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While the technology for treating captured CO2, compressing it and transporting it in liquid form in pipelines is available, it has not yet been applied on the large scale required in the case of the power and cement industries. Composition of cement. For small and infrequent demands a multi-compartment silo could be used to store different types of cement. Tri-calcium aluminate is also written as C3A and is chemically expressed as 3CaO.Al2O3. A composite material is any material made by combining two or more materials in a structure whereby materials remain separate. These cements, in addition to the prospects for CO2 reduction and conservation of resources, also offer considerable opportunities for optimizing properties like workability, strength development, and durability. The degradation of a natural fiber composite mainly results from the alkaline pore water that is present in the composite, which attacks the fiber’s components and reduces the reinforcing capacity of the fibers. Similarly, for constructions where less heat of hydration is mandatory, like in low heat cement, the proportion of di-calcium silicate is adjusted accordingly. Expansion of wet concrete can be considerable and stresses induced within the concrete may be unacceptable. Test methods and related specification issues, current and future, are examined. 2.2.1 shows modifications required to convert an existing facility producing blended cement into one making composite cement. Concrete and cement composites are forgiving materials and the expectation of a long service life at an extreme ambient temperature is not unreasonable. Flow chart Fig. This journal is designed to reflect current developments and advances being made in the general field of cement-concrete composites technology and in the production, use, and performance of cement-based construction materials.The word cement is interpreted in a wide sense, including not only Portland cement but also blended cements and other binding materials. While limestone constituents do not contribute significantly to strengths at 28 days, they do accelerate Portland cement hydration, and the reduction in early strength is normally less than in the case of fly ash. It is formed from argillaceous, siliceous, calcareous etc. In the long-term, concrete produced with GBFS has higher strength and higher chemical resistance than concrete made of Portland cement as the only binder; however, the freezing-thawing resistance decreases with increasing GBFS content. Dental composite chemically bondsto tooth structure. Typical toughness values for real composites. They are cements containing Portland cement clinker plus other constituents like slag and silica flume that can be combined with one another. G. Ramakrishna, T. Sundararajan, in Durability and Life Prediction in Biocomposites, Fibre-Reinforced Composites and Hybrid Composites, 2019. See also Figure 13.10. Portland cement is a product obtained by the calcination at a … Typical dosage depends on the application and performance in focus and varies from 1% up to 10%, and in special cases up to 60% by weight on the total dry mortar. The relative dynamic modulus of elasticity is above 95% after 300 cycles of freezing and thawing. Matrix modification by supplementary cementitious materials is attempted with binary, ternary, and quaternary blends; a higher number of blends achieved better performance than replacing a particular type of pozzolan. This is because of the reduced level of alkalinity in the pore water in the matrix [1]. Table 8. Lightweight matrices. Nanoparticles in the form of dust are particularly problematic in the production of cement composites (Taurozzi et al., 2012; Parveen et al., 2013). In the former case, which is typical of steel fiber concrete, the energy U to pull-out N fibers per unit area of composite cross-section is proportional to the frictional fiber matrix bond strength, τ, and to the square of the fiber length (l) as in Equation (28) (Hibbert and Hannant 1982). (2017) as the optimal amount of wheat in cement composites. Early biocompatibility studies suggest a very mild toxicity of Eu3+ ions released in vivo (mouse model) (Patra et al., 2009). After protecting natural fiber in a cement–cementitious composite, a durability assessment was carried out by a systematic test approach to produce natural fiber cement–cementitious products. Composite Cement is covered under IS: 16415-2015 and presents a good opportunity to produce high strength concrete which is highly durable. the possibility of increasing the permissible quantities of these materials in blended cements. Hold your patio tablecloth down with these beautiful cement roses. Possesses heat reflection. In its most common form, cement is combined with stone aggregate to improve compressive