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what wavelengths does xanthophyll absorb

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Trace mineral cofactors of SOD that are greatly reduced in cataractous lens are preferred (copper, 90%; manganese, 50%; zinc [Zn], 90%). What wavelength does xanthophyll absorb? A large US cohort study observed an inverse association observed between lutein/zeaxanthin and primary OAG risk in the 4-year lagged analyses, which the authors speculated may be a chance finding, and suggested that it deserves further evaluation, particularly in relation to high-tension glaucoma [94]. Color Wavelengths (colors) absorbed Pigment Chlorophyll A Chlorophyll B Carotene Xanthophyll … Chlorophyll's role is to absorb light for photosynthesis. As shown in detail in the absorption spectra, chlorophyll absorbs light in the red (long wavelength) and the blue (short wavelength) regions of the visible light spectrum. How do they determine which wavelength to measure? However, a subgroup analysis did show a beneficial effect of lutein and zeaxanthin on cataract risk (HR=0.70; 95% CI=0.53–0.94) in those patients with the lowest baseline intake of these carotenoids [89,122]. (A) The macula is the central part of the fundus. In an autopsy study (>98 years at death), Z levels in brain tissue were significantly related to antemortem measures of global cognitive function (MMSE, r=0.30 p<0.01), memory (FOME recall r=0.35, p<0.01; retention r=0.25, p<0.05), verbal fluency (r=0.35, p<0.01), and dementia severity (GDRS, r= –0.35, p<0.01). What color do you think xanthophyll is? The lutein ingested by an animal is incorporated into micelles and absorbed from the intestinal epithelium into the blood by enterocytosis. Some vegetables, such as kale, spinach, and broccoli, and the marigold flower which is used as a source for supplementary micronutrients, can provide lutein. BH4 is a coenzyme in hydroxylation of monoamines (phenylalanine hydroxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase, tryptophan hydroxylase). Xanthophylls are primarily of three types, namely lutein, zeaxanthin and cryptoxanthin. I'm looking for a range of wavelengths, not something like 720 nm for one type of chlorophyll a. Lutein and zeaxanthin are found in the lens and are thought to protect cells in the eye against oxidative damage, seemingly protecting the eye and preventing cataracts. 1). Enormous amounts of energy are required to pull vitamin C out of blood against a tremendous gradient. GSH: GSH is a tripeptide composed of glycine, glutamic acid, and cysteine. 3. Intake of lutein is inversely associated with cataract extraction (20% to 50% risk reduction). Xanthophyll pigments. This lets the xanthophyll give a yellow color to the leaves in the fall. Biosynthetic pathway of lutein in plants. ), has strong free-radical and antioxidant effects. The rest of the structure called … Several steps are omitted for simplification. This is background information for my lab report. Free radical damage is also linked to the development of cataracts. Lutein has been shown to reduce the elevated serum levels of aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin, and to decrease the levels of lipid peroxidation, conjugated diene, and hydroperoxides, in the livers of rats treated with ethanol [13]. Βeta-carotene, which is a carotene, absorbs 450 nm wavelength, while lutein and vioxanthan, which are xanthophylls, absorb 435 nm. The light-harvesting antenna (LHA) 1 of higher plants binds five types of xanthophylls: lutein, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, and antheraxanthin. The electronic transitions of both molecular hydrogen and ethene are too energetic to be accurately recorded by standard UV spectrophotometers, which generally have a range of 220 – 700 nm. On average, Americans consume a daily intake of 1.7 mg lutein (Goldberg et al., 1988). These macular pigment compounds are responsible for the yellow hues of the macula lutea and are concentrated in the outer and inner plexiform layers as well as in rod outer segments within the macula. Explain how the wavelengths absorbed and reflected determine the color of a pigment. The analysis of stereoisomers of this macular pigment revealed two stereoisomeric carotenoids with identical properties to lutein and zeaxanthin, another xanthophyll [4]. Why do photosynthesising plants appear green? Lutein from egg yolk and oil-based supplements is vastly bioavailable due to the fat matrix. Arnadi Ramachandrayya Shivashankara, ... Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga, in Foods and Dietary Supplements in the Prevention and Treatment of Disease in Older Adults, 2015. Color. It can absorb light of a wavelength in a range of 425-475nm. Because π- π* energy gaps are narrower than σ – σ* gaps, ethene absorbs light at 165 nm – a longer wavelength than molecular hydrogen. The fact that lutein is abundant in the OPL, which is closer to the vitreous side of the retina than to the photoreceptor cell layer, is consistent with the idea that lutein filters light before it reaches the photoreceptor cells, to prevent harmful cellular events and vision loss. The name of the process in which organic molecules are synthesized by attaching carbon dioxide molecules to hydrogens. Like the macula, the lens concentrates lutein. Which wavelengths do they absorb? ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Xanthophylls of the major photosynthetic light-harvesting complex of plants: identification, conformation and dynamics, LHCIIb, the major light-harvesting complex of photosystem II. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-5793(00)01799-3. Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga, ... Suresh Rao, in Dietary Interventions in Liver Disease, 2019, Lutein, a xanthophyll and naturally occurring carotenoid present in increased concentrations in the green leafy vegetables and some fruits such as avocado and kiwi, has strong free radical and antioxidant effects. They prevent formation of high-molecular-weight proteins in lens. FIGURE 23.1. Clinical trials have supported the beneficial effect of lutein in Alzheimer’s disease. Owing to these potential health benefits, lutein and zeaxanthin supplements are sold commercially and incorporated into some multivitamins. Human fundus photograph (A) and cross-sectional image of the macula by OCT (B). Primary studies have focused on the dietary intake of carotenoids, which is obtained from vegetables (eg, kale, spinach, and Brussels sprouts) [123], as well as supplements. Human data on the consumption of lutein and zeaxanthin are important to understand disease prevention. In addition to their role as antioxidants, lutein and zeaxanthin are believed to limit retinal oxidative damage by absorbing incoming blue light and/or quenching reactive oxygen species [51,120]. Using the graph above, explain why the leaves of trees are green in summer. Lutein may also protect against some forms of cancer and enhance immune function. Cataracts remain the leading cause of visual disability in the United States and approximately one-half of the 30–50 million cases of blindness throughout the world. Several epidemiological studies have shown inverse associations between the risk of cataracts and carotenoid intake. Primary function is to reduce (to water and oxygen) hydrogen peroxide formed from oxidation of ascorbate. Lutein then circulates systemically to reach the liver, lung, and retina [3,7,8]. What do you think happens to the light that is not absorbed? An Evidence-Based Revisit, Arnadi Ramachandrayya Shivashankara, ... Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga, in, Foods and Dietary Supplements in the Prevention and Treatment of Disease in Older Adults, Elaine Cristina Faria Abrahão Machado, ... Adilson Costa, in, Nutrition and Functional Foods for Healthy Aging, The Role of Nutrition in Age-Related Eye Diseases, Lutein, Brain, and Neurological Functions, Bioactive Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements in Neurological and Brain Disease, Sommerburg et al., 1999; Bernstein et al., 2001; Rapp et al., 2000; Khachik et al., 2002, Phytochemicals in the Prevention of Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity, Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga, ... Suresh Rao, in, Carotenoids and Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Preejith P. Vachali, ... Paul S. Bernstein, in, Lutein and its isomer zeaxanthin belong to the group of oxygenated derivatives of carotenoids called, Joseph E. Pizzorno ND, ... Herb Joiner-Bey ND, in, The Clinician's Handbook of Natural Medicine (Third Edition), Role of the Mediterranean Diet in the Brain and Neurodegenerative Diseases. Figure 4. 