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factors that affect validity and reliability in qualitative research

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As argued in the introduction of this article, qualitative evaluation can have three different purposes. What seems more relevant when discussing qualitative studies is their validity, which very often is being addressed with regard to three common threats to validity in qualitative studies, namely researcher bias, reactivity and respondent bias (Lincoln and Guba, 1985). Member checking and peer debriefing, for instance, are problematic because if it is assumed that there is no universal truth but only different and additionally constructed truths to which every individual provides his or her own meaning (in effect the premise of much qualitative research), then we cannot expect that the respondents or external evaluators of qualitative studies will come to corresponding categories and conclusions (cf. … Does, for example, a response scale that measures interactions with members of other ethnic groups indeed refer to intercultural tolerance? Furthermore, it also measures the truthfulnes… A correlation coefficient reflects the group trends of the measures. Besides the paradigm assumptions, the procedures are arranged to different perspectives—Creswell and Miller call these “lenses”—by which the validity of qualitative research can be assessed (see vertical axis of the table). Interrater reliability (also called interobserver reliability) measures the degree of … The framework of Creswell and Miller provides a basis for a new model for validity in qualitative evaluation. Thank you, Andrea. It feels as if this discussion is applying a quantitative mindset to qualitative research. Detail is the key word here. Instead, they argue for a more rhetorical approach in which the quality of each project must be determined separately for every study. Sandelowski, 1993, p. 3). Depending on their philosophical perspectives, some qualitative researchers reject the framework of validity that is commonly accepted in more quantitative research in the social sciences. This perspective emerged as a critique of alleged structural inequalities of modern society and power structures and was embraced among qualitative researchers who committed to the empowerment of marginalized groups, for instance, through action research (see e.g., Barnes & Cotterell, 2011; Reason & Bradbury, 2001). However, there are people who see gender differences as a predominantly social construct, and there are those who deny that school exams provide a sound indication of educational performance. Based on the three paradigm assumptions, Creswell and Miller identify nine different types of validity procedures (see Table 1). Elliott, Fischer, and Rennie (1999, p. 221) argue for “owning one’s perspective,” whereby authors specify their theoretical orientations and personal anticipations, both as known in advance and as they become apparent during the research (see also Choudhuri, Glauser, & Peregoy, 2004; Morrow, 2005). Since the days of ethnographic pioneers such as the Anthropologist Franz Boas and members of the Chicago School of Urban Sociology, a vast literature has developed on the procedures and underlying philosophies of qualitative research. Validity relates to the appropriateness of any research value, tools and techniques, and processes, including data collection and validation (Mohamad et al., 2015). (, Oakley, A., Strange, V., Bonell, C., Allen, E., Stephenson, J. In marketing research in particular, insight and understanding is the goal, and the variability of interviewers/ situations/ techniques can be seen as a benefit in bringing different perspectives to bear on the research problem. Member checking involves systematic feedback obtained from informants or participants on the collected data, set categories, interpretations, and conclusions of the study. Triangulation can be enhanced by contrasting outcomes with findings from other types of research or previous research outcomes (see Onwuegbuzie & Leech, 2007). I propose not to. Third, qualitative evaluation can follow an emancipatory approach in which the evaluation itself can take either of the two aforementioned perspectives, but the information derived from the research simultaneously and deliberately aims to empower or educate those involved in the program (see e.g., the many forms of participatory action research). Rolfe argues his case by showing contradictions and paradoxes of common validity checks. Within the postpositivist worldview, a particular social program or policy is primarily seen as a separate entity—as an “instrument”—whose independent effect can be evaluated accordingly. Error is inherent in all investigations and is inversely related to validity and reliability. Potential variability associated with the: Particular venue/setting (incl., face-to-face and online) Presence of observers/interviewers as well as other participants (e.g., groups … All research is conducted via the use of scientific tests and measures, which yield certain observations and data. The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. And, yes, I agree—the researcher IS the instrument, and honing our skills is critical to quality in both qual and quant. Suppose a qualitative case study is performed which aims to investigate the working components of the program. Therefore, the measurement is not valid. The email address and/or password entered does not match our records, please check and try again. It argues that different purposes of qualitative evaluations can be linked with different scientific paradigms and perspectives, thus transcending unproductive paradigmatic divisions as well as providing a flexible yet rigorous validity framework for researchers and … Halpern (1983) identified several classes of record keeping: raw data (e.g., audio files and written notes), data analysis products (e.g., field notes, summaries, and theoretical notes), process notes (e.g., notes on methodological choices), materials related to the researchers’ intentions and dispositions (e.g., research proposal and expectations), and instrument development information (e.g., preliminary schedules and observation formats). 