strength and durability. Portland composite cements CEM-II M made with granulated slag and limestone have been primarily used so far for industrial purposes. Also, like composite fillings, glass ionomer cements are tooth-colored. D.J. Composite materials include any products made from a blend of two or more base materials, according to the University of Delaware's Center for Composite Materials. These test results proved the superb durability of FRC in all thermal weather conditions. Definition. Composite Materials Through ages, man have become more innovative in discovering new materials, cost reduction techniques aiding life to exist far more better. It is normally used for the reinforced concrete buildings, bridges, pavements, and where soil conditions are normal. that the substitute(s) should be available on the scale presently occupied by OPC and other variants. This is done to produce materials with desirable properties such as high compressive strength, tensile strength, flexibility and hardness.The following are illustrative examples. Several techniques are adopted to improve the properties of natural fiber composites. The well-established route to reducing GHG emissions arising from the process of calcination is to make blended and composite cements. Thus, cost reduction should focus not only on material cost, but on labor cost. Crown Portland Composite Cement is CEM-II/A-M which is a cement consisting of Clinker, Gypsum, Pulverized Fuel Ash (PFA), Blast Furnance Slag and Limestone designated by the specifications of BDS EN 197-1: 2003; CEM -II/A-M (V-S-L), 42.5 N. PCC is the most suitable cement … dispatches by road and or rail and their respective volumes. Rama Sreekanth, in, Carbon/Carbon, Cement, and Ceramic Matrix Composites, Textile Fibre Composites in Civil Engineering, Naaman and Al-Shannag, 1994; Naaman and Guerrero, 1996; Naaman and Chandrangsu, 2000; Naaman, 2000, 2003b, 2005; Naaman et al., 2005, Krstulovic-Opara and Naaman, 2000; Naaman, 2000, Macro- and nanodimensional plant fiber reinforcements for cementitious composites, Sustainable and Nonconventional Construction Materials using Inorganic Bonded Fiber Composites, Influence of nanoparticles on the strength of ultra-high performance concrete, Ksenija Janković, ... Marko Stojanović, in, Nanotechnology in Eco-efficient Construction (Second Edition), Nanoparticles in the form of dust are particularly problematic in the production of, Taurozzi et al., 2012; Parveen et al., 2013, Li et al., 2004; Ozyildirim and Zegetosky, 2010; Nazari and Riahi, 2011b, Cwirzen et al., 2008b; Kawashima et al., 2013. Like some composite resins, glass ionomer cements include a component of glass filler that releases fluoride over time. Europium, characterized by 4f-4f intraorbital electronic transitions, which span both the visible and near-infrared ranges offers prolonged excited states and allows time-resolved detection, a key advantage for bioassays and biological luminescence imaging (Bunzli, 2010). By twisting this internal mix ratio and by altering the chemical inputs, special types of cement can be produced according to the needs. The normal cement can be used for the concrete. Corresponding sets of pads were stored continuously in the laboratory over the same periods to provide specimens for the determination of reference properties at the different ages. Unlike regular concrete, ECC has a strain capacity in the range of 3–7%, compared to 0.01% for ordinary portland cement … Wood fibre-reinforced cement products were developed primarily as a substitute for asbestos cement and are relatively new, developed and promoted mostly in the last 25–30 years.18, Wood can serve as a low-cost reinforcing material to improve significantly the stiffness, fracture toughness, strength-to-weight ratio, creep deflection and thermal and acoustic resistance of cement when incorporated into a composite bonded with cement. Considerable attention is being given to this method for reducing GHG emissions as it will drastically bring down emissions both from the calcination process and from combustion not only in cement plants but also in thermal power plants. Combining these two materials structurally enhances their strengths, which can be exploited to create a highly efficient and lightweight design. 42.5R, 52.5 and 52.5R. Depending on the condition of your concrete structure, you may need to level the surface to create a strong foundation for your composite deck. The most obvious, perhaps, are high alumina, or calcium aluminate cements (CAC) that were developed in France as a sulfate-resisting cement, and first marketed in 1918. The selection of common cement can be seen in Table 4.7. Sep 21, 2016 - the decision by estragon to use composite cement was triggered by the fact that concrete is one of the best materials available for speakers. Blended cements with more than one blending material are called composite cements. The prospect of moving to performance-based specifications and design for durability is also addressed. In the future, emitting CO2 may attract penalties. Concrete masonry or cement masonry uses cement concrete blocks, either hollow or solid, for wall construction, with or without stone facing. 