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Don’t know how to find correlation in SPSS, check here. In summary, Table 6 and Table 7 show that the best-performing correlation estimate was ρCFA, followed by ρDCR and that the corresponding confidence intervals CICFA and CIDCR outperform the others. Mean Correlation Estimate Under Model Misspecification. How do we make sense of the patterns of correlations? That is, patients with hypertension are further subdivided into three stages according to their blood pressure level, and each level is associated with different treatments. Third, the definition is not tied to any particular measurement process (e.g., single administration) but considers measurement error generally, thus supporting rater, transient, and other errors (Le et al., 2009; Schmidt et al., 2003). However, in this case, it is difficult to interpret the latent variables as representing distinct concepts. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. Validation guidelines for IS positivist research. Figure 4. (2016) used only two factor correlation levels, .75 and .9. Executive functions (EFs) consist of a set of general-purpose control processes believed to be central to the self-regulation of thoughts and behaviors that are instrumental to accomplishing goals. It does show that, as you predicted, the three self esteem measures seem to reflect the same construct (whatever that might be), the three locus of control measures also seem to reflect the same construct (again, whatever that is) and that the two sets of measures seem to be reflecting two different constructs (whatever they are). First, Henseler et al. Because a factor correlation corrects for measurement error, the AVE/SV comparison is similar to comparing the left-hand side of Equation 3 against the right-hand side of Equation 2. where M is the model of interest and B is the baseline or null model. In the figure below, we again see four measures (each is an item on a scale). While multiple comparison techniques can be useful (Castañeda et al., 1993), there are scenarios where they should not be applied (Perneger, 1998), and the literature on discriminant validity has failed to provide compelling reasons to do so. The main problem that I have with this convergent-discrimination idea has to do with my use of the quotations around the terms “high” and “low” in the sentence above. 20.The software is available at https://github.com/eunscho/MQAssessor. Clearly, none of these techniques can be recommended. In the discriminant validity literature, high correlations between scales or scale items are considered problematic. However, it is unclear whether this alternative cutoff has more or less power (i.e., whether 1+.002(χB2−dfB) is greater or less than 3.84) because the effectiveness of CFI(1) has not been studied. In large models, manually specifying all these models and calculating model comparisons is tedious and possibly error prone. 56, 2, 81-105.) In summary, CICFA(cut) and χ2(cut) are generally the best techniques. We included only studies that directly collected data from respondents through multiple-item scales. (2016) considered the false positive and false negative rates of the techniques used in their study and concluded that the cutoff of .85 had the best balance of high power and an acceptable Type I error rate. Nevertheless, it is clear that the CFI comparison does not generally have a smaller false positive rate than χ2(1). There are several issues that warrant discussion. Trochim. establish discriminant validity. A. Shaffer et al. The term “discriminant validity” stems from theoretical approaches in validity that focus on the construct (e.g., Cronbach & Meehl, 1955). (2017) criticized the conceptual redundancy between grit and conscientiousness based on a disattenuated correlation of .84 (ρSS=.66). The original criterion is that both AVE values must be greater than the SV. These findings raise two important questions: (a) Why is there such diversity in the definitions? While some of the model fit indices do depend on factor correlations, they do so only weakly and indirectly (Kline, 2011, chap. Because the differences between ρDPR (i.e., HTMT) and ρDTR were negligible, only the former is reported. The 30 items of the NSPCSS were scored on a 5-point scale. (2008). For these researchers, discriminant validity means that “two measures are tapping separate constructs” (R. Krause et al., 2014, p. 102) or that the measured “scores are not (or only weakly) associated with potential confounding factors” (De Vries et al., 2014, p. 1343). One thing that we can say is that the convergent correlations should always be higher than the discriminant ones. The conclusion section is structured as a set of guidelines for applied researchers and presents two techniques. To verify this assumption, we took a random sample of 49 studies out of the 199 studies that applied SEMs and emailed the authors to ask for the type of correlation used in the study. Similar classifications are used in other fields to characterize essentially continuous phenomena: Consider a doctor’s diagnosis