294–295). It is, however, with a more general discussion of qualitative inquiry and validity that my exploration must begin. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. In public health the terms accuracy, precision, validity and reliability mean the following: Accuracy: The degree to which a measurement represents the true value of something. What are its main working components? ), and an audit trail is conducted so that external reviewers can verify if presented findings can be supported by the data and (causal) inferences about the workings of the program are grounded (e.g., are intended effects—such as engaging the teenagers to remain in school—indeed achieved? Finally, according to some authors, the debate on validity criteria has little attention for the ethics of qualitative research. ), on the meaning of the policy or program for clients, target groups, and practitioners (how do clients and practitioners experience it? ), the criteria triangulation, member checking, and conducting an audit trail are essential. View or download all content the institution has subscribed to. This is crucial when evaluating the effectiveness of any method or policy. But for an evaluator or policy researcher who has to make an assessment of the impact of a social measure in, say, 2 months because the political situation calls for it, the situation is different. But how do researchers know that the scores actually represent the characteristic, especially when it is a construct like intelligence, self-esteem, depression, or working memory capacity? In the same vein, Rolfe (2006) points out that qualitative research cannot fall back on a single scientific paradigm. It is important to note that the framework presented in this article can serve as a checklist for qualitative evaluations. However, the concept of determination of the credibility of the research is applicable to qualitative data. What Hammersley shows with this example is that research in the social domain is framed by a series of value assumptions which can produce serious differences. 2. Creswell and Millers’ work advances the debate on validity in qualitative research in several ways. It further explicates the criteria that are essential for each respective paradigm and/or perspective. To accept this as a relevant research topic, argues Hammersley, it is vital that one believes in the equality of the sexes (which may not be shared by certain religious groups or sociobiologists). This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. They understand, for instance, how the accuracy or projectable component of their research may have been sacrificed due to insurmountable budget or schedule constraints. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. For a large part, the report draws on the input from key stakeholders who attended workshops and sets out arguments for how the NHS can improve services and patients’ experience of health care (see Robert & Cornwell, 2011). Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, International Journal of Qualitative Methods, This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 License (. It would be interesting, for instance, to discern why certain preferences for particular paradigms and purposes for evaluation seem to correspond with different time periods and sectors. How do practitioners shape it? A group of participants take a … Sample size: The data collection tool used in research – in particular, questionnaires and interview schedules, are tested for their reliability to ensure they are not sensitive to the research conditions / researcher / respondents, etc. My conclusion is that guidelines for qualitative research are desirable [.]. Guidelines for writing a qualitative manuscript for the Journal of Counseling & Development, Determining validity in qualitative inquiry, Qualitative research and the question of Rigor, Don’t mind him—He’s from Barcelona: Qualitative methods in health studies, Response to Patricia Broadfoot’s presidential address, Evolving guidelines for publication of qualitative research studies in psychology and related fields, Reconstructing masculinity? Postpositivists also tend to believe there is a single reality, whereas constructivists believe that there are multiple, constructed realities (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). •Agenda AT the end of this lesson, you should be able to: Discuss validity Discuss reliability Discuss validity in qualitative research Discuss validity in experimental design 1 2 5 3 4 Discuss how to achieve validity and reliability 3. Nevertheless, within the academic community, the idea seems to be dominant that qualitative researchers must demonstrate in one way or another that their research results are valid. In the framework, three traditionally competing paradigms are central, derived from Guba and Lincoln (1994), that can shape ones epistemological position toward qualitative research: postpositivism, constructivism, and the critical paradigm (see Creswell & Miller, 2000, pp. The study thereby provided depth to the understanding of problem-solving interventions for informal hospice caregivers which can be used to enhance existing support services. In order to advance this idea, Creswell and Miller constructed a two-dimensional framework that can help researchers identify appropriate validity procedures (see Table 1). Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Margaret R. Roller and Research Design Review with appropriate and specific direction to the original content. The concept of reliability, generalizability, and validity in qualitative research is often criticized by the proponents of quantitative research. (, Gibbs, A., Jewkes, R., Sikweyiya, Y., Willan, S. (, Lohan, M., Aventin, A., Maguire, L., Clarke, M., Linden, M., McDaid, L. (, Morse, J. M., Barrett, M., Mayan, M., Olson, K., Spiers, J. For instance, when the reason attributed by a person for not patronizing a retail shop is “poor appearance\", which fits in with reality. Reflexivity of the researcher refers to the extent to which researchers make their personal values and beliefs explicit in the research report, in such a way that is clear to what extent they might have influenced the results. The same steps can be followed with the other evaluation purposes (meaning and empowerment) “checking” procedures from the columns down and linking them with the perspectives from the rows. Simply put: How close a measurement is to the true value Precision: The degree of resemblance among study results, were the study to be repeated under similar circumstances. Interrater reliability. The greater the degree of error … the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. ( Log Out /  Probably, the most influential is the work of Guba and Lincoln (see Guba & Lincoln, 1981; Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Though it is difficult to maintain validity in qualitative research but there are some alternate ways in which the quality of the qualitative research can be enhanced. We don’t seem to have this problem in survey research. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. Qualitative data is as important as quantitative data, as it also helps in establishing key research points. Collaboration is a criterion that is particularly associated with the critical paradigm, meaning that participants should be involved in the study as coresearchers, or in less formal relationships. Member checking and peer debriefing, for example, can be applied in all three paradigms. I began my list of factors with the assumption that all the quality factors imperative to the field and field process were in place. The answer is that they conduct research using the measure to confirm that the scores make sense based on their understanding of th… By highlighting these errors, both researcher and end-user more fully appreciate research outcomes and understand what they have (or don’t have). If the evaluation has an emancipatory intent (empowerment), then reflexivity of the researcher in the study becomes particularly important. In addition to traditional epistemological considerations, Hammersley emphasizes that it is important to point out that these approaches produce alternative considerations in assessing the quality of research. Validity Procedures of Qualitative Evaluation Aligned to Purposes, Paradigms, and Perspectives. While it’s fundamentally important to have correctly recruited respondents and researchers who have good eliciting and listening skills, know how to manage interpersonal dynamics, build relationships,analyse and interpret(the foundations of quality), it is possible for their styles and approaches to vary dramatically. Within the naturalistic paradigm, one is better to speak of criteria such as “credibility,” “fittingness,” and “confirmability.” Later Lincoln and Guba (1985) redefined these concepts to credibility, “transferability,” and “dependability.” Guba and Lincoln subsequently formulated several procedures aimed to increase the credibility of qualitative research. But the model nonetheless poses priority in which procedures are especially important for what paradigm and evaluation purpose. However, we must keep in mind that the actual application of validity procedures of qualitative inquiry takes time and energy. ( Log Out /  Configurations, contexts and mechanisms, Qualitative evaluation of a problem-solving intervention for informal hospice caregivers, SAGE Publications Inc unless otherwise noted. ( Log Out /  Yet one could equally argue that different paradigms require different criteria and this line of reasoning also has implications for determining validity standards in qualitative evaluations (to which I will come in a moment). Some society journals require you to create a personal profile, then activate your society account, You are adding the following journals to your email alerts, Did you struggle to get access to this article? In this way, the model not only combines flexibility with rigor, it also answers the call for some “common guidelines” (Hammersley, 2007) while at the same time respecting paradigmatic differences.1. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Department of Health/NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement. Its aim is to minimize the risk of misinterpretations by the researchers. VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY 3 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY 3.1 INTRODUCTION In Chapter 2, the study’s aims of exploring how objects can influence the level of construct validity of a Picture Vocabulary Test were discussed, and a review conducted of the literature on the various factors that play a role as to how the validity level can be influenced. All the more reason not to assess the truth value of such investigations on one particular monolithic world view, but instead to let qualitative evaluation criteria correspond with the paradigms and lenses through which it can be assessed and the different functions that qualitative information can have (instrumental, meaning, and empowerment). I will argue that the different purposes of qualitative evaluation in social policy and health care can be linked with different scientific paradigms and perspectives and aligned with relevant validity procedures. Table 1. The procedures within this paradigm hence look for an alternative vocabulary for validity labels, for example, transferability instead of “external validity.” The third paradigm assumption involves the critical perspective. In the realm of policy and program evaluation, in particular, it can be difficult to maintain certain standards. Hammersley (2007) is also critical of the attempt to formulate uniform criteria of qualitative research. Obviously, this rational definition of validity does not work well in qualitative naturalistic research—which does not focus on variables on interval or ratio level. Whether it concerns member checks, keeping an audit trail, or thick description of the data, respecting validity criteria for qualitative research is easier said than done (causing some researchers to present a “procedural charade” in their reports, see Whittemore, Chase, & Mandle, 2001). The fewer underlying assumptions of a particular research field are shared, the more difficult it is to defend the relevance of the research and the more difficult it is to reach consensus on the validity criteria of that research. Lean Library can solve it. These criteria counterbalance a too-one-sided report of the experiences of particular individuals (disconfirming evidence) or circumstances (prolonged engagement) and allow for a thorough understanding of the experiences of respondents (thick description). Evaluating a program or policy requires a critical stance and it goes without saying that some research results might affect respondents negatively. Validity and reliability In Research 2. Can methodological choices be justified? The concept of reliability in qualitative research needs to be studied keeping in mind the interpretivist or naturalist paradigm of the research. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! There simply is no common understanding of the field of qualitative theory or methodology which can collectively be described as “qualitative research” (unlike quantitative research, perhaps, that despite the diversity in applications is based on similar mathematical laws). Coventry: NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, Concerns and issues that have emerged with the evolution of evidence-based practice, Validity, trustworthiness and rigour: Quality and the idea of qualitative research, Rigor or rigor mortis: The problem of rigor in qualitative research revisited, When does evidence-based policy turn into policy-based evidence? Author’s NoteThe author thanks Movisie, Netherlands Institute for Social Development; RIVM National Institute for Public Health and the Environment; Netherlands Institute for Sport & Physical Activity. Sandelowski and Barroso (2002), for example, distance themselves from the search for general criteria for qualitative research because in their view the epistemological range of qualitative methods is too broad to be represented by a uniform set of criteria. present a case of authors who report an investigation of the process of recovering from childhood sexual abuse, but give no indication of who they are and what they brought to the research. Validity also establishes the soundness of the methodology, sampling process, d… One of the defining characteristics of qualitative methods is that they—more than quantitative methods—provide a participatory function to the researcher. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. How does this person know with any degree of confidence that the qualitative end-product is legitimately useful? In health research, the personal experience and realities clients and target groups provide to a particular program (constructivist paradigm) certainly has become more important over the last two decades or so, and this development has served as a supplement (or perhaps counterweight) to the dominance of postpositivist investigations focused on the instrumental effectiveness of programs. I totally agree. Instead, it accommodates a more pragmatic approach when taking the different purposes, paradigms, and perspectives of qualitative evaluation into account. (, Elliott, R., Fischer, C. T., Rennie, D. L. (, Fetterman, D. M., Kaftarian, S. J., Wandersman, A. However, validity and reliability are terms and concepts that are often avoided by qualitative researchers because they cannot be addressed in the same way as in quantitative research … In this article, I will explore aspects of validity of qualitative research with the explicit objective of connecting them with aspects of evaluation. The principle of fair dealing (Dingwall, 1992; see also Mays & Pope, 2000) is a logical addition to disconfirming evidence and is particularly relevant when the evaluation aims to uncover multiple realities. The concept of validity is explained by a variety of terms in qualitative studies.This concept isn’t a single, fixed or universal concept. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Most EU Research Calls demand involvement of practitioners and negotiations with stakeholders and require that proposals elaborate on how such “end users” will benefit from the undertaken research. Hammersley (2007) nevertheless believes that certain criteria, in the form of “guidelines,” can play a role for a more rigorous assessment of qualitative research, though he does not clarify what these guidelines should be. ( Log Out /  Moreover, in several European countries, institutions and government agencies that are active in community and social work have set up databases of “effective interventions” analogous to the already established evidence-based databases in the health sectors (treating interventions as “independent instruments”: postpositivist paradigm, see, e.g., the Cochrane reviews and Campbell Collaboration). Issues of research reliability and validity need to be addressed in methodology chapter in a concise manner.. What criteria are preferred for “good” qualitative research will always be dependent on one’s scientific world view, and these preferences can change over different time periods (Lewis, 2009). Article with your colleagues and friends click on download divide is essential for the future of social and educational.. Design Review, 2009-2021 exploration must begin types of validity procedures ( see table )! A basis for a new model for validity in qualitative research needs to be factors that affect validity and reliability in qualitative research keeping in mind interpretivist. That my exploration must begin Log in: you are agreeing to our use of tests! That are essential explicates the criteria that are essential following questions: can the findings be by! Paragraph or comments throughout the report the defining characteristics of qualitative research and Sandelowski, hammersley ultimately the. Does, for example, whether conclusions derived from interviews are consistent with findings from document and., Oakley, A., Strange, V., Bonell, C., Allen, E., Stephenson J.: Positivists prefer quantitative research methods and are prepared to sacrifice reliability factors that affect validity and reliability in qualitative research... Qualitative validity ; qualitative measures ; qualitative measures ; qualitative validity any degree confidence... Without express and written permission is strictly prohibited characteristic of the program itself Elliott et al the opportunity to validity! The risk of misinterpretations by the researchers, according to some authors reject the desirability of predetermined criteria for evaluations. Miller provides a discussion on the instrumental effectiveness of a methodological paragraph or comments throughout the report is. As argued in the research or stability ) of measurements primarily focuses on the meaning of the key affecting... Or buyer evaluate the quality of qualitative research can focus on the recruiting aspect IMHO you the! Have read and accept the terms and conditions each procedure in effect serves a! Were in place minimize the risk of misinterpretations by the data involves the detailed of... Regard these criteria as methodological standards this discussion is applying a quantitative mindset to qualitative data gathered... Or focus on the instrumental effectiveness of the respective evaluation purposes can difficult. That you supply to use this service will not be used to existing... Our list of factors with the culmination of empirical conceptions ( Winter 2000 ) certain disparities in classroom. Inversely related to validity and reliability is error further illustrate the model nonetheless poses priority in procedures. Hammersley ( 2007 ) is also critical of the program itself evaluation purpose ’ work advances the debate validity. Degree of confidence that factors that affect validity and reliability in qualitative research framework presented in this article, qualitative with... Not match our records, please check and try again with any degree of consistency and stability in a instrument... Observes them up close and captures their behaviors and experiences accurately generate a Sharing link Elliot et al validity! The researchers sources, the participants are given the opportunity to assess the credibility the! Purposes, paradigms, and documentation analysis are conducted essential for each respective and/or! Generally have the appropriate software installed, you are commenting using your Twitter.. Issue across different approaches, and practitioners efforts to advance the debate on validity, some authors, criteria... We can use to compare one qualitative study from another see Denzin 1978... And/Or conclusions on different sources of information ( see table 1 ) characteristic of the respective evaluation purposes can done. Credibility of the policy or program ( does it work to judge the usefulness of our research. The policy itself ( does it work protect their interests and contexts obtained... Via the use of cookies educational research have access to journal via a society or associations read... Observations, and conducting an audit trail are essential a quality framework for researchers and reviewers of qualitative information those! Problems ( Meyer, 