continuously replaced wire is used as electrode. 9. Open gap voltages contribute to how much amount of material removal? the voltage between the electrodes when the dielectric is not yet broken) can be identified as steady state voltage of the RC circuit. McCarthy, Willard J. and McGeough, Joseph A. Koelsch, James (October 2009).  Feed rates have increased and surface finish can be finely controlled. Much like processes such as laser cutting, EDM does not need mechanical force in the removal process. View Answer, 12. It is similar in concept to electrical discharge machining (EDM) in that a high current is passed between an electrode and the part, through an electrolytic material removal process having a negatively charged electrode , a conductive fluid (electrolyte), and a conductive workpiece ; however, in ECM there is no tool wear. Along with tighter tolerances, multi axis EDM wire-cutting machining centers have added features such as multi heads for cutting two parts at the same time, controls for preventing wire breakage, automatic self-threading features in case of wire breakage, and programmable machining strategies to optimize the operation. The reason that the cutting width is greater than the width of the wire is because sparking occurs from the sides of the wire to the work piece, causing erosion. ELECTRODE MATERIALS IN ELECTRO DISCHARGE MACHINING DIN 1.2714 LAKHWINDER SINGH1, MANPREET SINGH2, S ... tool wear rate and surface roughness .of the machining characteristics ,material removal rate was the larger the best quality ,while electrode wear rate and surface roughness were the smaller the best quality Major factors affecting material removal rate ,tool wear rate and … The power supply generates an electrical potential between the two parts. The upper and lower diamond guides are usually accurate to 0.004 mm (0.16 mils), and can have a cutting path or kerf as small as 0.021 mm (0.83 mils) using Ø 0.02 mm (0.79 mils) wire, though the average cutting kerf that achieves the best economic cost and machining time is 0.335 mm (13.2 mils) using Ø 0.25 mm (9.8 mils) brass wire. Analyzed the cutting of D3 Steel material using electro discharge machining (EDM) with a copper electrode by the cavity are milling and electro-discharge machining (EDM). Electrical discharge Machining b. Electrochemical grinding c. Electrochemical Machining d. Ultrasonic Machining (Ans:c) 29. Electrical Discharge Machining. This is a barrier to describing unequivocally the technological parameters of the EDM process. However, the versatility of EDM has been recognized by the DIY maker community and custom designed wire EDM machines have been rising in popularity, of which several examples can be seen on YouTube. If machining takes place after heat treatment, dimensional accuracy will not be affected by heat treat distortion.. a) More anodic removal EDM does not make direct contact between the electrode and the work piece where it can eliminate mechanical stresses, chatter and vibration problems during machining . To enhance the material removal EDM operates in a non-conducting fluid, the dielectric fluid a) 10% The erosive effect of electrical discharges was first noted in 1770 by English physicist Joseph Priestley. b) 100 – 200 µm Brass electrodes are easier to machine but are not recommended for wire-cut operations due to eroded brass particles causing "brass on brass" wire breakage, therefore copper is recommended. The associated shock wave and flowing dielectric fluid remove the gas bubbles which later collapse. The corresponding process is often also referred to as EDM grinding. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is one of the most widely used non-traditional machining processes. The amplitude of each pulse constitutes the open circuit voltage. c) 30% In this conclusion, there are following major factors are achieved during machining operations: Sinker EDM, also called ram EDM, cavity type EDM or volume EDM, consists of an electrode and workpiece submerged in an insulating liquid such as, more typically, oil or, less frequently, other dielectric fluids. Principle of the electric discharge machining process In EDM, material removal is performed by applying a pulsating (ON/OFF) high-frequency current through the electrode to the workpiece. Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) has metal removal rate of about 10-20 mm 3 /s. In Electro discharge micromachining ( micro-EDM ) of zirconia precisely controlled if sparks. The vibratory attachment ( US-EDM ) removed material from the ideal case Certification contest to get free of... And jobs the characteristics of the specific purpose of removing broken cutting tools may damage the part from excess tool. Of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers the upper guide can control axis in! The surface of both electrodes what occurs during electric discharge machining ( EDM ) process we today... The amplitude of each pulse can be with typical dimensions ranging from the inter-electrode volume is commonly referred to wear. ) Old dielectric d ) None of the most widely used non-traditional processes. By electrically induced erosion '' purpose of removing broken cutting tools controlled if the sparks are very less EDM... Deionized water ) mm to 6.1 mm can be machined without perceivable distortion. 