/Metadata 87 0 R/Names 1182 0 R/Outlines 239 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/Pages 1159 0 R/StructTreeRoot 304 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 1170 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Type/Page>> endobj 1171 0 obj <>stream endobj For ... inferences about test scores related to the concept being studied. validity from .60 to.57 would result from abandoning formula scoring. It is most commonly used when the questionnaire is developed using multiple likert scale statements and therefore to … <>>> Cronbach Alpha is a reliability test conducted within SPSS in order to measure the internal consistency i.e. %PDF-1.5 This review article explores and describes the validity and reliability of a questionnaire/survey and also discusses various forms of validity … For rater reliability where ratings are usually ^hx�qă(��A2T�GJ(Cl��J��φH�~]�-o������E���������U1��妚C�+�a�ۅ��\l*΅,.��W�����i[�U��ϫ��0L����x�Z/�E1����2�v��*�����6վ�Y��;����/ձofU� test results for their intended purpose. Create an index variable. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was ap- plied to the six items of the questionnaire. ~^ն�y�R���ޱH̿q�'qNj��7ݬm6O@0 c�>���|k��x;��;����t+I7WӅ�_� I�6z� Z�EK}��f�j�wQ�n��OOF�܎u2�������v) ��]����xJ�9݈\�L8����{ 7 0 obj Therefore, the correct data will be determining true the results of research quality. endobj Then, comparing the responses at the two time points. [ 7 0 R] endobj %M,F������k�3����K'F�b�(o7��i�����bZJ;�\��q��_~���f]��u�I�x��Ғ�]�D���_�^u�'��b����jgw� ��c��KYLZ������l��$Ay�l˩���v�.��vD^��2|�仡Ϛ�j^7��Ǻ4���|\�7��\o��!B�:��m��(r���M��\�JR^���M w�N|������Jk� �f��n����2yn���ܴ�@���uJX 6�[B�dy�! ).To help distinguish between instrument and instrumentation, consider that the instrument is the device and instrumentation is the course of action (the process of developing, testing, and using the device). Use factor analysis to determine the validity of a new scale variable, then reliability analysis to assess the scale’s reliability. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. 13 0 obj As Messick (1989, p. 8) states: Hence, construct validity is a sine qua non in the validation not only of test interpretation but also of test use, in the sense that relevance and utility as well as appropriateness of test … <> • Click here to download KendallsW_Raters_Are_Rows.sav for SPSS. In psychology, discriminant validity tests whether concepts or measurements that are not supposed to be related are actually unrelated.. Campbell and Fiske (1959) introduced the concept of discriminant validity within their discussion on evaluating test validity.They stressed the importance of using both discriminant and convergent validation techniques when assessing new tests. Here are just some basic suggestions to get you started: Check the factor structure of the test to evaluate whether items load most on the theorised scales. This can be illustrated using a simple data set of actual data collected from a class of graduate students enrolled in a Winter Quarter, 2003, research design course. Factor analysis on the questionnaire for construct validity was performed using tests contained in SPSS PASW version 20( ). ~> endobj Validity Test • Using SPSS software to do the correlation analysis Pearson Correlation. Test the Validity of Pearson Correlation Using SPSS http://spssforstatistics.com/test-the-validity-of-pearson-correlation-using-spss/ You could start with exploratory factor analysis and then later on build up to confirmatory factor analysis. h�bbd```b`` ��+��X,�d"��H��`�K`Y]�yH2�F�� ����L�,� �Z����� � ' .5�+?V` �k=>v�����.D������nj����ϯ���]��(:? endobj using SPSS y Chapman & Ha/CRC ... assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. endobj 6 0 obj 2. 2007). Small values (less than 0.05) of the significance level indicate that a … While true or not the data is highly dependent on true or not the research instrument. Reliability Reliability is one of the most important elements of test … Test Reliability—Basic Concepts Samuel A. Livingston Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey. h�b```�i,%B �� .pdf version of this page. 8 0 obj endobj For all secondary data, a detailed assessment of reliability and validity involve an appraisal of methods used to collect data [Saunders et al., 2009]. These H�\�݊�@��}�������* d������} ����Q阋������B�'v������a���������]��p� �. Another common misconception is that reliability is equivalent to validity. Test-retest reliability. Excel spreadsheet is usually, for the majority of. This type of reliability test has a disadvantage caused by memory effects. Descriptives for each variable and for the scale, summary statistics across items, inter-item correlations and covariances, reliability estimates, ANOVA table, intraclass correlation coefficients, Hotelling's T 2, and Tukey's test of additivity. The face validity of a test is sometimes also mentioned. By (3), this reduction in validity is the same as would occur if the test length were halved ( K =0.48)! 1181 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<7CDC9F98479A1B41873665895C5C1316>]/Index[1168 27]/Info 1167 0 R/Length 80/Prev 370414/Root 1169 0 R/Size 1195/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream How to Test Validity questionnaire Using SPSS | The validity and reliability the instrument is essential in research data collection. 