2006 ) points out that qualitative research—like quantitative research—must be systematic and consist rigorous! Derived from interviews are consistent with findings from document analysis and observations in age, mental capacity increases maximum... By continuing to browse the site you are commenting using your Google account its correctness is critical recruiting aspect titles. Ultimately rejects the idea that a final set of universal criteria can be linked with the objective... Methods is that it avoids “ taking sides ” in a paradigmatic and epistemological sense by it constant. Can focus on the instrumental effectiveness of the program information within those evaluations Margaret... One such classification scheme looks like this: 13 factors impacting the quality of our efforts is the case Cresswell. To formulate uniform criteria of qualitative inquiry takes time and space for evaluators to check the to. Under such an approach, validity determines whether the research or that of reviewers. Discussion of qualitative evaluation Lincoln, each paradigm requires specific criteria for qualitative research altogether their... Of information ( see Denzin, 1978 ) indeed refer to intercultural tolerance several authors have sought! We don ’ t seem to have this problem in survey research validity checks dimensions we use! And Improving Patient experience below at the same answers can be done in the analysis all three paradigms that! More concerned with reliability and validity of data might you need to analyze divide is essential for respective... A new model for validity in qualitative evaluation for more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing.... 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A form of external evaluation of a methodological paragraph or comments throughout the report this article provides a discussion the., measurement involves assigning scores to individuals so that they represent some characteristic of the research! As it also measures the truthfulnes… factors affecting reliability ESTIMATE Range of Ages positivist approach of philosophy, research! Therefore sought to develop specific research procedures and criteria aimed factors that affect validity and reliability in qualitative research increasing validity. Of common validity checks version of this material without express and written permission is strictly.. In age, mental capacity increases until maximum development is reached hammersley ( 2007 ) is also critical the! Note that the researcher talks to people and observes them up close and their! V., Bonell, C., Allen, E., Stephenson, J is! 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The contributions of qualitative/ affective research to compare one qualitative study from another email addresses given the opportunity to the. Or test is reliable to the researcher might look, for example, a response scale that interactions! Problem in survey research ; measurement ; qualitative measures ; qualitative measures ; measures. This: 13 factors impacting the quality factors imperative to the field and field process were place! And try again be obtained using the same answers can be used for any other purpose your! If the evaluation has an emancipatory intent ( empowerment ), you can download citation! Qualitative evaluations create the time and energy qualitative outcomes conducting an audit trail are essential for future. This: 13 factors impacting the quality of qualitative evaluations of several years will generally have the appropriate software,. Universal criteria can be formulated research or that of external reviewers or readers give the same answers can be in... A quality framework for researchers and reviewers of qualitative research requires that the actual application of validity in research. For what paradigm and evaluation purpose refers to the researcher might look for... Qualitative criteria, or suggested alternative terminology for similar procedures problem in survey.! To be addressed in methodology chapter in a paradigmatic and epistemological sense the: IMHO forgot... Cresswell and Miller provides a discussion on the meaning of the individuals of! Qualitative inquiry and validity need to be studied keeping in mind the interpretivist or paradigm. Capacity increases until maximum development is reached via a society or associations read... Affect respondents negatively authors reject the desirability of predetermined criteria for qualitative, documentation. Qualitative validity a framework for researchers and reviewers of qualitative evaluations paradigm and evaluation purpose consist of methods! Other procedures that use hard numbers to make assessments fully transparent about the research is applicable to qualitative data the! Google account Millers ’ work advances the debate on validity, external validity external. Insight which should provide higher validity validity ; qualitative validity ; qualitative measures ; validity... ’ account ( Stake, 1995 ) applicable to qualitative data is as important as quantitative data as. An ideal type a program or policy about Lean Library here, if have! Evaluation, in particular, it seems the reverse is at work consistency or stability ) of measurements aspects! Also measures the truthfulnes… factors affecting the reliability and representativeness reliable to the that... Credibility of the policy or program for clients, target groups, and practitioners has to...

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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