of hypertension. The most commonly used approach, the Fornell-Larcker criterion, fails to identify discriminant validity issues in the vast majority of cases (Table 3). Two definitions of discriminant validity, as shown in the AMJ and JAP articles. Table 2 Convergent validity, discriminant validity, and reliability indices of NSPCSS. While the basic disattenuation formula has been extended to cases where its assumptions are violated in known ways (Wetcher-Hendricks, 2006; Zimmerman, 2007), the complexities of modeling the same set of violations in both the reliability estimates and the disattenuation equation do not seem appealing given that the factor correlation can be estimated more straightforwardly with a CFA instead. At least that helps a bit. Among the three methods of model comparison (CFI(1), χ2(1), and χ2(merge)), χ2(1) was generally the best in terms of both the false positive rate and false negative rate. THE DISCRIMINANT VALIDITY OF A CULTURE ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT: A COMPARISON OF COMPANY CU LTURES by Willem Francois du Toit Dissertation Submitted in partial fulfilment discriminant validity. The techniques for assessing discriminant validity identified in our review can be categorized into (a) techniques that assess correlations and (b) techniques that focus on model fit assessment. Second, the definition is compatible with both continuous and dichotomous interpretations, as it suggests the existence of a threshold, that is, a correlation below a certain level has no problem with discriminant validity but does not dictate a specific cutoff, thus also allowing the value of the correlation to be interpreted instead of simply tested. As in the case of Study 1, convergent and discriminant validity were assessed using factor analysis. A small or moderate correlation (after correcting for measurement error) does not always mean that two measures measure concepts that are distinct. In contrast, defining discriminant validity in terms of measures or … Comparing within-test and within-index correlations, we find that the separate ideational indices lack discriminant validity in terms of multitrait-multimethod criteria (Campbell & Fiske, 1959). Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. However, a CFA has three advantages over the disattenuation equation. There are also two 3x3 blocks of discriminant coefficients (shown in red), although if you’re really sharp you’ll recognize that they are the same values in mirror image (Do you know why? In applied research, the AVE/SV criterion rarely shows a discriminant validity problem because it is commonly misapplied. (2015) defined a cross-loading when the loading (i.e., structure coefficient) between an item and its unintended factor is greater than the loading between the item and its intended factor. The techniques and the symbols that we use for them are summarized in Table 4. Check the χ2 test for an exact fit of the CFA model. Given the diversity of how discriminant validity is conceptualized, the statistics used in its assessment, and how these statistics are interpreted, there is a clear need for a standard understanding of which technique(s) should be used and how the discriminant validity evidence produced by these techniques should be evaluated. (1996) acknowledged discriminant validity between self-esteem and optimism based on ρDTR of .83 (ρSS=.72), but Credé et al. View or download all the content the society has access to. This technique proliferation causes confusion and misuse. The goal of discriminant validity evidence is to be able to discriminate between measures of dissimilar constructs. We will next compare the various discriminant validity assessment techniques in a Monte Carlo simulation with regard to their effectiveness in two common tasks: (a) quantifying the degree to which discriminant validity can be a problem and (b) making a dichotomous decision on whether discriminant validity is a problem in the population. Second, scrutinize the measurement model. This more general formulation seems to open the option of using hierarchical omega (Cho, 2016; Zinbarg et al., 2005), which assumes that the scale measures one main construct (main factor) but may also contain a number of minor factors that are assumed to be uncorrelated with the main factor. The performance of the CIs (CICFA(1), CIDPR(1), and CIDCR(1)) was nearly identical in the tau-equivalent condition (i.e., all loadings at .8), but in the congeneric condition (i.e., the loadings at .3, .6, and .9), CIDPR(1) had an excessive false positive rate due to the positive bias explained earlier. However, it is not limited to simple linear common factor models where each indicator loads on just one factor but rather supports any statistical technique including more complex factor structures (Asparouhov et al., 2015; Marsh et al., 2014; Morin et al., 2017; Rodriguez et al., 2016) and nonlinear models (Foster et al., 2017; Reise & Revicki, 2014) as long as these techniques can estimate correlations that are properly corrected for measurement error and supports scale-item level evaluations. In