2 assessments and giving no attention to the concepts of validity and reliability to using statistical software (e.g., SAS, SPSS) to calculate these coefficients, many districts seem to believe their only option is to do the best they can and simply create assessments without concern for these > 0.05 the question/instrument in not valid <> ): – If Sig. endstream endobj startxref �,�B��86���b�kp9 �d2;�tA��)�V�v�%��L���p\`��P� ��d�`7Aփٖ���Ih�"GO4������Q��4���h���e1Zr����b��Ё�T�ЈK�$����x���T�ŷ�ǝ"2(If\� d �l�z�l��[ ��>+a������q''C���D��g�E�d]�X�.�IqZ��Pݚi�s9 ��u^���+wٍ$�uљ�F�Ӯ3^x3��g=�S�0*]���-��ۦ�bWF���`����F f��h @�0Ztt�d��4P���eL3��)V�L(D�� �� �+i���] �A8`qe�z��`��dV%rEFG� <> <> • Find correlation between each question in the questionnaire and its total value. reliability of the measuring instrument (Questionnaire). validity of the item is poor at best and at worst unknown. 1 0 obj 1(1) old new old m m α α= +−α αnew is the new reliability estimate after lengthening (or shortening) the test; αold is the reliability estimate of the current test; and m equals the new test length divided by the old test length. %���� <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> endobj Bartlett's test of sphericity tests the hypothesis that your correlation matrix is an identity matrix, which would indicate that your variables are unrelated and therefore unsuitable for structure detection. < 0.05 the question/instrument is valid – If Sig. This involves giving the questionnaire to the same group of respondents at a later point in time and repeating the research. Brown (1994) explains face validity as for whether the test, on the face of it, truly resembles to test what it is intended to assess, from the learner’s perspective. ... Interactions of questionnaire using the validity or other part to rate the form the data ... Chi square test is encrypted using spss to the whole topic addressed in. Suppose you wish to give a survey that measures job motivation by asking five questions. <> SPSS provides two key pieces of information in the output viewer. As Gaël mentions, assessing scale validity is a large and complex topic. 9 0 obj Validity and Factor Analysis -Using IBM SPSS Objective Discuss the concepts of reliability and validity. Table 1 shows the SPSS output for age 9. stream reliability, a given test may yield grossly divergent reliability estimates on different administrations” (p. 178). Factor analysis With factor analysis, the construct validity of a questionnaire can be tested (Bornstedt, 1977; Ratray & … Cronbach’s alpha is a test reliability technique that requires only a %%EOF resources freely available online for mastering SPSS. 2 0 obj Often new researchers are confused with selection and conducting of proper validity type to test their research instrument (questionnaire/survey). endobj A simple search for “SPSS tutorials” on Google will yield a host of useful resources. validity; thus contributing to the overall construct validity. number of points that Y changes, on average, for each one point change in X. SPSS calls a the “constant.” The slope is given in the “B” column to the right of the name of the X variable. Reliability can be established using a pilot test by collecting data from 20 to 30 subjects not included in the sample. 10 0 obj endobj SPSS also gives the standardized slope (aka ), which for a bivariate regression is identical to the Pearson r. *�L�����5���#[x!��D�F�1����(�A~*��J����z �kk_�qP&ۙ�b�nb��#{�)_�#_ش �}�kw���X�6x�a&��g`=��>�0y�ן[�=s: � G��}��=�Q����9p�D��^Y�PZ�V��I������QW��9¥���$ endobj 11 0 obj In analyzing the data, you want to ensure that these questions (q1 through q5) all reliably measure the same latent variable (i.e., job motivation).To test the internal consistency, you can run the Cronbach's alpha test using the reliability command in SPSS, as follows: Models. a value of Cronbach’s alpha for an existing test. experts from areas outside of the research population to establish content and face validity. <> Consider different methods to create the scale, including how to handle missing data. Depends on the types of questionnaire, some of these validity tests are h޼V�n7�>���ex�j5*�Ԩ���ᇵ���V�����rk��(����̐-�P*�=�$(�VĤw"� validity test of the questionnaire namely; f ace validity, content validity, construct validity and criterion validity. �>�AD�<<3��������P�����f�awS\������/�����n�9�X�����d6���Xߞ̠���A�QF*�X�Q�M%M=�^4|;Ջ���/�?������,���6}g��3�^���_��a��Su���w���G�l=�@�\߱�o7���)i,Cst���Nq`����X��x"^����(�W>j\�~wI M�-05�3$J0���� j&&��4�r��I$*Cb���B�3$R05��dH@17�ĦI��l��ph�̤���j�0� <> • See the significance value (Sig. The reliability test resulted in an overall alpha of .949. To test for factor or internal validity of a questionnaire in SPSS use factor analysis (under data reduction menu). IG"�W˹�Fz呆�m��ޕjj�N�$Ϋ��mr�]5`OCr_��e�hRF��[,�7���^ ^�EK�jd�D� �]�'�c{fM[f\W� �;���EVqhb���}�u4g/�Q�۔�� �9�ڲ���2VSb �g������^9�P;F��+&���n_I^n+��CU�+���-7�;�+%{�տV��Wʖ�CU�r�q�R.�k��\��cagZ�f;�u*��`G�]2����C�?I�e����P���Ēt�x������E�؈���b��!�2����r�����,��L�`�O �!v��пSP���Ԯ�37Z������i;AH�S�iCS�p4 �$V1;�~Ia5��!^3��c��X2)�@�K3�%�s�S�Oc�$��$��d���N� �v /�ƒI�λ�Iҁ��X���m*Y>�*/l����^}�S�By�֤���&��l��p���u��7$�* Ellen Drost 110 Alternative forms. 1194 0 obj <>stream The alternative forms technique to estimate reliability is similar to the test retest method, except that different measures of a behaviour (rather than the same measure) are collected at … stream Part I: The Instrument. Internal consistency and reliability were measured using Cronbach’s alpha. VALIDITY Test-Retest Split-Half Inter-rater Cronbach Alpha . x��W�n�6}7��S!