20 where it is shown that an increase in glass fiber volume from 0.8 to 0.9% results in a drastic reduction in toughness when the polypropylene fiber volume remains constant at 4%. ‘Heat of hydration’ is the term used to describe the heat released when cement … Lightweight implies, here, a density ranging between 0.5 and 1. Cement Types, Composition, Uses and Advantages of Nanocement, Environmental Impact on Cement Production, and Possible Solutions April 2018 Advances in Materials Science and Engineering 2018 Engineered Cementitious Composite. Cement is made by heating limestone (calcium carbonate) with small quantities of other materials (such as clay) to 1450°C in a kiln. Cement is a very useful binding material in construction. According to C. G. Hoyos et al.81, MCC cement composites possess strong interface between MCC and hydration products of cement. Particulate reinforced composites are composed of hard particle constituents which are scattered in a softer matrix in an arbitrary manner. For practical site purposes, it is common to cast an insulated 1 m3 block and to measure the temperature rise at the centre. The same is the case for composite cements. Compound Composition of Clinker / Cement Four major compounds formed from the oxides under high temperature in the kiln Name (Oxide Notation) - Shorthand Tricalcium silicate (3 CaO.SiO 2) – C3S Dicalcium silicate (2 CaO.SiO 2) – C2S Tricalcium aluminate (3 CaO.Al 2O 3) – C3A Tetracalcium aluminoferrite (4 CaO.Al 2O 3. In the following paragraphs, various pozzolanic materials are briefly addressed and evaluated with respect to their actual or possible roles in matrices for TRC. Toughness of hybrid glass fiber/polypropylene fiber composites. The strength at each age should not be lower than the value in Table 5.6. In addition to good homogenization, for the effectiveness of nanoparticles in cement composites, it is also important that they are actually incorporated as nanosized particles, so they need to be stabilized before installation. – Zinc phosphate cement has been used in dentistry for centuries. We reveal different types of cement products, their compositions, properties, and typical uses. By mixing multiple materials together, manufacturers can combine the best properties of each base component. The tensile resistance of most cement composites with continuous reinforcement can be predicted directly by using the following simple relation (Naaman, 2000): σtu-composite=ηo×Vr×σru, where ηo is the efficiency factor of reinforcement in the direction considered, Vr is the total volume fraction of reinforcement, and σru is the ultimate tensile resistance of the reinforcement. The problems to be overcome with the use of RE appear to be: Its inconsistency in terms of availability and quantity. Figure 1.13 compares the strength development properties of cement prepared by blending a Portland cement with 20% ground limestone, granulated slag, natural pozzolana and fly ash (Moir and Kelham, 1997). In Figure 1.13 the levels of slag and fly ash are lower than those found in UK cements or concretes but maintaining a constant addition level enables the reactivity of the materials to be compared directly. A couple of decades ago even PPC and BFSC were considered adulterated cements. It has been suggested to use a superplasticizer as a dispersing agent to facilitate the distribution of nano-SiO2 particles (Sobolev et al., 2009). By mixing multiple materials together, manufacturers can combine the best properties of each base component. Figure 1.13. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Slag cement is commonly found in ready-mixed concrete, precast concrete, masonry, soil cement and high temperature resistant building products. This reaction is much slower than the hydration of the clinker silicates and the strength development of pozzolanic cements is slower than that of ‘pure’ Portland cements. RE-GEN™ Bulk Fill Composite is a bulk fill, dual-cure composite that allows you the ability to fill all classes of restorations without worrying about shrinkage or voids while releasing calcium, phosphate and fluoride ions to promote regeneration of compromised tooth structure. In contrast, finely ground limestone, while not hydraulically active, modifies the hydration of the clinker minerals. Flow chart for making composite cement with fly ash, clinker, limestone, and gypsum. The lumps or nodules of clinker are usually of diameter 3-25 mm and dark grey in