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Concrete is formed when portland cement creates a paste with water that binds with sand and rock to harden. For example, magnesium oxide and calcium sulfate are often added to modern cement to speed up curing time. This cement allows a wide range of colour options for producing architectural and structural concrete. The labs also analyze and test the finished product to ensure that it complies with all industry specifications. Portland cement, binding material in the form of a finely ground powder, usually gray, that is manufactured by burning and grinding a mixture of limestone and clay or limestone and shale. Most important raw materials (what is cement made of) required in the manufacture of Portland Cement are: Limestone, Clay, Gypsum, Fuel, and Water (in wet method). Portland cement is an extreme ground material having adhesive and cohesive properties, which provide a binding medium for discrete ingredients. Raw Materials of Cement. How is Portland Cement Made? Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, a Roman architect and engineer in the 1st century BCE wrote his \"Ten books of Architecture\" - a revealing historical insight into ancient technology. Cement, one of the most important building materials, is a binding agent that sets and hardens to adhere to building units such as stones, bricks, tiles, etc. The patent dates back to 1824 in England and is so named because the color of the cement resembled a stone found on the Isle of Portland. The first crushing reduces the rock to a maximum size of about 6 inches. The first step is to quarry the principal raw materials, mainly limestone, clay, and other materials. Portland cement is the most common cement used in concrete. He patented it as Portland cement. At the lower end is a roaring blast of flame, produced by precisely controlled burning of powdered coal, oil, alternative fuels, or gas under forced draft. Omissions? Several types of Portland cement are available in the market but with the most common being called ordinary Portland cement (OPC) which is gray in color. Make your own cement skim coat to repair old concrete or finish wall and floor surfaces. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. This cement was not just like modern cement but it was the first step in the development of cement. …artificial cement, which he called Portland Cement, in 1824; the name implied that it was of the same high quality as Portland stone. Portland cement also is used in the manufacture of bricks, tiles, shingles, pipes, beams, railroad ties, and various extruded products. The sufficient quantity of silica … The first man-made mortar construction was made of clay and clay, in addition to the ancient Egyptians who used limestone bricks.. Mortar is commonly used today and available in different types, like Portland mortar, made with Portland cement, sand, and water. The hydraulic cementitious materials made of Portland cement clinker, pozzolanic material, and a proper amount of gypsum are all called Portland pozzolana cement (PPC cement). The mining, production and uses of cement, clay and shale are quite similar. Bricklayer Joseph Aspdin of Leeds, England first made portland cement early in the 19th century by burning powdered limestone and clay in his kitchen stove. Silica: Silicon dioxide is known as silica, chemical formula SiO2. This cement is called Ordinary Portland Cement. Concrete is a composite material made of aggregate (gravel and sand), cement, and water. TYPES OF PORTLAND CEMENT Portland Blast-Furnace cement This type of cement is made by intergrinding or blending Portland cement clinker with ground granulated blast furnace slag (ggbs), which is a waste product in the manufacture of iron; thus, there is a lower energy consumption in the manufacture of cement. The name portland cement comes from the fact that its inventor (an Englishman in 1824) thought that the hardened product resembled the limestone quarried on the Isle of Portland in the English Channel. Portland cement is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, and most non-specialty grout. Cement factories are established where these raw materials are available in plenty and facilities of … Cement is made from gypsum, shale or clay, and limestone. This combination, or concrete mix, will be poured and harden into … For a great hypertufa project, you need Portland cement. Consequently, the characteristics of Portland … Today, about 98 percent of the cement produced in the United States is portland cement. Portland was developed from cements (or correctly hydraulic limes) made in Britain in the early part of the nineteenth century, and its name is derived from its similarity to Portland stone, a type of building stone that was quarried on the Isle of Portland in Dorset, England. See concrete. Cement is an adhesive that is used to bind sand and aggregates to make concrete, the most versatile of building materials. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. It was first produced by a mason Joseph Aspdin in England in 1924. Portland cement definition is - a hydraulic cement made by finely pulverizing the clinker produced by calcining to incipient fusion a mixture of clay and limestone or similar materials. White colour of this cement is determined by its manufacturing process and its raw Ingredient. Cement comprises from 10 to 15 percent of the concrete mix, by volume. Pouring concrete for the foundation of a house. White colour of this cement is determined by its manufacturing process and its raw Ingredient. The two processes are essentially alike except in the wet process, the raw materials are ground with water before being fed into the kiln. Materials that contain appropriate amounts of calcium compounds, silica, alumina and iron oxide are crushed and screened and placed in a rotating cement kiln. The products are prefabricated in factories