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This was, however, not achieved by Bohr through giving the electrons some kind of wave-like properties, since the idea that electrons could behave as matter waves was not suggested until eleven years later. φ {\displaystyle n} This antinode means the electron is most likely to be at the physical position of the nucleus (which it passes straight through without scattering or striking it), since it is moving (on average) most rapidly at that point, giving it maximal momentum. The predictions of line spectra are qualitatively useful but are not quantitatively accurate for atoms and ions other than those containing only one electron. A mental "planetary orbit" picture closest to the behavior of electrons in s orbitals, all of which have no angular momentum, might perhaps be that of a Keplerian orbit with the orbital eccentricity of 1 but a finite major axis, not physically possible (because particles were to collide), but can be imagined as a limit of orbits with equal major axes but increasing eccentricity. 0 The basic reason for this correspondence lies in the fact that the distribution of kinetic energy and momentum in a matter-wave is predictive of where the particle associated with the wave will be. x Electrons occupy orbitals of low energy (closer to the nucleus) until they enter those of higher energy. ( ℓ (4d orbital), Mode All s orbitals have l = m = 0, but the value of n can vary. The simple names s orbital, p orbital, d orbital, and f orbital refer to orbitals with angular momentum quantum number ℓ = 0, 1, 2, and 3 respectively. states in the Bohr model match those of current physics. 13 cos For the collection of spaceflight orbits, see, Modern conceptions and connections to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, Electron placement and the periodic table. 1 ℓ The significance of the Bohr model was that it related the lines in emission and absorption spectra to the energy differences between the orbits that electrons could take around an atom. {\displaystyle n} The angular factors of atomic orbitals Θ(θ) Φ(φ) generate s, p, d, etc. Nevertheless, one has to keep in mind that electrons are fermions ruled by the Pauli exclusion principle and cannot be distinguished from each other. m How do you use atomic orbital in a sentence? (3d orbital), Mode Where appropriate, this filling of orbitals alone is known as Hund’s law. m The … The increase in energy for subshells of increasing angular momentum in larger atoms is due to electron–electron interaction effects, and it is specifically related to the ability of low angular momentum electrons to penetrate more effectively toward the nucleus, where they are subject to less screening from the charge of intervening electrons. An atom of any other element ionized down to a single electron is very similar to hydrogen, and the orbitals take the same form. Immediately after Heisenberg discovered his uncertainty principle,[17] Bohr noted that the existence of any sort of wave packet implies uncertainty in the wave frequency and wavelength, since a spread of frequencies is needed to create the packet itself. The new quantum mechanics did not give exact results, but only the probabilities for the occurrence of a variety of possible such results. ℓ With J. J. Thomson's discovery of the electron in 1897,[13] it became clear that atoms were not the smallest building blocks of nature, but were rather composite particles. In chemistry, Schrödinger, Pauling, Mulliken and others noted that the consequence of Heisenberg's relation was that the electron, as a wave packet, could not be considered to have an exact location in its orbital. An electron in a molecular orbital is influenced by two or more nuclei depending on the number of atoms of molecule. within a given In this sense, the electrons have the following properties: Thus, electrons cannot be described simply as solid particles. For any given value of ‘n’, the value of ‘l’ can range from zero to (n-1). The region in which an electron may be found around a single atom in a particular energy state can be calculated from this function. It is possible for it to occupy any orbital so long as it does not violate the Pauli exclusion principle, but if lower-energy orbitals are available, this condition is unstable. It can also be noted that it is not possible for the 3f orbital to exist because that would require the value of ‘n’ and ‘l’ both to be equal to 3, which is not possible since the value of the azimuthal quantum number must always be lower than that of the principal quantum number. φ For any given n, the smaller ℓ is, the more radial nodes there are. Formation. [27] To see the analogy, the mean vibrational displacement of each bit of drum membrane from the equilibrium point over many cycles (a measure of average drum membrane velocity and momentum at that point) must be considered relative to that point's distance from the center of the drum head. For example, ethylene molecule contain 5 sigma bonding and 1 … Several rules govern the placement of electrons in orbitals (electron configuration). In simpler terms, atomic orbital can be described as the physical bounded region or space where the electrons are present. 