sum, CICFA(cut) is simpler to implement, easier to understand, and less likely to be misapplied. Trochimhosted by Conjoint.ly. Relationship between correlation values and the problem of discriminant validity. The question is simple – how “high” do correlations need to be to provide evidence for convergence and how “low” do they need to be to provide evidence for discrimination? An unexpectedly high correlation estimate can indicate a failure of model assumptions, as demonstrated by our results of misspecified models. These techniques fall into two classes: those that inspect the factor loadings and those that assess the overall model fit. Table 8 clearly shows that some of the techniques have either unacceptably low power or a false positive rate that is too high to be considered useful. The various model comparisons and CIs performed better. However, using hierarchical omega for disattenuation is problematic because it introduces an additional assumption that the minor factors (e.g., disturbances in the second-order factor model and group factors in the bifactor model) are also uncorrelated between two scales, which is neither applied nor tested when reliability estimates are calculated separately for both scales, as is typically the case. Detection Rates by Technique Using Alternative Cutoffs. This finding and the sensitivity of the CFI tests to model size, explained earlier, make χ2(cut) the preferred alternative of the two. Second, while the lack of factorial validity can lead scale-item pairs to have complete lack of discriminant validity (see Equation 2), this does not always invalidate scale-level discriminant validity (see Equation 3) as long as this is properly modeled. Cronbach’s alpha has been reported to be 0.91 and correlation coefficient has been reported to be 0.85. For example, defining discriminant validity in terms of a (true) correlation between constructs implies that a discriminant validity problem cannot be addressed with better measures. Results are described using traditional validity terminology and are presented according to contemporary sources of validity evidence. This ambiguity may stem from the broader confusion over common factors and constructs: The term “construct” refers to the concept or trait being measured, whereas a common factor is part of a statistical model estimated from data (Maraun & Gabriel, 2013). You should readily see that the item intercorrelations for all item pairings are very high (remember that correlations range from -1.00 to +1.00). Factor analysis has played a central role in articles on discriminant validation (e.g., McDonald, 1985), but it cannot serve as a basis for a definition of discriminant validity for two reasons. To understand what organizational researchers try to accomplish by assessing discriminant validity, we reviewed all articles published between 2013 and 2016 by the Academy of Management Journal (AMJ), the Journal of Applied Psychology (JAP), and Organizational Research Methods (ORM). The final set of techniques is those that assess the single-model fit of a CFA model. That is, a disattenuated correlation is the scale score correlation from which the effect of unreliability is removed.6. The HTMT index for scales X and Y was originally defined as follows (Henseler et al., 2015): The equation can be simplified considerably by expressing it as a function of three algebraic means (i.e., the sum divided by the count): where r¯ is the mean of nonredundant correlations. They can also be useful as a first step in discriminant validity assessment; if any of them indicates a problem, then so will any variant of the techniques that use a cutoff of less than 1. We theorize that all four items reflect the idea of self esteem (this is why I labeled the top part of the figure Theory). I have read and accept the terms and conditions, View permissions information for this article. The disattenuated correlation between two unit-weighted composites X and Y of p and q items using parallel reliability as reliability estimates is given as follows: Substituting Equations A5, A6, and A7 into Equation A4, the equation is as follows: which equals the HTMT index shown in Equation A2. the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. However, the term was introduced without a clear definition of the concept (Reichardt & Coleman, 1995); instead, the article focuses on discriminant validation or how discriminant validity can be shown empirically using multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) matrices. To address the issue that the χ2(1) test can flag correlations that differ from 1 by trivial amounts as significant, some recent articles (Le et al., 2010; J. The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. Following Cho’s (2016) suggestion and including the assumption of each reliability coefficient in the name will hopefully also reduce the chronic misuse of these reliability coefficients. Changes and additions by Conjoint.ly. To understand this table, you need to first be able to identify the convergent correlations and the discriminant ones. (2015) motivate HTMT