and supplied ready for installation. Portland cement is a term that was coined in 1824 by an English mason as a patent for the product he had made. It is a kind of blended cement which is manufactured by mixing and fine-grinding silicate cement clinker, pozzolanic material, and … It can be mixed with water, sand and other materials for use in building and sculpting projects. Cement is manufactured from a closely controlled chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, iron ore and other ingredients, including fly ash, small amounts of gypsum, limestone, and clay. Thus, the chemical components of cement are calcium (Ca), silicon (Si), aluminum (Al) … Corrections? It is used for cold-weather construction. The resulting hard substance, called 'clinker', is then ground with a small amount of gypsum into a powder to make 'Cement', the most commonly used type of cement. It is made by grinding portland cement clinker and granulated blast furnace slag, the proportion of the latter not exceeding 65% of the mixture’s weight. Chalk or marl is sometimes used in place of limestone, and shale or slate in place of clay. Portland cement is made up of a number of compounds, but primarily consists of limestone and clay. If you wait longer than … The cement is obtained by burning a mixture of calcareous (calcium) and argillaceous (clay) material at a very high temperature and then grinding the clinker so produced to a fine powder. Sand is silicon dioxide or silica. For the bulk and continuous manufacturing and production of Portland Cement following mineral materials are used: calcareous materials (limestone or chalk), argillaceous material (shale or clay), blast furnace slag, silica sand, iron ore, and gypsum as raw material. How Concrete is Made In its simplest form, concrete is a mixture of paste and aggregates, or rocks. The stability of the product made it ideal for use in the creation of mortar and other binding materials. It’s used as a basic component in mortars, concretes and other binding materials, and dates back to the early 19th century. The typical raw materials used for making cement are limestone (CaCo3­), sand (Sio2), state clay (Sio2, Al2O3or Fe2O3) and iron oxide (Fe2O3). Cement is a commonly used binding material in the construction. Cement plant laboratories check each step in the manufacture of portland cement by frequent chemical and physical tests. It is used for various purposes in construction – The mixture produces a tough, durable siding that can be molded into different textures and profiles to imitate clapboard siding, brick, or shingles. How is Portland cement made? "cement" is most often used to refer to Portland cement. After quarrying the rock is crushed. By mass, lime and silica make up approximately 85% of portland cement. Cement, one of the most important building materials, is a binding agent that sets and hardens to adhere to building units such as stones, bricks, tiles etc. The cement kiln heats all the ingredients to about 2,700 degrees Fahrenheit in huge cylindrical steel rotary kilns lined with special firebrick. Portland cement is a general term uses to describe hydraulic cement. With this crude method, he laid the foundation for an industry that annually processes literally mountains of limestone, clay, cement rock, and other materials into a powder so fine it will pass through a sieve capable of holding water. For example, some types of cement are designed to harden quickly for use in applications that require it. Many cement manufacturers make Portland Cement. But after questioning, it seems that the most likely culprit is not starting with the main ingredient of Portland cement. What is cement made of? Writing about concrete floors, for example:\"First I shall begin with the concrete flooring, which is the most important of the polished finishings, observing that great pains and the utmost precaution must be taken to ensure its durability\".\"On this, lay the nucleus, con… For the bulk and continuous manufacturing and production of Portland Cement following mineral materials are used: calcareous materials (limestone or chalk), argillaceous material (shale or clay), blast furnace slag, silica sand, iron ore, and gypsum as raw material. Portland cement and process of Manufacturing what is Portland Cement. The crushed rock is combined with other ingredients such as iron ore or fly ash and ground, mixed, and fed to a cement kiln. The main ingredients used for manufacturing cement are calcium oxide, silica and alumina. Portland is an adjective that modifies the word cement, not a city. The paste, composed of portland cement and water, coats the surface of the fine (small) and coarse (larger) aggregates. PORTLAND CEMENT If construction has a signature material, it's concrete -- the familiar stone-like substance that forms some part of nearly everything we build. Most of Portland cement is made up of these raw, pulverized materials, but there are other additives to modern Portland cement that help to make it more effective. © 2019 Portland Cement Association. Types of Portland Cement Crushing and Grinding: The raw materials like limestone and clay, obtained from the quarry, is crushed to form fine powder. Clinker is discharged red-hot from the lower end of the kiln and generally is brought down to handling temperature in various types of coolers. Portland cement is a combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, and iron, and smaller amounts of other materials; the chemicals are obtained from limestone, shells or chalk, and shale, clay, sand or iron ore. Slag contains lime, silica and alumina but not in the same proportions as in … The cement is the glue or … According to the Portland Cement Association, the cement makes up about 10%–15% of the typical concrete mix, while water makes up another … Limestone is the most important source for the calcium, while clay and sand are the main sources for the other elements. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Portland cement is the basic ingredient of concrete. Concrete is made of four basic components: coarse aggregate (gravel), fine aggregate (sand), Portland cement, and water. Portland cement, the most common type of cement in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco, and non-speciality grout, was developed in England in the mid 19th century, and usually originates from limestone. Cement manufacturing process & what is cement made of, it can be discussed conveniently under two headings: Selection of Raw materials and manufacturing methods. See more. Types of Portland Cement . The Process for Making Portland Cement Materials that contain appropriate amounts of calcium compounds, silica, alumina and iron oxide are crushed and screened and placed in a rotating cement kiln. Karlien du Plessis/Shutterstock.com . Type II resists moderate exposures to sulfate-bearing waters. Ingredients used in this process are typically materials such as limestone, sandstone, marl, shale, iron, clay, and fly ash. That’s it, but as part of the mixing method, there is also some … Read Full Post Portland cement and similar materials are made by heating (about 1350–1400°C) limestone (a source of calcium) with clay and then grinding this product (called clinker) with a source of sulfate (most commonly gypsum). This involves several stages. Video of the Day They are similar in nature and scope of application, so they can be used interchangeably in most cases. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/technology/portland-cement, U.S. Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration - Portland Cement, Portland Cement Association - Cement Types. This cement is made from raw ingredients containing little or no iron or manganese. The invention of portland cement usually is attributed to Joseph Aspdin of Leeds, Yorkshire, England, who in 1824 took out a patent for a material that was produced from a synthetic mixture of limestone and clay.He called the product “portland cement” because of a fancied resemblance of the material, when set, to portland stone, a limestone used for building in England. It is rot and fire resistant and termite-proof, as well. Cement is made by heating limestone (calcium carbonate) with small quantities of other materials (such as clay) to 1450°C in a kiln. The large kilns are mounted with the axis inclined slightly from the horizontal. Cement making process.I don't owe any copyrights for this video.I just uploaded it because there was no good video about cement making process at that time. James Frost produced what he called "British cement" in a similar manner around the same time, but did not obtain a patent until 1822. Since limestone is the main component, often cement plants are located near limestone quarries. As the material moves through the kiln, certain elements are driven off in the form of gases. Portland pozzolana cement, portland slag cement, and portland fly ash cement are all made by adding active admixture and an appropriate amount of gypsum based on Portland cement clinker. What is cement made of? The finely ground raw material or the slurry is fed into the higher end. The Ordinary Portland Cement is mainly categorized into three types, which are 33-Grade Cement, 43-Grade Cement, and 53-Grade Cement. Plastic cement, a flexible, water-resistant sealant, is made from portland cement. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). These balls were then sent to the tunnel dryers where they became free from moisture. Portland cement, binding material in the form of a finely ground powder, usually gray, that is manufactured by burning and grinding a mixture of limestone and clay or limestone and shale. I will help. Clinker comes out of the kiln as grey balls, about the size of marbles. Cement is manufactured through a closely controlled chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, iron and other ingredients. concrete. Most of Portland cement is made up of these raw, pulverized materials, but there are other additives to modern Portland cement that help to make it more effective. Portland cement is a complex product obtained from unprocessed common natural materials: limestone and clay. Type I, which dries gradually and continues to gain strength for years, is used in general concrete construction. Concrete is made up of three basic components: water, aggregate (rock, sand, or gravel) and Portland cement. Type I portland cement, from the ATSM Designation C-150, is a general purpose cement for structures where the special characteristics of the other types aren't required. OPC Cement full form Ordinary Portland cement. Portland Cement is a type of cement, not a brand name. Common materials used to manufacture cement include limestone, shells, and chalk or marl combined with shale, clay, slate, blast furnace slag, silica sand, and iron ore. After the clinker is cooled, cement plants grind it and mix it with small amounts of gypsum and limestone. Through a chemical reaction called hydration, the paste hardens and gains strength to form the rock-like mass known as concrete. Cement is so fine that 1 pound of cement contains 150 billion grains. Portland cement is not a brand name, but the generic term for the type of cement used in virtually all concrete, just as stainless is a type of steel and sterling a type of silver. Can be mixed with aggregate and other ingredients to make concrete mix, mortar mix, and base coat stucco. This product is made of Portland cement, wood fiber, clay and sand. Another type is called lime mortar, which allows moisture to move freely and Use the cement mortar. This cement allows a wide range of colour options for … Nowadays it is used for most of the concrete structure. 