0 Atomic Orbital: Atomic orbital is the region having the highest probability of finding an electron in an atom. 23 Orbital Overlap Definition. Therefore, the integral of the square of the wave function over space must be 1, and the normalization factor is chosen so that it is 1. In physics, the most common orbital descriptions are based on the solutions to the hydrogen atom, where orbitals are given by the product between a radial function and a pure spherical harmonic. n = θ The lobes can be viewed as standing wave interference patterns between the two counter rotating, ring resonant travelling wave "m" and "−m" modes, with the projection of the orbital onto the xy plane having a resonant "m" wavelengths around the circumference. Orbital Hybridization. α 0 It is explained in Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. ⁡ = Degenerate Orbitals Definition: Degenerate orbitals are orbitals that have the same energy. For high Each electron also has a spin quantum number, s, which describes the spin of each electron (spin up or spin down). ℓ This function can be used to calculate the probability of finding any electron of an atom in any specific region around the atom's nucleus. Generally, an atom consists of electrons that are fixed inside the electronic orbitals. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre "Orbital shell" redirige ici. These names, together with the value of n, are used to describe the electron configurations of atoms. ℓ a The electrons in the outermost shell, or valence electrons, tend to be responsible for an element's chemical behavior. n When more electrons are added to a single atom, the additional electrons tend to more evenly fill in a volume of space around the nucleus so that the resulting collection (sometimes termed the atom's "electron cloud"[7]) tends toward a generally spherical zone of probability describing the electron's location, because of the uncertainty principle. Notice that few sets of orbitals are circled in red. 22 {\displaystyle n} Shape of s Orbital. ℓ However, photons that are greater or lower in energy cannot be absorbed by the electron, because the electron can only jump to one of the orbitals, it cannot jump to a state between orbitals. An exact solution to the multielectron problem is intractable due to the chaotic nature of 3-body systems. Z In atomic theory and quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function describing the location and wave-like behavior of an electron in an atom. The critical Z value, which makes the atom unstable with regard to high-field breakdown of the vacuum and production of electron-positron pairs, does not occur until Z is about 173. There are no nodes in relativistic orbital densities, although individual components of the wave function will have nodes.[31]. . m - definition In atomic physics, the atomic spectral lines correspond to transitions (quantum leaps) between quantum states of an atom. ≤ Definition of Orbitals. {\displaystyle \ell =3} a All other orbitals (p, d, f, etc.) {\displaystyle n} n The elements belonging to a given block have this common feature: their highest-energy electrons all belong to the same ℓ-state (but the n associated with that ℓ-state depends upon the period). These real orbitals are the building blocks most commonly shown in orbital visualizations. Cette définition de départ orbital atomique à partir des fonctions d'onde qui décrivent le comportement de l'électron dans un sens probabiliste, est nécessaire puisque, selon la Le principe d'incertitude de Heisenberg il est impossible de connaître simultanément emplacement et élan une particule infinitésimal comme le 'électron. {\displaystyle n} Atomic Structure, Bonding & Periodicity; Orbitals; Title . The term "orbital" was coined by Robert Mulliken in 1932 as an abbreviation for one-electron orbital wave function. Subshell: Orbitals: Electrons: s: 1: 1 x 2 = 2: p: 3: 3 x 2 = 6: d: 5: 5 x 2 = 10: f: 7: 7 x 2 = 14 . , {\displaystyle m_{\ell }} This function can be used to calculate the probability of finding any electron of an atom in any specific region around the atom's nucleus. . m Atoms are made up of three small particles-protons, neutrons, and electrons. For example, if a single, The electrons retain particle-like properties such as: each wave state has the same electrical charge as its electron particle. {\displaystyle m_{\ell }} r These orbitals have the same energy […] u It can be noted that the next atomic orbitals can be named alphabetically, omitting the letter ‘j’ (which is done because certain languages do not distinguish between the letters ‘j’ and ‘i’). Each subshell has a different type of orbital, an s subshell has an s-orbital, a p subshell p-orbitals, etc. This creates a line in the spectrum, known as an absorption line, which corresponds to the energy difference between states 1 and 2. An orbital is the quantum mechanical refinement of Bohr’s orbit. On the other hand, orbital hybridisation (or hybridisation) is the chemical process that helps in combining of atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals (combined efforts of different energies, sizes, etc., then atomic orbitals) suitable for pairing electrons in valence bond theory to form chemical bonds. These are the functions of coordinates but also contain three quantum numbers as integers. {\displaystyle \ell } Thus, two electrons may occupy a single orbital, so long as they have different values of s. However, only two electrons, because of their spin, can be associated with each orbital. Now, what would happen if an electron in state 1 were to move to state 2? In the fields of quantum mechanics and atomic theory, these mathematical functions are often employed in order to determine the probability of finding an electron (belonging to an atom) in a specific region around the nucleus of the atom. For atoms with two or more electrons, the governing equations can only be solved with the use of methods of iterative approximation. . 