3. GSH is a key protective factor against intralenticular and extralenticular toxins and is an antioxidant. The last three constitute the xanthophyll cycle, which has been suggested to participate in the process of dissipation of excess excitation energy, giving rise to nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching (). Vitamin E (400 IU) plus vitamin C (500 mg) and beta-carotene (15 mg) failed to affect the development or progression of cataracts in a 7-year trial. Memory scores and rate of learning improved significantly in the combined-treatment group, who also showed a trend toward more efficient learning (Johnson, 2012). Trimerisation caused a decrease in lutein absorption and the parallel appearance of an additional absorption band around 510 nm, which was identified by resonance Raman excitation spectra to originate from lutein. Absorption Wavelength Βeta-carotene, which is a carotene, absorbs 450 nm wavelength, while lutein and vioxanthan, which are xanthophylls, absorb 435 nm. Meanwhile, the carotenoids are absorbing maximally at those wavelengths where chlorophyll does poorly (light blue to green). In general, the relative amounts of the retinal carotenoids decrease as the point of reference travels farther away from the fovea. They do this through a process called photosynthesis, which uses a green pigment called chlorophyll. and Fugiyoshi, Y. Recently, a lutein-binding protein in the retina was reported [13]. Elaine Cristina Faria Abrahão Machado, ... Adilson Costa, in Nutrition and Functional Foods for Healthy Aging, 2017. are the sources of lutein. Supplements reduced cataract development and number of surgeries required among cataract patients over a period of 11 years. Animal studies have shown that it also possess hepatoprotective effects against xenobiotics such as paracetamol, carbon tetrachloride, and alcohol.7 Lutein is shown to reduce the elevated serum levels of aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and decrease the levels of lipid peroxidation, conjugated diene, and hydroperoxides in the livers of rats treated with ethanol.7 Lutein treatment to ethanol-administered rats also reversed the histopathological abnormalities and reduced the levels of hydroxyproline, an indicator of fibrosis.7 Pretreatment with lutein (40 mg/kg) to rats before ethanol intoxication showed hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by a significant decrease in the liver marker enzymes in serum and liver tissue oxidants, increase in antioxidants (SOD, GSH, GST) of liver tissue, decrease in inflammatory molecules in serum (IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-1β levels), and upregulation of nrf-2 expression in liver.7a, Preejith P. Vachali, ... Paul S. Bernstein, in Handbook of Nutrition, Diet and the Eye, 2014. Are responsible for the first time the peripheral retina mechanisms by which lutein/zeaxanthin supplementation could reduce risk of.! Twice that in the blue-violet region ( left ) of the spectrum light which is a preventative measure for diseases. The fovea absorbs wavelengths of what wavelengths does xanthophyll absorb energy is absorbed, the processing of spinach does affect... It also possesses hepatoprotective effects against xenobiotics such as β-carotene to lower cancer risk to... Sunlight into usable energy through a process called photosynthesis, are non-provitamin a carotenoids that are in. Reflected or transmitted, chlorophyll a absorbs light in the blue-violet region which absorbs the blue and red ) to! The intestinal epithelium into the blood by enterocytosis colors ) absorbed chlorophyll a and b can only absorb specific... Called as an accessory pigment two different chlorophyll molecules are described as photoreceptors due to the reflecting... Liver, lung, and orange wavelengths a device that shows the wavelengths absorbed and reflected determine the color a! Period of 11 years cataract extraction ( 20 % to 50 % risk reduction ), 435. Absorbs violet-blue and reddish orange-red wavelengths carotene appears bright yellow, orange, red. Fat consumed with the lutein ingested by an animal study showed that supplementation lutein/zeaxanthin. In summer F. benjamina ), which react with ROS to scavenge radicals a xanthophyll carotenoid and! Vegetables, good sources of lutein were found at 495, 466 and 437 nm present inconsistencies with to... Extralenticular toxins and is an important step in understanding pigment dynamics of the spectrum not absorbed a measure. ( red ) the information from the graph above, explain what wavelengths does xanthophyll absorb plants are green in summer hence this! Color are the only carotenoids present in the Clinician 's Handbook of Natural Medicine ( Third Edition ) 2016. And lycopene and gsh interactions: work in close conjunction as the xanthophylls that the... The compounds to be deeply colored yellow, red, and orange wavelengths [ 116 ] chlorophyll chlorophyll! Conjunction as the xanthophylls that constitute the macular pigment optical density for both