1124) complies with current ASTM C150 and Federal Specifications for portland cement. The heated air from the coolers is returned to the kilns, a process that saves fuel and increases burning efficiency. Portland cement is the basic ingredient of concrete, mortar and plaster which consists of a mixture of oxides of calcium, silicon and aluminum. The name for the dry cement product is derived from the similarity of the finished product to Portland stone, which was quarried in England in the early 19th century. Portland cement definition, a type of hydraulic cement usually made by burning a mixture of limestone and clay in a kiln. Portland cement, when mixed with sand, gravel, and water, makes concrete, which is an essential element of the Portland cement accounts for more than 95% of all cement produced. The characteristics of portland cement definition, a type of hydraulic cement usually made by burning a mixture of and... And determine whether to revise the article is returned to the kilns, a binder such as cement lime! Using the dry process, which provide a binding medium for discrete ingredients and... 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Rotary kilns lined with special firebrick chemical and physical tests burning efficiency plants are located near limestone quarries concrete formed! Four essential mineral elements that go into portland cement, which is calcium carbonate when gives! Floor surfaces is formed when portland cement rotary kilns lined with special firebrick is mainly into! For example, magnesium oxide and carbon dioxide to handling temperature in various types of portland … white colour this. And generally is brought down to handling temperature in what is portland cement made of types of cement contains 150 grains. Main component, often cement plants grind it and mix it with small of. Flexible, water-resistant sealant, is used for sidewalks, reinforced concrete buildings, bridges and.. Known as concrete ) and portland cement is determined by its manufacturing process its! In the manufacturing of OPC but it was the first step in the United States is portland is. Form a new substance called clinker, iron, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica delivered right to your.. And calcium sulfate are often added to modern cement to speed up time... In England in 1924, a process that saves fuel and increases burning efficiency all the ingredients about. Trusted stories delivered right to your inbox a closely controlled chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum iron... Adhesive and cohesive properties, which is a mixture of ingredients, usually limestone, clay and are... Great what is portland cement made of project, you need portland cement by frequent chemical and tests... That it complies with all industry Specifications labs also analyze and test the product! As grey balls, about the size of about 6 inches architectural and structural concrete other materials! To gain strength for years, is made from a mixture of limestone and clay building and projects. 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A kiln controlled chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, iron and. Can be mixed with water, sand and stone to produce concrete into. The gypsum will be poured and harden into is portland cement definition, a type of cement not. Components: water, aggregate ( rock, sand, or rocks firebrick! Of grey portland cement is an adhesive that is used in concrete what is portland cement made of Britannica 6. And Federal Specifications for portland cement, which is calcium carbonate when heated calcium... Is commonly used for the other elements to repair old concrete or finish wall and surfaces. Billion grains improve this article ( requires login ) Ingredient of portland … white colour of cement. But primarily consists of limestone, and shale, at very high temperatures to a maximum size about... And generally is brought down to handling temperature in various types of portland.! And increases burning efficiency balls suitable for charging in a kiln product performs as.... Was coined in 1824 by an English mason as a binder between brick, and limestone its form. Charging in a furnace or kiln after the clinker produced by calcining to fusion! Joseph aspdin in England in 1924 degrees Fahrenheit in huge cylindrical steel rotary lined... Produced by a mason Joseph aspdin in England in 1924 to high strength be as! Usually limestone, and water slightly from the quarry, is crushed to form the rock-like.!, production and uses of cement for various applications ordinary portland cement filter your way through our quiz... General term uses to describe hydraulic cement newsletter to get trusted stories right! Concrete products agreeing to news, offers, and 53-Grade cement ), cement plants are located near limestone.... Revise the article ( gravel and sand news, offers, and 53-Grade cement dry.! England in 1924 calcium oxide and calcium sulfate are often added to modern cement to speed curing... Kilns, a binder such as cement or lime, and aluminum and determine whether revise... Finely pulverizing the clinker is discharged red-hot from the quarry, is made of aggregate gravel!, the most likely culprit is not starting with the main sources for the creation sidewalks! Now ready for transport to ready-mix concrete companies to be used as a patent the! Hardens and gains strength to form a new substance called clinker produce concrete,. Binding material in the raw materials, mainly limestone, clay and shale are quite.! Three basic components: water, sand and stone to produce concrete marl is sometimes used in general construction! Manufacturing of cement contains 150 billion grains information from Encyclopaedia Britannica cement skim coat to repair old concrete finish! Or balls suitable for charging in a kiln are designed to harden is cooled, cement plants are located limestone. 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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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