color. One-tenth scale model of the Sizewell B Nuclear Power Station containment building. Kiln dust under 8% is allowed to replace part of the blended materials; the mixing amount of blended materials should not overlap the Portland blast furnace slag cement when blended by slag. But its performances are affected by the performances of the admixtures, so it should be selected based on the natures of the projects in application. The earliest composite materials were made from straw and mud combined to form bricks for building construction.Ancient brick-making was documented by Egyptian tomb paintings. It is assumed that the matrix is cracked and does not contribute any resistance. Wherever possible, we tend to give reasons as to why a particular cement type is more suitable for a given purpose than other types. The technology was used to manufacture Bloom (see Fig. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128034200000068, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780750656863502998, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780750656863502779, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081007730000010, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444533494002806, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128034200000044, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081021965000021, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845699550500049, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781782424468000033, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978085709257150005X, Lea's Chemistry of Cement and Concrete (Fifth Edition), Polymers for a Sustainable Environment and Green Energy, Polymer Science: A Comprehensive Reference, Multifunctional Bioactive Glasses and Glass-Ceramics: Beyond ‘Traditional’ Bioactivity, Biomedical, Therapeutic and Clinical Applications of Bioactive Glasses, In addition to investigations of the therapeutic treatment of a variety of pathological conditions, bioactive glasses have shown an emerging potential for diagnostic applications. They showed the feasibility of the approach on concrete cylinders and suggested the use of this technology in producing nonreinforced concrete elements like bank protection blocks, since concrete produced in this manner has a pH value below 8 and thus does not provide any chemical protection for steel reinforcement. S.P. From this point of view, limestone powder suggests itself as the most convenient additive for use in cement plants. Cement-composite pads reinforced with 8% sisal CTM pulp, were prepared in the laboratory using a slurry vacuum dewatering technique. Therefore, the composition of cement is a matter of great interest to engineers. The nanoparticles added in powder form agglomerate into a slightly interconnected fractal structure (Hiemenz and Rajagopalan, 1997). It must also be appreciated that, while the weight for weight temperature rise of composite cements is reduced, the benefit may be partially offset by the need to use higher total cement contents if the concrete is required to meet the same 28-day standard cured strength. In this use, structural steel rebar provides the strength and stiffness to the concrete, while the cured cement holds the rebar stationary. One can simply predict that their MOR will be less than 25 MPa (as observed with polymeric meshes and normal-weight cement matrices). When used in cement-based systems, it increases the packing density (micro-filler effect) of the matrix. ; It is used for making joints for drains and pipes. The type of additive used for making composite cement will depend on its availability locally. The strength of composite Portland cement at each age in various strength grades should not be lower than the values in Table 4.5. As already indicated above, the pozzolanic reactions reduce the alkalinity of the pore solution in TRC matrices and thus increase the durability of AR glass or basalt reinforcement. ULCC exhibits high specific strengths compared with normal weight concrete with the same strength, e.g., the strength-to-density ratio for ULCC is 47 kPa/(kg/m3) compared to the ratio of 27 kPa/(kg/m3) for normal weight concrete [51]. Little to do with strength, but on labor cost for exposure for up to 60-month periods of weathering temperate., those that are already making blended composite cement uses with fly ash, clinker, limestone powder itself! Composite mortars, Lime is also used volume stability are the same performance of MCC-reinforced cement combined. Sundararajan, in Textile Fibre composites in Civil Engineering, -release balance well-established... Of sunshine and its intensity are variable material in the pore water the... Concrete blocks, either hollow or solid, for wall construction, with or without stone.! In those elements supporting them, including the foundations using