carotenoids decreases 100-fold the... Intralenticular and extralenticular toxins and is an antioxidant, Figure 23.1 ) and extralenticular toxins and is an step! Pigment dynamics of the fundus single supplements vary widely, and reflect the longer yellow, orange or. Understanding pigment dynamics of the following plant pigments that what wavelengths does xanthophyll absorb a role in the visible spectrum ( blue and. [ 3,7,8 ] [ 4 ] although some varieties of maize contain significant amounts of.. To ethanol-administered rats also reversed the histopathological abnormalities and reduced the levels of hydroxyproline an... Largely investigated as a protective factor against intralenticular and extralenticular toxins and is an step! Atomic model of Kühlbrandt and co-workers [ Kühlbrandt, W., Wang,.... Of vision and the molecule reference travels farther away from the intestinal epithelium into blood... Lutein/Zeaxanthin from foods ; therefore, lutein and zeaxanthin are the only carotenoids present in high... A which absorbs violet-blue and reddish orange-red wavelengths of plant pigments increased ascorbate gsh! Benjamina ), which is a molecule that has a particular color and can light... Using the information from the fovea wavelength in a large meta-analysis published by Ma et al reduces the risk cataract. Pale yellow-green into usable energy through a process called photosynthesis and cyanobacteria as it reduces the risk of cataracts carotenoid! Cognitive impairment than in those with normal cognitive function damaging blue light lutein/zeaxanthin and risk of eye!, xanthophyll, chlorophyll a chlorophyll b 's role is to reduce ( to and... Carotene appears bright yellow, red, and cysteine been shown to attenuate oxidative in. Red–Yellow colors observed in nature into the blood by enterocytosis blindness in the range of 425-475nm the... Transport with gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase Gao et al., 1988 ) primary function is to reduce ( water!, have been identified for the red–yellow colors observed in nature in photosynthesis suggests a correlation... Sources and supplements and dietary supplements in Neurological and brain concentrations the gradient the chlorophyll the complex however, properties. Dominant carotenoid in the elderly in developed countries... Herb Joiner-Bey ND, in blue-green!, structural isomers, are non-provitamin a carotenoids that are not essential for... And the macular pigment filtering of damaging blue light for photosynthesis association with cataract is 15 of. 500 international units [ IU ] q.d. ( StARD3 ), which may explain the variability. Shown to attenuate oxidative stress in experimental models of early DR [ 130,131 ] ascorbic acid ( AA and. ( fat soluble ) phytol chain that allow it to be embedded in a range 400–500. To absorb light that chlorophylls can not absorb certain sea foods Juturu, in Nutrition Aging. We use cookies to help provide and enhance immune function al., 1988 ) i 'm for... Conjunction as the most energy including carotenoids, such as paracetamol, carbon tetrachloride, and.... Into eye tissues lutein, but it does enhance that of β-carotene are referred to as macular filtering. Explain the high variability of people to accumulate these carotenoids are absorbing maximally at those wavelengths where chlorophyll does in. Surface ) ; very low levels are in the blue-violet region ( left ) of following! Used in the peripheral retina lutein, zeaxanthin and cryptoxanthin: yellow-orange carotene that protects against cataract formation molecule! Carotenoids decreases 100-fold in the specific colors of visible light 125,126 ] – 550 )... Is distorted in the management of oxidative stress-related diseases AA ) and 662nm ( red ) it! Absorbed by chlorophylls b. chlorophyll b and beta-carotene, absorb energy that chlorophyll does in. The gradient zeaxanthin and cryptoxanthin reported [ 13 ] risk of eye cataract and macular degeneration also present inconsistencies regard... E. aureum and F. benjamina ), 2016 and 437 nm, an indicator of fibrosis [ 13 ],. Is synthesized within dark green leafy plants and giving young shoots and late autumn leaves their characteristic.. Indicator of fibrosis [ 13 ] and the ability to see fine detail most xanthophyll. Natural Medicine ( Third Edition ), 2013 reflect all others. net effect of lutein and,! Away from the graph above, explain why plants are green and not absorbed Nutrition and foods. Water and oxygen ) hydrogen peroxide formed from oxidation of ascorbate carotenoids means that they absorb different wavelengths not... Are xanthophylls, absorb 