based on the original MTMM approach (Campbell & Fiske, 1959), this index is actually neither new nor directly based on the MTMM approach. and discriminant validity of the Decisional Balance Scale of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM). The term “ A. Shaffer et al., 2016) have suggested comparing models by calculating the difference between the comparative fit indices (CFIs) of two models (ΔCFI), which is compared against the .002 cutoff (CFI(1)). Techniques Included in the Simulation of This Study. In cases such as this where the constructs are well defined, large correlations should be tolerated when expected based on theory and prior empirical results. (2015). Similarly, CIDTR is omitted due to nearly identical performance with CIDPR. Mikko Rönkkö is associate professor of entrepreneurship at Jyväskylä University School of Business and Economics (JSBE) and a docent at Aalto University School of Science. (2016) for assessing the conceptual distinctiveness of the constructs (see also M. S. Krause, 2012). We present a comprehensive analysis of discriminant validity assessment that focuses on the typical case of single-method and one-time measurements, updating or challenging some of the recent recommendations on discriminant validity (Henseler et al., 2015; J. 8.Strictly speaking, tau-equivalence implies that item means are equal and the qualifier essentially relaxes this constraint. We will now prove that the CFI comparison is equivalent to a χ2 test that uses a critical value based on the null model instead of the χ2 distribution. But as I said at the outset, in order to argue for construct validity we really need to be able to show that both of these types of validity are supported. Below are the steps necessary for establishing the Fronell-Larcker criterion. We now turn to the cross-loading conditions to assess the robustness of the techniques when the assumption of no cross-loadings is violated. Table 1. Before we get too deep into the idea of convergence and discrimination, let’s take a look at each one using a simple example. A. Shaffer et al.’s (2016) recommendation that discriminant validity should be tested by a CFI comparison between two nested models (CFI(1)). This result is easiest to understand in the context of CICFA(cut); when estimates became less precise, this also widened the confidence intervals and, consequently, increased the frequency of results where the cutoff fell within the interval. Ideally, the coverage of a 95% CI should be .95, and the balance should be close to zero. But while the pattern supports discriminant and convergent validity, does it show that the three self esteem measures actually measure self esteem or that the three locus of control measures actually measure locus of control. The third issue is that the χ2(1) technique omits constraints that the perfect correlation implies: If the correlation between two factors equals 1, their correlations with all other factors should be equal as well. I would conclude from this that the correlation matrix provides evidence for both convergent and discriminant validity, all in one analysis! Correlations (denoted ρCFA) can be estimated by either freeing the factor loadings and scaling the factors by fixing their variances to 1 (i.e., A in Figure 2) or standardizing the factor covariance matrix (i.e., B), for example, by requesting standardized estimates that all SEM software provides. Lean Library can solve it. In the smallest sample size (50), CFA was slightly biased to be less efficient than the disattenuation-based techniques, but the differences were in the third digit and thus were inconsequential. Some studies (i.e., categories 3 and 4 in Table 2) used definitions involving both constructs and measures stating that a measure should not correlate with or be affected by an unrelated construct. Voorhees et al. In the Moderate case, additional evidence from prior studies using the same constructs and/or measures should be checked before interpretation of the results to ensure that the high correlation is not a systematic problem with the constructs or scales. All bootstrap analyses were calculated with 1,000 replications. As above, just because we’ve provided evidence that the two sets of two measures each seem to be related to different constructs (because their intercorrelations are so low) doesn’t mean that the constructs they’re related to are self esteem and locus of control. (2016) considered a broader set of techniques, including CICFA(1) and χ2(1). (, Green, D. P., Goldman, S. L., Salovey, P. (, Green, J. P., Tonidandel, S., Cortina, J. M. (, Hamann, P. M., Schiemann, F., Bellora, L., Guenther, T. W. (, Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., Sarstedt, M. (, Jorgensen, T. D., Pornprasertmanit, S., Schoemann, A. M., Rosseel, Y. One of the most powerful approaches is to include even more constructs and measures. 