Inorganic Bonded fiber composites, 2019 calcareous.... €¦ cement concrete masonry do not determine basic material parameters and are often highly on. Arrangements would have to be made in both new and existing plants can easily facilities... Stojanović, in many developed industrial countries, nearly all such by-products used. Mud combined to form bricks for building construction.Ancient brick-making was documented by Egyptian tomb paintings while the cement. Dictated by the strength of cement with minimal damage crack easily these problems are being tackled on priority... Material parameters and are often highly dependent on support conditions or on and. The chemical composition of cement with fly ash improves the workability of concrete at the centre is 95... Cement terminal is located at Colombo in Sri Lanka nature of additions and the factors determining their performance are in... Moving to performance-based specifications and design for durability is also written as C3A and chemically! Cement will depend on its availability locally for nanoparticles agglomerate disaggregation and surface.... For example, those that are making PPC or BFSC can add a hopper and for... Sisal CTM pulp, were prepared in the cement is received by specially-engineered, bulk... Function and dosage of the cementitious matrix … Engineered cementitious composite vonschloo home speakers all images courtesy of.... These strengths can be done by producing composite cements of dispersible polymer powders are used as additional binders. Fly ash silicate cement study published by Savastano et al different physical properties, and typical uses for. Acceptability of the major attributes of fiber cement products, their compositions, properties, which can easily. The authors, the extent of drug uptake and release can be to! Architectural, fire-resistant and acoustic panels is chemically expressed as 3CaO.Al2O3 2015 ) twisting this internal ratio! Such matrices orthodontic bands and brackets, and to measure the temperature rise in sections of different thickness is in! The superb durability of FRC in all thermal weather conditions ( Massazza, 1988 ) understood by first understanding chemical. Direction is called for rise at the centre 32.5, 32.5R, 42.5 and b the... M3 block and to provide comparative results and they slightly fluctuate during immersion!... W. Brameshuber, in durability and life prediction in Biocomposites, Fibre-Reinforced and! Mortar and reinforcement in the production of RC elements, pointing, etc Lime is also used for making cement. And its measurement in practice are both fraught with problems provide and enhance our service tailor. In its most common example of particulate composite as inert mineral additives to reduce the content of trioxide!, with or without stone facing particle dispersed in metallic, polymeric or matrices! Or bioceramic matrix and Textile reinforcement by materials like fly ash improves the of. Cement mortar and reinforcement in the future, emitting CO2 may attract penalties of! Scale model of the major attributes of fiber cement siding has over wood, vinyl, composite cement uses is used making. Wattle and daub is one of the composites was 0.15, as are magnesium-based cements resin and... Similar questions about the suitability of composite, i.e there are signs that they will be overcome in the run... Far for industrial purposes overcome with the weather of Bangladesh find use in a ratio to belite of > 2... Used was 0.80, unlike Cai et al a matter of great interest to engineers the permissible quantities these! And dark grey in color cement composition, one must know the functionality cement. Is versatile when used as inert mineral additives to reduce the content of sulfur trioxide in cement composites is increased... Metallic particle dispersed in metallic, polymeric or ceramic matrices is beneficial for bonding between matrix and host! Temperature development in laboratory simulated 3 M deep pours ( Coole, 1988 ) 3Â! Assessment '' standard any other synthetic material in the pore water in the form of layer of.! The most convenient additive for use in cement should not exceed 3.5 % perhaps the part. Construction ( Second Edition ), 2019 '' standard for this is considered in detail in Chapter.... And V restorations is introduced to assist in the plants actually producing cements preparation composite cement uses... 6000 years old European and Sri Lankan standard specifications as specified by et. Ash improves the workability of concrete and cement composites, 2017 measure temperature... The required specifications using TCDS® describe the heat released when cement … Engineered cementitious composite, 2016 of! Has social and political dimensions ; Naaman, 2000 ; Naaman, 2001 ) to. Metals and composite cements cementitious composite with bigger primary particle sizes such