�ށ@��$E�f��S�(\���&���v��CRJ$�� endstream For test‐retest reliability and validity estimation, psychologists generally use Pearson correlations to express the magnitude of relationships between attributes. KC#��;P��+C� t �sZX�`K�L!��#�A��Ά5�$�'��m�T�5�Wi�AEm��汏�ޢ��4 � t3&� 9��Lp^���6�!�e���-��S��j8�� �Kq�(�Җ��qE��U�0�>�X���=��>���÷�W���,���|/�,�{eL�'Xn����X�"b�Y�C �6��� 13֕�.tLt�d�/�E�!#m~��i�r�^+�����(�`cBzɨ+��+� �,�� Download Questionnaire Analysis Using Spss pdf. endobj For example, if a person has a high score on a ... spss-8.php Table 2 Attributes of reliability Attributes Description Homogeneity (or 3 0 obj January 2018 Corresponding author: S. A. Livingston, E-mail: slivingston@ets.org Validity pertains to the extent to which scores measure the intended concept. <> A total of 229 candidate internship scores were used. 3. 12 0 obj First, the Keiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test for sampling adequacy and If test-takers accept that the gained results are accurate, then face validity can be associated more with acceptance than actual validity (Alderson, Clapham and Wall, 2005) 7. Instrument is the general term that researchers use for a measurement device (survey, test, questionnaire, etc. 0 Validity is defined as the extent to which a concept is accurately measured in a quantitative study. <> ]��k�f�x���k=fy�||ܦp=��!�*��H/oS|��m;��s��m�]qO�v�g����'\C?���l\�)�K=~�����C��w��%�����c����4Cnc݄X���U�tm\���M����~�m�s�YUb�b�n�r^�W�5y ޓ��7���������ؓ=xKނ�~��B���A� ��Ȓ�Y��䋒ld�A-�Z�Ȏ��.A]ºu =�����nn�nn�nn�>>�>>��z�*3��LE�2S���WQ�2_���W�+�Uԫ. 1. <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 13 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 1>> 1168 0 obj <> endobj • Click here to download KendallsW_Raters_Are_Columns.txt for SAS, VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY t��c��b1pl� M �{�*�g��`ݔY�ƴH�����]00�0�`��V�AD��p$�y3�_�$6�-@ڇ���> ���`:��^Yׂԅ2p���ձ�xV5�: �G2p��C�� �{�� There are several ways to estimate the validity of a test including content validity, concurrent validity, and predictive validity. 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It is most commonly used when the questionnaire is developed using multiple likert scale statements and therefore to … <>>> Cronbach Alpha is a reliability test conducted within SPSS in order to measure the internal consistency i.e. %PDF-1.5 This review article explores and describes the validity and reliability of a questionnaire/survey and also discusses various forms of validity … For rater reliability where ratings are usually ^hx�qă(��A2T�GJ(Cl��J��φH�~]�-o������E���������U1��妚C�+�a�ۅ��\l*΅,.��W�����i[�U��ϫ��0L����x�Z/�E1����2�v��*�����6վ�Y��;����/ձofU� test results for their intended purpose. Create an index variable. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was ap- plied to the six items of the questionnaire. ~^ն�y�R���ޱH̿q�'qNj��7ݬm6O@0 c�>���|k��x;��;����t+I7WӅ�_� I�6z� Z�EK}��f�j�wQ�n��OOF�܎u2�������v) ��]����xJ�9݈\�L8����{ 7 0 obj Therefore, the correct data will be determining true the results of research quality. endobj Then, comparing the responses at the two time points. [ 7 0 R] endobj %M,F������k�3����K'F�b�(o7��i�����bZJ;�\��q��_~���f]��u�I�x��Ғ�]�D���_�^u�'��b����jgw� ��c��KYLZ������l��$Ay�l˩���v�.��vD^��2|�仡Ϛ�j^7��Ǻ4���|\�7��\o��!B�:��m��(r���M��\�JR^���M w�N|������Jk� �f��n����2yn���ܴ�@���uJX 6�[B�dy�! ).To help distinguish between instrument and instrumentation, consider that the instrument is the device and instrumentation is the course of action (the process of developing, testing, and using the device). Use factor analysis to determine the validity of a new scale variable, then reliability analysis to assess the scale’s reliability. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. 13 0 obj As Messick (1989, p. 8) states: Hence, construct validity is a sine qua non in the validation not only of test interpretation but also of test use, in the sense that relevance and utility as well as appropriateness of test … <> • Click here to download KendallsW_Raters_Are_Rows.sav for SPSS. In psychology, discriminant validity tests whether concepts or measurements that are not supposed to be related are actually unrelated.. Campbell and Fiske (1959) introduced the concept of discriminant validity within their discussion on evaluating test validity.They stressed the importance of using both discriminant and convergent validation techniques when assessing new tests. Here are just some basic suggestions to get you started: Check the factor structure of the test to evaluate whether items load most on the theorised scales. This can be illustrated using a simple data set of actual data collected from a class of graduate students enrolled in a Winter Quarter, 2003, research design course. Factor analysis on the questionnaire for construct validity was performed using tests contained in SPSS PASW version 20( ). ~> endobj Validity Test • Using SPSS software to do the correlation analysis Pearson Correlation. Test the Validity of Pearson Correlation Using SPSS http://spssforstatistics.com/test-the-validity-of-pearson-correlation-using-spss/ You could start with exploratory factor analysis and then later on build up to confirmatory factor analysis. h�bbd```b`` ��+��X,�d"��H��`�K`Y]�yH2�F�� ����L�,� �Z����� � ' .5�+?V` �k=>v�����.D������nj����ϯ���]��(:? endobj using SPSS y Chapman & Ha/CRC ... assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. endobj 6 0 obj 2. 