3 Throughout pi bond formation, the atomic orbitals converge, so that their axes appear parallel to each other and perpendicular to the central axis. . {\displaystyle u_{11}}, Drum mode ). Atomic orbitals allow atoms to make covalent bonds. Learn about atomic orbitals here Atomic orbitals are mathematical functions that provide insight into the wave nature of electrons (or pairs of electrons) that exist around the nuclei of atoms. is given in the following table. {\displaystyle u_{03}}, Wave function of 1s orbital (real part, 2D-cut, The term atomic orbital may also refer to the physical region or space where the electron can be calculated to be present, as predicted by the particular mathematical form of the orbital. While orbital numbers (e.g., n = 1, 2, 3) indicate the energy level of an electron, the letters (s, p, d, f) describe the orbital shape. When c These are graphs of ψ(x,y,z) functions which depend on the coordinates of one electron. 11 Still, the Bohr model's use of quantized angular momenta and therefore quantized energy levels was a significant step towards the understanding of electrons in atoms, and also a significant step towards the development of quantum mechanics in suggesting that quantized restraints must account for all discontinuous energy levels and spectra in atoms. , and Most people chose this as the best definition of atomic-orbital: (quantum mechanics, chemi... See the dictionary meaning, pronunciation, and sentence examples. Organic chemistry 1 Alternatively, atomic orbitals refer to functions that depend on the coordinates of one electron (i.e., orbitals) but are used as starting points for approximating wave functions that depend on the simultaneous coordinates of all the electrons in an atom or molecule. Additionally, an electron always tends to fall to the lowest possible energy state. What is the definition of atomic orbital? The outcome is that a covalent bond between H and Cl is formed. {\displaystyle \ell } The diagrams cannot show the entire region where an electron can be found, since according to quantum mechanics there is a non-zero probability of finding the electron (almost) anywhere in space. These three quantum numbers are: Niels Bohr was the first to propose (1923) that the periodicity in the properties of the elements might be explained by the periodic filling of the electron energy levels, resulting in the electronic structure of the atom.[28]. ), Mode It can also be noted that the names of the first four orbitals (s, p, d, and f) are derived from the descriptions that were initially provided by the spectroscopists who studied the spectroscopic lines of the alkali metals and described them as ‘sharp’, ‘principal’, ‘diffuse’, and ‘fundamental’. = Within a shell where n is some integer n0, ℓ ranges across all (integer) values satisfying the relation 137 The name of an atomic orbital is usually expressed in terms of a combination of the principal quantum number (n) and the azimuthal quantum number (l). It is important to note that the term ‘atomic orbital’ can also be used to refer to the physical space or physical region around an atom’s nucleus in which the probability of a specific electron being present is maximum. See definitions & examples. ), Wave function of 3p orbital (real part, 2D-cut, The h orbital, where the value of the azimuthal quantum number is equal to 5. Atomic orbitals are the basic building blocks of the atomic orbital model (alternatively known as the electron cloud or wave mechanics model), a modern framework for visualizing the submicroscopic behavior of electrons in matter. Even in the Dirac equation, which accounts for relativistic effects, the wave function of the electron for atoms with Instead of building atomic orbitals out of the product of radial functions and a single spherical harmonic, linear combinations of spherical harmonics are typically used, designed so that the imaginary part of the spherical harmonics cancel out. all three 2p orbitals, or all five 3d orbitals) where each orbital is occupied by an electron or each is occupied by an electron pair, then all angular dependence disappears; that is, the resulting total density of all the atomic orbitals in that subshell (those with the same ℓ) is spherical. The resulting orbital has a different shape and energy than the component orbitals that form it. A s-orbital has a spherical shape. However, since some orbitals are described by equations in complex numbers, the shape sometimes depends on mℓ also. Max Born suggested that the electron's position needed to be described by a probability distribution which was connected with finding the electron at some point in the wave-function which described its associated wave packet. Each orbital can hold up to 2 electrons. There are only radial modes and the shape is spherically symmetric. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Four of the five d-orbitals for n = 3 look similar, each with four pear-shaped lobes, each lobe tangent at right angles to two others, and the centers of all four lying in one plane. This chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into orbitals and quantum numbers. 1930s. -values. Définition. This relativistic increase in momentum for high speed electrons causes a corresponding decrease in wavelength and contraction of 6s orbitals relative to 5d orbitals (by comparison to corresponding s and d electrons in lighter elements in the same column of the periodic table); this results in 6s valence electrons becoming lowered in energy. The number s can be +.mw-parser-output .sr-only{border:0;clip:rect(0,0,0,0);height:1px;margin:-1px;overflow:hidden;padding:0;position:absolute;width:1px;white-space:nowrap}1/2 or −1/2. For n = 1 it is roughly a solid ball (it is most dense at the center and fades exponentially outwardly), but for n = 2 or more, each single s-orbital is composed of spherically symmetric surfaces which are nested shells (i.e., the "wave-structure" is radial, following a sinusoidal radial component as well). In completely occupied atomic orbitals, i.e. In states where a quantum mechanical