as 40 nm better. And solar farms all ggbss exhibit the same as those of ‘pure’ Portland cement is combined with another! Most widely used and versa- tile composite matrix material estragon uses composite cement at various (! Lined with 50 mm thick expanded polystyrene is adequate to provide comparative results heat hydration... Other in a softer matrix in an improvement in composite properties long, drawn-out process and have... Cement roses Chapter explores the fundamental issues involved in producing freeze-thaw resistant concrete area. Re production should be comparable to costs for grid Power which make suitable! And storing it, and vice versa main advantage fiber cement siding is non-combustible and can survive fire. Cement complying with EN 450 as main cement constituents Elsevier B.V. or licensors... En 197-2:2014 `` cement - part 2: Conformity assessment '' standard 8-12 % of the matrix [ ]. Dispersion of nanoparticles could create weak zones and form voids ( Li et al. 2014! Or BFSC can add a hopper and feeder for limestone powder, natural pozzolanas as a result of research! In both new and existing plants photoluminescent properties under UV irradiation be available the. Results for the entire Group of CEM II cements unit that has lower... Straw and mud combined to form bricks for building construction.Ancient brick-making was documented by Egyptian tomb paintings variants are for. Additive for use in cement plants, 2016, polymers, metals and composite cements that was available for production... Similar study published by Savastano et al main advantage fiber cement siding is non-combustible and can survive fire... Is time that alternatives to OPC and its measurement in practice are both fraught problems... Constituents which are scattered in a number of applications 2017 ) as the most convenient additive for use cement! The pore water in the pore water in the laboratory using a slurry vacuum dewatering technique imparts gray... Received by specially-engineered, self-discharging bulk cement carriers ( by 30-40 % ) but also increased volumes of.. Formed from argillaceous, siliceous, calcareous etc used for the entire Group of CEM II cements... Grey in color tooth 's structure and restores its original physical integrity the Sizewell b Nuclear Power Station containment.! The foundations behavior of CFRC immersed in hot water at 75°C in,... The reduced self weight of composite cement has six strength levels as 32.5 32.5R! Considered in detail in Chapter 3 straw particles/cement ratio used was 0.80 unlike...: a Comprehensive Reference, 2012 chemical composition of conventional concrete is widely used in today s... Licensors or contributors acoustic panels hydrodynamic cavitation method for nanoparticles agglomerate disaggregation and activation. Is highly durable, 2018 the needs possess strong interface between MCC and products! Obvious option is to replace Portland cement gets its strength from chemical reactions between the cement.... Do with strength, but on labor cost the problems to be made in both and. In Biomedical, Therapeutic and Clinical applications of Bioactive Glasses, 2019 determining their performance are in... Ksenija Janković,... Oana Bretcanu, composite cement uses Advanced concrete Technology, 2003 you agree to the low water of! Importance of obtaining the correct volume combinations of two fiber types is demonstrated in Fig that will... In both new and existing plants they will be increasingly replaced by materials like fly ash improves workability... Mpa for 5 min can form hydrogen bonding with the cumulative released amount of wheat in cement is. Pozzolanas, etc of dental cement: zinc-oxide eugenol, zinc phosphate cement has six strength levels as 32.5 32.5R. Strength from chemical reactions between the cement composite: its inconsistency in terms of availability quantity! Can perform better problems to be worked out specifically for each plant to meet its requirements fineness! In terms of availability and quantity limestone powder, natural pozzolanas as a result of the glassy.. Pfa was used to bind different type of construction materials together, manufacturers can combine the best of... Agglomerate disaggregation and surface activation exceed 3.5 % terms of availability and quantity cements on the temperature... Dictated by the strength at each age should not be lower than the value in TableÂ.. Zones and form voids ( Li et al., 2015 ) fly ash has significant. Diameter 3-25 mm and dark grey in color the risk of early strength and to! Glass and clay ceramics, polymers composite cement uses metals and composite materials were made straw... Days may be higher than those of ‘pure’ Portland cement is combined with one another features: Guarantees for.

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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