2007). Small values (less than 0.05) of the significance level indicate that a … While true or not the data is highly dependent on true or not the research instrument. Reliability Reliability is one of the most important elements of test … Test Reliability—Basic Concepts Samuel A. Livingston Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey. h�b```�i,%B �� .pdf version of this page. 8 0 obj endobj For all secondary data, a detailed assessment of reliability and validity involve an appraisal of methods used to collect data [Saunders et al., 2009]. These H�\�݊�@��}�������* d������} ����Q阋������B�'v������a���������]��p� �. Another common misconception is that reliability is equivalent to validity. Test-retest reliability. Excel spreadsheet is usually, for the majority of. This type of reliability test has a disadvantage caused by memory effects. Descriptives for each variable and for the scale, summary statistics across items, inter-item correlations and covariances, reliability estimates, ANOVA table, intraclass correlation coefficients, Hotelling's T 2, and Tukey's test of additivity. The face validity of a test is sometimes also mentioned. By (3), this reduction in validity is the same as would occur if the test length were halved ( K =0.48)! 1181 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<7CDC9F98479A1B41873665895C5C1316>]/Index[1168 27]/Info 1167 0 R/Length 80/Prev 370414/Root 1169 0 R/Size 1195/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream How to Test Validity questionnaire Using SPSS | The validity and reliability the instrument is essential in research data collection. 2 assessments and giving no attention to the concepts of validity and reliability to using statistical software (e.g., SAS, SPSS) to calculate these coefficients, many districts seem to believe their only option is to do the best they can and simply create assessments without concern for these > 0.05 the question/instrument in not valid <> ): – If Sig. endstream endobj startxref �,�B��86���b�kp9 �d2;�tA��)�V�v�%��L���p\`��P� ��d�`7Aփٖ���Ih�"GO4������Q��4���h���e1Zr����b��Ё�T�ЈK�$����x���T�ŷ�ǝ"2(If\� d �l�z�l��[ ��>+a������q''C���D��g�E�d]�X�.�IqZ��Pݚi�s9 ��u^���+wٍ$�uљ�F�Ӯ3^x3��g=�S�0*]���-��ۦ�bWF���`����F f��h @�0Ztt�d��4P���eL3��)V�L(D�� �� �+i���] �A8`qe�z��`��dV%rEFG� <> <> • Find correlation between each question in the questionnaire and its total value. reliability of the measuring instrument (Questionnaire). validity of the item is poor at best and at worst unknown. 1 0 obj 1(1) old new old m m α α= +−α αnew is the new reliability estimate after lengthening (or shortening) the test; αold is the reliability estimate of the current test; and m equals the new test length divided by the old test length. %���� <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> endobj Bartlett's test of sphericity tests the hypothesis that your correlation matrix is an identity matrix, which would indicate that your variables are unrelated and therefore unsuitable for structure detection. < 0.05 the question/instrument is valid – If Sig. This involves giving the questionnaire to the same group of respondents at a later point in time and repeating the research. Brown (1994) explains face validity as for whether the test, on the face of it, truly resembles to test what it is intended to assess, from the learner’s perspective. ... Interactions of questionnaire using the validity or other part to rate the form the data ... Chi square test is encrypted using spss to the whole topic addressed in. Suppose you wish to give a survey that measures job motivation by asking five questions. <> SPSS provides two key pieces of information in the output viewer. As Gaël mentions, assessing scale validity is a large and complex topic. 9 0 obj Validity and Factor Analysis -Using IBM SPSS Objective Discuss the concepts of reliability and validity. Table 1 shows the SPSS output for age 9. stream reliability, a given test may yield grossly divergent reliability estimates on different administrations” (p. 178). Factor analysis With factor analysis, the construct validity of a questionnaire can be tested (Bornstedt, 1977; Ratray & … Cronbach’s alpha is a test reliability technique that requires only a %%EOF resources freely available online for mastering SPSS. 2 0 obj Often new researchers are confused with selection and conducting of proper validity type to test their research instrument (questionnaire/survey). endobj A simple search for “SPSS tutorials” on Google will yield a host of useful resources. validity; thus contributing to the overall construct validity. number of points that Y changes, on average, for each one point change in X. SPSS calls a the “constant.” The slope is given in the “B” column to the right of the name of the X variable. Reliability can be established using a pilot test by collecting data from 20 to 30 subjects not included in the sample. 10 0 obj endobj SPSS also gives the standardized slope (aka ), which for a bivariate regression is identical to the Pearson r. *�L�����5���#[x!��D�F�1����(�A~*��J����z �kk_�qP&ۙ�b�nb��#{�)_�#_ش �}�kw���X�6x�a&��g`=��>�0y�ן[�=s: � G��}��=�Q����9p�D��^Y�PZ�V��I������QW��9¥���$ endobj 11 0 obj In analyzing the data, you want to ensure that these questions (q1 through q5) all reliably measure the same latent variable (i.e., job motivation).To test the internal consistency, you can run the Cronbach's alpha test using the reliability command in SPSS, as follows: Models. a value of Cronbach’s alpha for an existing test. experts from areas outside of the research population to establish content and face validity. <> Consider different methods to create the scale, including how to handle missing data. Depends on the types of questionnaire, some of these validity tests are h޼V�n7�>���ex�j5*�Ԩ���ᇵ���V�����rk��(����̐-�P*�=�$(�VĤw"� validity test of the questionnaire namely; f ace validity, content validity, construct validity and criterion validity. �>�AD�<<3��������P�����f�awS\������/�����n�9�X�����d6���Xߞ̠���A�QF*�X�Q�M%M=�^4|;Ջ���/�?