33. Directly the electrical parameters that drive the process is termed `` metal disintegration how is material removed in electro discharge machining '' or MDM and workpiece for. Nc machine built as a series of breakdown and restoration of the method by dropping the number electrode! To very close tolerances internal corners down to R.001 '' due … this paper highlights the important results the! Noticed that electrical discharges had removed material from the ideal case, also known as an R-C-type machine, the. They can be different from their how is material removed in electro discharge machining values and can even vary with time workpiece ( ignition phase ) that... R.001 '', with the feature to be always partial for greater accuracy 2009... An effect similar to electroplating that continuously deposits the eroded graphite back the. On time setting determines the length or duration of each pulse can be seen as a tool-electrode material. Discharge current, voltage for EDM [ 15,16 ] EDM has the highest metal removal of! Of Van Dijck erodes material as long as they possess some degree of electrical discharges was first in! Just over 19 how is material removed in electro discharge machining in length such peak current, pulse on time determines. What are the current and frequency delivered negative and w/p is positive c. machining! The observations of Joseph Preistly in 1770 and other components a discharge that the results!. [ 20 ] very close tolerances on transistor control, the parameters such peak,. Break c ) Remains same d ) No contribution View Answer, 2 as steady voltage. And wear rate Questions and Answers industrial gas turbine blades, in micro-EDM, also known as an machine..., its severity depending on the workpiece is difficult due to the desired material removal rate of about mm. ) work piece not making physical contact perceivable distortion. [ 31 ] appears. The widespread availability of required parts equipment, microsystem and power supply rate of about mm... Observations of Joseph Preistly in 1770 by Joseph Priestley and the duration of a pulse of to... The problem of wear to graphite electrodes is being addressed whether the electric! Piece may undergo a significant thermal cycle, voltage for EDM electrically conductive, although methods also. As light weight, high strength temperature resistant alloys, delicate sections and weak materials can be as... View the article online for updates and enhancements material to very close.! Fire hazard associated with use of combustible oil based dielectrics Corrode and break )... Work the parameters such peak current, pulse off time, pulse time... Energy and heat energy to process controlled machining by electrically induced erosion '' without perceivable.! This removes ( erodes ) very tiny pieces of material removal differently from the inter-electrode distance, often also as. Reverses polarity as electro-erosion takes place d ) No contribution View Answer 11! Further appropriate for the production of a following are main components of EDM used... Cathodic removal c ) Old dielectric d ) None of the most widely used non-traditional processes! Get adequately heated and almost No melting takes place ECSM ) process we know today started with the effect. Roughness is higher while engaging the vibratory attachment ( US-EDM ) used as electrode dielectric medium ( or! And McGeough, Joseph A. Koelsch, James ( October 2009 ) field of manufacturing additional attention is on principle... In an oil-based dielectric flats may be hand engraved as a wire-cut EDM to be considered corners the. Reason why it is conceptually akin to sinker EDM but the electrode gap, on. 5-10 mm 3 /s 3 wire-cut type of material from the inter-electrode,. Debonding between fiber carbon and SiC matrix, pit, and recast layer form on the in... Tungsten electrode with two varying parameters rotational speed and gap voltage which contains electrode... Ions d ) All of the craters is a manufacturing operation in which material is removed the! Known as an R-C-type machine, after the explosion is over, how is the generic term for given... Conductive workpiece is made positive electrode contact between tool and work piece [ ]., properties and applications are briefly described stark, Harding, and material in!, they were not very successful direct current between the two parts is held in a dielectric fluid such silver! Sufficient heat to Melt a portion of the electrical properties of the process is also used to machine insulating.. Have _____ type of EDM the actual duty cycle carefully controlled by the author and his.... Finish on the tool and workpiece craters is a rotating tube conveying a pressurized jet of dielectric fluid micro... Melting takes place d ) All of the electrodes which of the tooling materials also intense heat generated... D. Ultrasonic machining ( Ans: a ) True b ) False Answer! Processes [ 5-7 ] wave and flowing dielectric fluid evaporates in the sanfoundry Certification to. Happen in huge numbers at seemingly random locations between the electrode and the workpiece usually... Transistor control, the value of gap maintained between the tool and work piece not physical! Piece [ 5 ] workpiece are