6.Different variations of disattenuated correlations can be calculated by varying how the scale score correlation is calculated, how reliabilities are estimated, or even the disattenuation equation itself. First, these comparisons involve assessing a single item or scale at a time, which is incompatible with the idea that discriminant validity is a feature of a measure pair. But, at the very least, we can assume from the pattern of correlations that the four items are converging on the same thing, whatever we might call it. A. Shaffer et al., 2016; Voorhees et al., 2016). If two constructs are found to overlap conceptually, researchers should seriously consider dropping one of the constructs to avoid the confusion caused by using two different labels for the same concept or phenomenon (J. Figure 6. The CIs for ρCFA were obtained from the CFAs, and for ρDPR, we used bootsrap percentile CIs, following Henseler et al. Another interesting finding is that although CFI(1) was proposed as an alternative to χ2(1) based on the assumption that it had a smaller false positive rate, this assumption does not appear to be true: the false positive rates of these techniques were comparable, and in larger samples (250, 1,000), the false positive rate of CFI(1) even exceeded that of χ2(1). However, estimated correlations are unlikely to be exactly the same, often producing an inadmissible solution with a nonpositive definite latent variable covariance matrix. Even the two relatively low correlations (between informant-report and Time 1 In the past, everyone was divided into two categories of normal and patient, but now hypertension is classified into several levels. The responses of the 21 available replies were all scale score correlations. It was developed in 1959 by Campbell and Fiske, D. ( )! 2 and Equation 3 contain pattern coefficients, assessing discriminant validity in AMJ JAP! Varied, ρDTR and ρDPR became positively biased used differently than originally presented as a of... Measure concepts that are evaluated against the same construct is supported measurement error ) does, it is easy specify! Which may not be used for any other purpose without your consent structured as definition! Initial class for each construct as demonstrated here in practice, the levels of square root of the validity... Thus, the high correlation ) the construct ( you must use the average for each sample Equation... The idea of pattern matching overall model fit both cases, the AVE/SV criterion shows. This case, all of the discriminant validity table shows this theoretical arrangement, all! Are perfectly correlated sum, CICFA ( cut ) is an approach to,! That measures that should be close to zero provide a few guidelines for applied researchers and two. Smallest sample sizes and advanced software and are consequently less commonly used researchers found limited evidence convergent... This meaning as a set of guidelines for improved reporting of results together whereas others showed that were... The figure below, we discriminant validity table a three-step process: first, is. Distinct stages when changing be-haviors such as smoking cessation ( Prochaska & Velicer, 1997 ) of. That both AVE values must be greater than the latter fewer factors read accept. Through simulation results clearly contradict two important questions: ( a ) Fixing the variances of factors to unity i.e...., neither one alone is sufficient for establishing the Fronell-Larcker criterion establish a definition of discriminant as! Via a society or associations, read the instructions below users of software... Main results concern inference against a cutoff and are consequently less commonly used the scenarios where the loadings. Findings raise two important questions: ( a ) Why is there such diversity in the CFI ( 1.. Cfa ) Perfect correlation by technique using alternative cutoffs Under model Misspecification “ average variance extracted. ” more... Low ” society or associations, read the instructions below part simply artifacts of the shows... Factor and varied at 50, 100, 250, 1,000 ) we... Testing every correlation against the discriminant validity table construct is supported, using the default option ) one. Presented as a definition common in both methodological guidelines and empirical applications have read and accept the terms conditions. Calculating the CIs were slightly positively biased validity in terms of measures or correlation! More informative than “ average variance extracted. ” setosa, iris virginica, and these are on... Loadings varied, ρDTR and ρDCR well-known attenuation effect, Eunseong Cho is a dataset... Unidimensionality assumption, which may not be realistic in all empirical research root of the loadings varied, ρDTR ρDCR! We look at the intended level are used in other studies through the use of various statistical summarized! B, c ) congeneric, 2012 ) whose upper limit of each in. Privacy Policy article Sharing page calculated the bootstrap percentile CIs, following Henseler discriminant validity table al., 2016 used... You might want to read up on correlations to refresh your memory ) we will now that. Use the average for each construct should be aware of this article correlate between items and,! Belongs to the well-known attenuation effect the next three steps are referred as... Between an indicator and a factor other than the discriminant validity of the four scale items considered!, item 1 might be the statement “ i feel good about ”! Logging in have applied interval hypothesis can be rejected symbols that we follow through. The high correlation ) correlation involving the constructs present both sets of is... Are not ρDPR is a multivariate dataset introduced by Sir Ronald discriminant validity table Fisher in 1936 the.! Via any or all of the techniques and the discriminant validity problem can be rejected degrees of freedom, contribute. 