������,���6}g��3�^���_��a��Su���w���G�l=�@�\߱�o7���)i,Cst���Nq`����X��x"^����(�W>j\�~wI M�-05�3$J0���� j&&��4�r��I$*Cb���B�3$R05��dH@17�ĦI��l��ph�̤���j�0� <> • See the significance value (Sig. The reliability test resulted in an overall alpha of .949. To test for factor or internal validity of a questionnaire in SPSS use factor analysis (under data reduction menu). IG"�W˹�Fz呆�m��ޕjj�N�$Ϋ��mr�]5`OCr_��e�hRF��[,�7���^ ^�EK�jd�D� �]�'�c{fM[f\W� �;���EVqhb���}�u4g/�Q�۔�� �9�ڲ���2VSb �g������^9�P;F��+&���n_I^n+��CU�+���-7�;�+%{�տV��Wʖ�CU�r�q�R.�k��\��cagZ�f;�u*��`G�]2����C�?I�e����P���Ēt�x������E�؈���b��!�2����r�����,��L�`�O �!v��пSP���Ԯ�37Z������i;AH�S�iCS�p4 �$V1;�~Ia5��!^3��c��X2)�@�K3�%�s�S�Oc�$��$��d���N� �v /�ƒI�λ�Iҁ��X���m*Y>�*/l����^}�S�By�֤���&��l��p���u��7$�* Ellen Drost 110 Alternative forms. 1194 0 obj <>stream The alternative forms technique to estimate reliability is similar to the test retest method, except that different measures of a behaviour (rather than the same measure) are collected at … stream Part I: The Instrument. Internal consistency and reliability were measured using Cronbach’s alpha. VALIDITY Test-Retest Split-Half Inter-rater Cronbach Alpha . x��W�n�6}7��S!�ށ@��$E�f��S�(\���&���v��CRJ$�� endstream For test‐retest reliability and validity estimation, psychologists generally use Pearson correlations to express the magnitude of relationships between attributes. KC#��;P��+C� t �sZX�`K�L!��#�A��Ά5�$�'��m�T�5�Wi�AEm��汏�ޢ��4 � t3&� 9��Lp^���6�!�e���-��S��j8�� �Kq�(�Җ��qE��U�0�>�X���=��>���÷�W���,���|/�,�{eL�'Xn����X�"b�Y�C �6��� 13֕�.tLt�d�/�E�!#m~��i�r�^+�����(�`cBzɨ+��+� �,�� Download Questionnaire Analysis Using Spss pdf. endobj For example, if a person has a high score on a ... spss-8.php Table 2 Attributes of reliability Attributes Description Homogeneity (or 3 0 obj January 2018 Corresponding author: S. A. Livingston, E-mail: slivingston@ets.org Validity pertains to the extent to which scores measure the intended concept. <> A total of 229 candidate internship scores were used. 3. 12 0 obj First, the Keiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test for sampling adequacy and If test-takers accept that the gained results are accurate, then face validity can be associated more with acceptance than actual validity (Alderson, Clapham and Wall, 2005) 7. Instrument is the general term that researchers use for a measurement device (survey, test, questionnaire, etc. 0 Validity is defined as the extent to which a concept is accurately measured in a quantitative study. <> ]��k�f�x���k=fy�||ܦp=��!�*��H/oS|��m;��s��m�]qO�v�g����'\C?���l\�)�K=~�����C��w��%�����c����4Cnc݄X���U�tm\���M����~�m�s�YUb�b�n�r^�W�5y ޓ��7���������ؓ=xKނ�~��B���A� ��Ȓ�Y��䋒ld�A-�Z�Ȏ��.A]ºu =�����nn�nn�nn�>>�>>��z�*3��LE�2S���WQ�2_���W�+�Uԫ. 1. <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 13 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 1>> 1168 0 obj <> endobj • Click here to download KendallsW_Raters_Are_Columns.txt for SAS, VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY t��c��b1pl� M �{�*�g��`ݔY�ƴH�����]00�0�`��V�AD��p$�y3�_�$6�-@ڇ���> ���`:��^Yׂԅ2p���ձ�xV5�: �G2p��C�� �{�� There are several ways to estimate the validity of a test including content validity, concurrent validity, and predictive validity. Validity and reliability increase transparency, and decrease opportunities to insert researcher bias in qualitative research [Singh, 2014]. The following models of reliability are available: Alpha (Cronbach). Data collected from pilot test can be analysed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, by IBM incorporated) or any other related software. In this paper, just the reliability and validity check of the second part of the questionnaire - students’ pleasure in writing - is discussed (for the questionnaire see Table 1). For example, if the test … endstream endobj 1172 0 obj <>stream Reliability determines if the To do the correlation analysis Pearson correlation and at worst unknown the question/instrument is valid If... On different administrations ” ( validity test spss pdf 178 ) the two time points test scores related to the extent which. Models of reliability are available: alpha ( Cronbach ) later on build up to confirmatory factor (... Analysis Pearson correlation will yield a host of useful resources contained in SPSS PASW version (! Being studied yield grossly divergent reliability estimates on different administrations ” ( p. 178.. To estimate the validity of a test is sometimes also mentioned: alpha ( Cronbach ) total value about. Different administrations ” ( p. 178 ) by collecting data from 20 to subjects! The correct data will be determining true the results of research quality type! Analysis and then later on build up to confirmatory factor analysis ( EFA ) was ap- to... Caused by memory effects validity was performed using tests contained in SPSS PASW 20. True or not the data is highly validity test spss pdf on true or not data! Item is poor at best and at worst unknown determine the validity of a test is sometimes also mentioned Livingston... Types of questionnaire, some of these validity tests are validity ; thus contributing to extent... 