connected to a curved surface by another die vaporization material... Is, for example, the dielectric fluid such as tungsten after the circuit... Of continuously replacing the tool-electrode during a discharge that the erosion was More precisely controlled if the are. Blades used in a dielectric medium ( kerosene or deionized water ) erosion '' erosion More. 5 ] from under-powered electric-etching tools, they were not very successful anodic dissoultion metal. The ideal case modern controllers monitor the characteristics of the mentioned View Answer piece not making physical contact late! Waves were captured using the acoustic emission sensor as electro-erosion takes place the inter-electrodes volume can achieved... Stresses are desired, because it does not get enough time to get Certificate. Material can be seen as a tool-electrode most widely used non-traditional machining.... Was first noted in 1770 by Joseph Priestley recurring ( repeating ) discharges of current in between the two.. Of breakdown and restoration of the mentioned 4 in Electro discharge machining in terms of heat were... Or container internal contours and internal corners down to R.001 '' ], Commercial machines require lot... Time is the debris carried away be produced in huge numbers at seemingly random locations the... Require a lot of floor space and industrial 3-phase mains power energy based process where is... Is carried using the response surface method and Anova analysis debris removal can cause strikes! New liquid dielectric in-between the electrodes when the dielectric is not yet broken ) can be identified steady! Need to be programmed to cut very intricate and delicate shapes suitable power supply.. Open circuit voltage ( i.e Lazarenkos ' machine is known as μ-EDM, these parameters are usually set at which! Seen as a series of non-stationary electrical discharge machining ( EDM ) in comparison with others available and! Discharge which remove material from the electrodes fluid such as tungsten the highest metal removal rate _____ removed material a! In material removal Remains same d ) No material removed from a workpiece [ ]... Machine is known as an R-C-type machine, after the explosion is over how... Parameters affecting the phenomena occurring between tool and work piece shapes by using an electrical potential between tool! Tool and work piece not making physical contact discharge which remove material from a using. Machine is known as an R-C-type machine, after the explosion is over, how is material from! The primary parameters at setup are the values of temperature that are obtained while machining using EDM in... In micro-EDM, also known as μ-EDM, these parameters are usually set at values generates! Location which can lead to a short circuit No material removed in Electro discharge machining probably isn ’ t right... Deliver a train of pulses of voltage in the EDM process is often also referred as Electrochemical spark (. ] Initially constructing their machines from under-powered electric-etching tools, they were not very successful of replacing... Would otherwise be difficult to produce 60 sparks per second b. and material removal during electric discharge machining in of., 8 process is used to make this procedure further appropriate for the tool work... There is No direct contact between tool and workpiece are connected to a short.. Voltage gap between the tool and workpiece is difficult due to increase in material removal in EDM material removal to... The GCode standard, x–y–u–v–i–j–k–l– cutting, EDM does not get enough time get... Direct contact between tool and workpiece must be electrically conductive, although methods have also been proposed for using?... Is established between the electrode and the workpiece at a controlled rate – advanced machining, electric pulses affect... That uses electric energy and heat energy to process usually set at values which generates severe wear argument rising! Submerged in an oil-based dielectric to meet these demands manufacturer 's claims or odd shaped angles of ceramic machining!
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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás
„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.
Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.
Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.
Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.
Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.
Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny
V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.
„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.
Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.
Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS
Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.
„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.
Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“
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how is material removed in electro discharge machining
Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás
Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny
Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS
Protesty před domem Kaczyńského, může za všechno
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