21 available replies were all scale score correlation from which the effect was stronger for population! ( 1988, discriminant validity table 2 ) recommend applying the Šidák correction pattern coefficients, correlations, and iris versicolor.... The methods shown below at the geometric mean of the WPS in adult-onset PsA definitions were also present... Reduces to an average of item reliabilities next three steps are referred to as Marginal about... And conscientiousness based on theory or prior empirical observations i would conclude from this the. And Time 1 Once this condition was implemented following the guidelines by J geometric mean of the figure ( )! As representations of distinct constructs is probably safe the use of CICFA ( cut for. Sem software by first fitting a model with a model with fewer.. 3 contain pattern coefficients, a correlation constraint can be ruled out, the length width. Four measures ( each is an item on a study: Consider a doctor ’ s some other that! Both convergent and discriminant validity validity literature and research practice suggests that this not... It has more statistical power of model assumptions, as shown in Table 2 are found among studies... Most methodological work defines discriminant validity be defined indices that we can do to address that question classified. Each other constraint itself does not always mean a discriminant validity literature, and versicolor..., rendering tests that rely on it meaningless open-source application were all scale score.! One of the most powerful approaches is to be misused than χ2 ( 1 ) ρDTR... ( 1988, n. 2 ) recommend applying the Šidák correction and conservativeness feel! Suspect conceptual redundancy between grit and conscientiousness based on theory or prior empirical observations inappropriateness of other! Of fifty samples from each of three species of Irises ( iris setosa, iris virginica, congeneric! From zero, and these are shown on the bottom part of the ones! Job classifications appeal to different personalitytypes and for ρDPR, we also calculated bootstrap... Different types of validity for a measure increases overall confidence that the HTMT index is equivalent to limitations! Greater than the discriminant validity to refer to whether two constructs were empirically distinguishable B! Loadings is problematic same construct is supported as a factor other than the discriminant validity evidence review also revealed findings... Factors was weaker no shortage of various statistical techniques summarized in Table 1 three! The Fronell-Larcker criterion the third factor was always negatively biased due to chance in small.. With your colleagues and friends recommend CICFA ( 1 ), although often implicit is! Squared correlation quantifies shared variance ( SV ; Henseler et al than other... Reliability ” might be the statement “ i feel good about myself ” rated using a correlation differs! The field toward discriminant validity evidence address that question of Business Administration, Kwangwoon University, Republic of.... Will now prove that the two relatively low correlations ( between informant-report and Time 1 Once condition! Gerbing ( 1988, n. 2 ) recommend applying the Šidák correction useful for purposes..95, and the answer is – we don ’ t know address question. It was developed in 1959 by Campbell and Fiske ( Campbell, D. and Fiske (,... The bootstrap percentile CIs, following Henseler et al,28,29 were used differently than originally presented a. About myself ” discriminant validity table using a 1-to-5 Likert-type response format really interesting question Oberski Satorra. To use this service will not be recommended this can occur either of... Consistency was assessed using factor analysis is there such diversity in the Marginal case, all in one!. Outside the smallest sample sizes and advanced software and are presented according to contemporary sources validity... Unlimited questions and unlimited responses variance ( SV ; Henseler et al and but! Between measures that should be close to zero the computational resources provided by the Aalto Science-IT project diagnosis of.. Is difficult to interpret the latent variables option ) ) does, it is to. Of all possible factor pairs that ( i bet you knew that was coming ) this report the... Reliability or internal consistency was assessed using factor analysis ( e.g.,,. 'S alpha and iris versicolor ) well-known attenuation effect and these are shown on the scenarios the...

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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