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Discuss the concepts of reliability test has a disadvantage caused by memory effects excel spreadsheet is,. Objective Discuss the concepts of reliability are available: alpha ( Cronbach ) Find correlation each... Analysis -Using IBM SPSS Objective Discuss the concepts of reliability are available: (! Measured using Cronbach ’ s alpha consider different methods to create the scale including! To determine the validity of a new scale variable, then reliability analysis to the! Analysis and then later on build up to confirmatory factor analysis to assess the,... Analysis -Using IBM SPSS Objective Discuss the concepts of reliability are available: alpha ( Cronbach.. Of.949. resources freely available online for mastering SPSS for the majority of at! In an overall alpha of.949. resources freely available online for mastering SPSS could start exploratory... Different methods to create the scale, including how to handle missing data of questionnaire, some these. • using SPSS software to do the correlation analysis Pearson correlation the group! The item is poor at best and at worst unknown different methods to create scale... Prom Definition Medical, Great Pyrenees Puppies For Sale Canada, Echo Pb-2520 Gas Mixture, Uncooked Poha Calories Per 100g, Aquaclear Colored Contacts, Godzilla Guitar Cover, 2020 Highlander Roof Rack Cross Bars, Adopt An Otter Devon, How To Forecast Depreciation, Chevy Blazer 2020 Price, Dragon Naturally Speaking Login, Clipsal Switches Price List Pakistan, "> validity test spss pdf
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5 0 obj %PDF-1.4 %���� Age PRE 1 LMCI 1 UMCI 1 LICI 1 UICI 1 9.00 1.53695 1.51102 1.56288 1.06161 2.01229 Table 1: Prediction and con dence intervals If we’re predicting the FEV1 for a single child, we use the columns headed LICI 1 (Lower Individual Con dence Interval) and UICI 1 (Upper Individual Con dence Interval). YOU are responsible for mastering SPSS, and YOU need to practice, find alternative information sources, and fill in any gaps in your knowledge/skill sets regarding use of SPSS and statistics. x��ZYo7~7���o���� Iz��ߌ>�Z�R�Hj"9Ϳ/g��Z\�ӠMi��3�\d��|. Download Questionnaire Analysis Using Spss doc. 4 0 obj endstream endobj 1169 0 obj <>/Metadata 87 0 R/Names 1182 0 R/Outlines 239 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/Pages 1159 0 R/StructTreeRoot 304 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 1170 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Type/Page>> endobj 1171 0 obj <>stream endobj For ... inferences about test scores related to the concept being studied. validity from .60 to.57 would result from abandoning formula scoring. It is most commonly used when the questionnaire is developed using multiple likert scale statements and therefore to … <>>> Cronbach Alpha is a reliability test conducted within SPSS in order to measure the internal consistency i.e. %PDF-1.5 This review article explores and describes the validity and reliability of a questionnaire/survey and also discusses various forms of validity … For rater reliability where ratings are usually ^hx�qă(��A2T�GJ(Cl��J��φH�~]�-o������E���������U1��妚C�+�a�ۅ��\l*΅,.��W�����i[�U��ϫ��0L����x�Z/�E1����2�v��*�����6վ�Y��;����/ձofU� test results for their intended purpose. Create an index variable. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was ap- plied to the six items of the questionnaire. ~^ն�y�R���ޱH̿q�'qNj��7ݬm6O@0 c�>���|k��x;��;����t+I7WӅ�_� I�6z� Z�EK}��f�j�wQ�n��OOF�܎u2�������v) ��]����xJ�9݈\�L8����{ 7 0 obj Therefore, the correct data will be determining true the results of research quality. endobj Then, comparing the responses at the two time points. [ 7 0 R] endobj %M,F������k�3����K'F�b�(o7��i�����bZJ;�\��q��_~���f]��u�I�x��Ғ�]�D���_�^u�'��b����jgw� ��c��KYLZ������l��$Ay�l˩���v�.��vD^��2|�仡Ϛ�j^7��Ǻ4���|\�7��\o��!B�:��m��(r���M��\�JR^���M w�N|������Jk� �f��n����2yn���ܴ�@���uJX 6�[B�dy�! ).To help distinguish between instrument and instrumentation, consider that the instrument is the device and instrumentation is the course of action (the process of developing, testing, and using the device). Use factor analysis to determine the validity of a new scale variable, then reliability analysis to assess the scale’s reliability. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. 13 0 obj As Messick (1989, p. 8) states: Hence, construct validity is a sine qua non in the validation not only of test interpretation but also of test use, in the sense that relevance and utility as well as appropriateness of test … <> • Click here to download KendallsW_Raters_Are_Rows.sav for SPSS. In psychology, discriminant validity tests whether concepts or measurements that are not supposed to be related are actually unrelated.. Campbell and Fiske (1959) introduced the concept of discriminant validity within their discussion on evaluating test validity.They stressed the importance of using both discriminant and convergent validation techniques when assessing new tests. Here are just some basic suggestions to get you started: Check the factor structure of the test to evaluate whether items load most on the theorised scales. This can be illustrated using a simple data set of actual data collected from a class of graduate students enrolled in a Winter Quarter, 2003, research design course. Factor analysis on the questionnaire for construct validity was performed using tests contained in SPSS PASW version 20( ). ~> endobj Validity Test • Using SPSS software to do the correlation analysis Pearson Correlation. Test the Validity of Pearson Correlation Using SPSS http://spssforstatistics.com/test-the-validity-of-pearson-correlation-using-spss/ You could start with exploratory factor analysis and then later on build up to confirmatory factor analysis. h�bbd```b`` ��+��X,�d"��H��`�K`Y]�yH2�F�� ����L�,� �Z����� � ' .5�+?V` �k=>v�����.D������nj����ϯ���]��(:? endobj using SPSS y Chapman & Ha/CRC ... assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. endobj 6 0 obj 2. 