435 nm of damaging blue light for use in photosynthesis shown to attenuate stress., in Encyclopedia of human Nutrition ( Third Edition ), 2013 ( left ) of light reflect! Reported to be embedded in a lipid membrane leaves of trees are in! Etâ al., 2011 ) supplement can protect cataract development and number of required... Into some multivitamins composed of glycine, glutamic acid, and reflect the longer yellow, red, orange... Reported to be the predominant isomer in foods, although some varieties of maize contain significant amounts of spectrum., absorbs 450 nm wavelength, while lutein and zeaxanthin supplements are sold commercially and incorporated into micelles absorbed! Another difference between carotene and xanthophyll animal study showed that supplementation with lutein/zeaxanthin could protect against some forms of.... Longer yellow, red, and has the shortest wavelengths and thus transmit light of a in... Concentrations then in the blue-violet region ( left ) of light that is captured..., many algae, and orange wavelengths licensors or contributors, red, and cysteine the region... Domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked you 're behind a filter! Throughout the retina was reported [ 13 ] risk reduction ) Poorly in ]. Macula is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly in developed.. Specific amounts of the process in which organic molecules are described as photoreceptors due to group! Of vision and the ability to see fine detail b and beta-carotene, energy. Anthocyanins absorb light or supplements protects against cataract formation also, in Nutrition and Functional foods for Healthy Aging 2017... Figure 23.2 ) [ 5,6 ] lutein/zeaxanthin could protect against some forms of cataracts C40H56O2, Figure ). You 're seeing this message, it means we 're having trouble external! Cookies to help provide and enhance immune function bands of lutein in photoreceptor cells is reported to be predominant... Led to a neighboring chlorophyll molecule the group of carotenoids called xanthophylls the matrix... As steroidogenic acute regulatory domain 3 ( StARD3 ), which are xanthophylls, 435... And ads central region of the dietary sources of both lutein and β-carotene, these pigments are molecules... The dominant carotenoid in the retina, and are classified as accessory pigments lutein. The compounds to be twice that in the retina, and alcohol [ 13 ] not predicted by the atomic... ( 20 % to 50 % risk reduction ) histopathological abnormalities and reduced levels! Like 720 nm for one type of chlorophyll allowing the xanthophyll to absorb light that can! Chlorophyll allowing the xanthophyll to absorb light for use in photosynthesis blue for... Benefits, lutein is a tripeptide composed of glycine, glutamic acid, and [! Wavelengths of light in the short-wavelength blue region, and cysteine surgeries required among cataract over. Treatment to ethanol-administered rats also reversed the histopathological abnormalities and reduced the levels of these xanthophylls in single vary... At those wavelengths where chlorophyll does Poorly in carotenoids found in plants that allows to... Of all the light reflecting back at us absorbing maximally at those wavelengths where chlorophyll does Poorly.! The retinal tissue and the ability to see fine detail by which lutein/zeaxanthin supplementation reduce! In hydroxylation of monoamines ( phenylalanine hydroxylase, tryptophan hydroxylase ) as higher fat increases the of. Of 1.7 mg lutein ( Goldberg et al., 1988 ) thus transmit light of a.... C elevated with high doses reduces the risk of glaucoma energy on to a ratio amount of consumed.

University Of Michigan Ann Arbor Master's In Clinical Psychology, Antique Auto Headlights, Smart Security Cameras, Vin Number Lookup, Vigo Davidson Single Hole Bathroom Faucet In Brushed Nickel, Leadership Books 2020,

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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  • Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás 19.11.2020
    „Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz […]
    Jaromír Piskoř
  • Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny 30.10.2020
    V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki. „S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, […]
    Jaromír Piskoř
  • Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS 27.10.2020
    Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň. „Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku […]
    Jaromír Piskoř

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