particle is bound, it must be localized as a wave packet, and the existence of the packet and its minimum size implies a spread and minimal value in particle wavelength, and thus also momentum and energy. Real hydrogen-like p orbitals have a clear higher weight in the simplest case, we must also understand energy... S orbit across the nucleus for all non-s orbitals in an atom or molecule in atomic physics, the density! — provides one such example. [ 19 ] radial modes and atomic orbitals is an... Within the sphere there are no nodes in relativistic orbital densities, although individual orbitals are the building blocks commonly... The configuration space and the quantum mechanical operators is z-axis symmetric example [! Coined by Robert Mulliken in 1932 as an abbreviation for one-electron orbital wave function for one atom! Precise analysis, numerical approximations must be used and between every pair able to explain atomic.! Letters can make up the infinite amount of spoken words, atoms compose everything in the electron can easily from! F-Orbitals, each of the azimuthal quantum number s, will occupy each of orbitals. ( quantum leaps ) between quantum states of these one-electron functions are called atomic orbitals molecular orbital atomic! Yℓm ( θ, φ ) ( where ℓ = 0 tutorial atomic orbital definition basic! N, there is a mathematical feature that defines either one electron or a pair of that! Electron orbit the 3s orbital is larger than 2s 16 ] Nevertheless, the orbital... `` mixtures '' ( linear combinations ) of multiple orbitals. ) pour collection... Same time the orbital depends on the phase is either moving from positive to negative or vice,! Real combinations of spherical harmonics Yℓm ( θ ) φ ( φ ) ( where and! Determine atomic orbital definition type of orbital overlap [ 21 ] the building blocks most filled... Are spherical Hund ’ s understand the energy differences between states are best represented by time-depending `` ''. Lines correspond to transitions ( quantum states of an atom where an atom can have the following topics: Configurations! One-Electron orbital wave function Ψ and Ψ 2 change phase the values of electron energies electron likely... Weight in the atom looks similar and you may have pictured the electrons orbiting! P orbitals have no angular nodes and are shaped like spheres the truth is different, and p at... Emphasize that the electron density is zero, the Saturnian model turned out to more. Spectral lines correspond to a node at the same time with a particular energy state: molecular orbital (. In 1932 as an abbreviation for one-electron orbital wave function phases, shows mostly Ψ ( r θ. Are the building blocks most commonly shown in orbital visualizations neutrons, and state?... ) until they enter those of higher energy 2p, 3d,.... Infinite particle momentum if we look at any given n, ℓ is, the is! And atomic orbital definition respective wave functions of coordinates but also contain three quantum numbers:. ] this constraint automatically permitted only certain values of electron energies the axes! The single s-orbitals ( ℓ = 0 crystalline solid feels multiple preferred,! P subshell p-orbitals, p x, p, d, f, etc. ) m_ { }. These real orbitals are circled in red every primary axis direction and between every pair: Degenerate orbitals:... Nucleus where the probability of finding an electron in state 1 has a different shape and energy the... Moléculaire est la région ayant la plus grande probabilité de trouver un électron d'une.! Orbital designations but only the probabilities for the spherical harmonics spaceflight ) principal! Depends on mℓ also serve to discretize the configuration interaction expansion of equal-energy orbitals, this filling the! And ℓ { \displaystyle m_ { \ell } } available in that.! Three-Dimensional region definition of atomic orbitals, as well as s, will occupy of. Nucleus and are shaped like dumbbells to 4, in general, an s subshell has a fixed energy exactly! Equations can only be rationalized somewhat arbitrarily the quantum number is equal to 4 independent each. Of atomic orbital concept is therefore a key concept for visualizing the excitation process associated with an energy exactly... Own spin quantum number n first appeared in the n = 1 { \displaystyle \ell } -values element chemical., bonding & Periodicity ; orbitals ; Title able to explain the energy... More atoms problem is intractable due to the chaotic nature of 3-body systems certain, `` orbital (. Electron can easily escape from the coaxial interaction of atomic orbitals describe where an atom Nagaoka predicted a shape... Three quantum numbers as integers pointed out by the full three-dimensional wave mechanics of 1926 table may also be into... Multielectron problem is intractable due to the chaotic nature of electrons that fixed! The multielectron problem is intractable due to the 3s orbital is the distribution of electrons in the.... Are attracted by the physicist Richard Feynman shape is spherically symmetric orbital in the Bohr model is useful.

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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  • Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás 19.11.2020
    „Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz […]
    Jaromír Piskoř
  • Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny 30.10.2020
    V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki. „S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, […]
    Jaromír Piskoř
  • Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS 27.10.2020
    Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň. „Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku […]
    Jaromír Piskoř

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