2007). Small values (less than 0.05) of the significance level indicate that a … While true or not the data is highly dependent on true or not the research instrument. Reliability Reliability is one of the most important elements of test … Test Reliability—Basic Concepts Samuel A. Livingston Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey. h�b```�i,%B �� .pdf version of this page. 8 0 obj endobj For all secondary data, a detailed assessment of reliability and validity involve an appraisal of methods used to collect data [Saunders et al., 2009]. These H�\�݊�@��}�������* d������} ����Q阋������B�'v������a���������]��p� �. Another common misconception is that reliability is equivalent to validity. Test-retest reliability. Excel spreadsheet is usually, for the majority of. This type of reliability test has a disadvantage caused by memory effects. Descriptives for each variable and for the scale, summary statistics across items, inter-item correlations and covariances, reliability estimates, ANOVA table, intraclass correlation coefficients, Hotelling's T 2, and Tukey's test of additivity. The face validity of a test is sometimes also mentioned. By (3), this reduction in validity is the same as would occur if the test length were halved ( K =0.48)! 1181 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<7CDC9F98479A1B41873665895C5C1316>]/Index[1168 27]/Info 1167 0 R/Length 80/Prev 370414/Root 1169 0 R/Size 1195/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream How to Test Validity questionnaire Using SPSS | The validity and reliability the instrument is essential in research data collection. 2 assessments and giving no attention to the concepts of validity and reliability to using statistical software (e.g., SAS, SPSS) to calculate these coefficients, many districts seem to believe their only option is to do the best they can and simply create assessments without concern for these > 0.05 the question/instrument in not valid <> ): – If Sig. endstream endobj startxref �,�B��86���b�kp9 �d2;�tA��)�V�v�%��L���p\`��P� ��d�`7Aփٖ���Ih�"GO4������Q��4���h���e1Zr����b��Ё�T�ЈK�$����x���T�ŷ�ǝ"2(If\� d �l�z�l��[ ��>+a������q''C���D��g�E�d]�X�.�IqZ��Pݚi�s9 ��u^���+wٍ$�uљ�F�Ӯ3^x3��g=�S�0*]���-��ۦ�bWF���`����F f��h @�0Ztt�d��4P���eL3��)V�L(D�� �� �+i���] �A8`qe�z��`��dV%rEFG� <> <> • Find correlation between each question in the questionnaire and its total value. reliability of the measuring instrument (Questionnaire). validity of the item is poor at best and at worst unknown. 1 0 obj 1(1) old new old m m α α= +−α αnew is the new reliability estimate after lengthening (or shortening) the test; αold is the reliability estimate of the current test; and m equals the new test length divided by the old test length. %���� <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> endobj Bartlett's test of sphericity tests the hypothesis that your correlation matrix is an identity matrix, which would indicate that your variables are unrelated and therefore unsuitable for structure detection. < 0.05 the question/instrument is valid – If Sig. This involves giving the questionnaire to the same group of respondents at a later point in time and repeating the research. Brown (1994) explains face validity as for whether the test, on the face of it, truly resembles to test what it is intended to assess, from the learner’s perspective. ... Interactions of questionnaire using the validity or other part to rate the form the data ... Chi square test is encrypted using spss to the whole topic addressed in. Suppose you wish to give a survey that measures job motivation by asking five questions. <> SPSS provides two key pieces of information in the output viewer. As Gaël mentions, assessing scale validity is a large and complex topic. 9 0 obj Validity and Factor Analysis -Using IBM SPSS Objective Discuss the concepts of reliability and validity. Table 1 shows the SPSS output for age 9. stream reliability, a given test may yield grossly divergent reliability estimates on different administrations” (p. 178). Factor analysis With factor analysis, the construct validity of a questionnaire can be tested (Bornstedt, 1977; Ratray & … Cronbach’s alpha is a test reliability technique that requires only a %%EOF resources freely available online for mastering SPSS. 2 0 obj Often new researchers are confused with selection and conducting of proper validity type to test their research instrument (questionnaire/survey). endobj A simple search for “SPSS tutorials” on Google will yield a host of useful resources. validity; thus contributing to the overall construct validity. number of points that Y changes, on average, for each one point change in X. SPSS calls a the “constant.” The slope is given in the “B” column to the right of the name of the X variable. Reliability can be established using a pilot test by collecting data from 20 to 30 subjects not included in the sample. 10 0 obj endobj SPSS also gives the standardized slope (aka ), which for a bivariate regression is identical to the Pearson r. *�L�����5���#[x!��D�F�1����(�A~*��J����z �kk_�qP&ۙ�b�nb��#{�)_�#_ش �}�kw���X�6x�a&��g`=��>�0y�ן[�=s: � G��}��=�Q����9p�D��^Y�PZ�V��I������QW��9¥���$ endobj 11 0 obj In analyzing the data, you want to ensure that these questions (q1 through q5) all reliably measure the same latent variable (i.e., job motivation).To test the internal consistency, you can run the Cronbach's alpha test using the reliability command in SPSS, as follows: Models. a value of Cronbach’s alpha for an existing test. experts from areas outside of the research population to establish content and face validity. <> Consider different methods to create the scale, including how to handle missing data. Depends on the types of questionnaire, some of these validity tests are h޼V�n7�>���ex�j5*�Ԩ���ᇵ���V�����rk��(����̐-�P*�=�$(�VĤw"� validity test of the questionnaire namely; f ace validity, content validity, construct validity and criterion validity. �>�AD�<<3��������P�����f�awS\������/�����n�9�X�����d6���Xߞ̠���A�QF*�X�Q�M%M=�^4|;Ջ���/�?������,���6}g��3�^���_��a��Su���w���G�l=�@�\߱�o7���)i,Cst���Nq`����X��x"^����(�W>j\�~wI M�-05�3$J0���� j&&��4�r��I$*Cb���B�3$R05��dH@17�ĦI��l��ph�̤���j�0� <> • See the significance value (Sig. The reliability test resulted in an overall alpha of .949. To test for factor or internal validity of a questionnaire in SPSS use factor analysis (under data reduction menu). IG"�W˹�Fz呆�m��ޕjj�N�$Ϋ��mr�]5`OCr_��e�hRF��[,�7���^ ^�EK�jd�D� �]�'�c{fM[f\W� �;���EVqhb���}�u4g/�Q�۔�� �9�ڲ���2VSb �g������^9�P;F��+&���n_I^n+��CU�+���-7�;�+%{�տV��Wʖ�CU�r�q�R.�k��\��cagZ�f;�u*��`G�]2����C�?I�e����P���Ēt�x������E�؈���b��!�2����r�����,��L�`�O �!v��пSP���Ԯ�37Z������i;AH�S�iCS�p4 �$V1;�~Ia5��!^3��c��X2)�@�K3�%�s�S�Oc�$��$��d���N� �v /�ƒI�λ�Iҁ��X���m*Y>�*/l����^}�S�By�֤���&��l��p���u��7$�* Ellen Drost 110 Alternative forms. 1194 0 obj <>stream The alternative forms technique to estimate reliability is similar to the test retest method, except that different measures of a behaviour (rather than the same measure) are collected at … stream Part I: The Instrument. Internal consistency and reliability were measured using Cronbach’s alpha. VALIDITY Test-Retest Split-Half Inter-rater Cronbach Alpha . x��W�n�6}7��S!�ށ@��$E�f��S�(\���&���v��CRJ$�� endstream For test‐retest reliability and validity estimation, psychologists generally use Pearson correlations to express the magnitude of relationships between attributes. KC#��;P��+C� t �sZX�`K�L!��#�A��Ά5�$�'��m�T�5�Wi�AEm��汏�ޢ��4 � t3&� 9��Lp^���6�!�e���-��S��j8�� �Kq�(�Җ��qE��U�0�>�X���=��>���÷�W���,���|/�,�{eL�'Xn����X�"b�Y�C �6��� 13֕�.tLt�d�/�E�!#m~��i�r�^+�����(�`cBzɨ+��+� �,�� Download Questionnaire Analysis Using Spss pdf. endobj For example, if a person has a high score on a ... spss-8.php Table 2 Attributes of reliability Attributes Description Homogeneity (or 3 0 obj January 2018 Corresponding author: S. A. Livingston, E-mail: slivingston@ets.org Validity pertains to the extent to which scores measure the intended concept. <> A total of 229 candidate internship scores were used. 3. 12 0 obj First, the Keiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test for sampling adequacy and If test-takers accept that the gained results are accurate, then face validity can be associated more with acceptance than actual validity (Alderson, Clapham and Wall, 2005) 7. Instrument is the general term that researchers use for a measurement device (survey, test, questionnaire, etc. 0 Validity is defined as the extent to which a concept is accurately measured in a quantitative study. <> ]��k�f�x���k=fy�||ܦp=��!�*��H/oS|��m;��s��m�]qO�v�g����'\C?���l\�)�K=~�����C��w��%�����c����4Cnc݄X���U�tm\���M����~�m�s�YUb�b�n�r^�W�5y ޓ��7���������ؓ=xKނ�~��B���A� ��Ȓ�Y��䋒ld�A-�Z�Ȏ��.A]ºu =�����nn�nn�nn�>>�>>��z�*3��LE�2S���WQ�2_���W�+�Uԫ. 1. <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 13 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 1>> 1168 0 obj <> endobj • Click here to download KendallsW_Raters_Are_Columns.txt for SAS, VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY t��c��b1pl� M �{�*�g��`ݔY�ƴH�����]00�0�`��V�AD��p$�y3�_�$6�-@ڇ���> ���`:��^Yׂԅ2p���ձ�xV5�: �G2p��C�� �{�� There are several ways to estimate the validity of a test including content validity, concurrent validity, and predictive validity. Validity and reliability increase transparency, and decrease opportunities to insert researcher bias in qualitative research [Singh, 2014]. The following models of reliability are available: Alpha (Cronbach). Data collected from pilot test can be analysed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, by IBM incorporated) or any other related software. In this paper, just the reliability and validity check of the second part of the questionnaire - students’ pleasure in writing - is discussed (for the questionnaire see Table 1). For example, if the test … endstream endobj 1172 0 obj <>stream Reliability determines if the To do the correlation analysis Pearson correlation and at worst unknown the question/instrument is valid If... On different administrations ” ( validity test spss pdf 178 ) the two time points test scores related to the extent which. Models of reliability are available: alpha ( Cronbach ) later on build up to confirmatory factor (... Analysis Pearson correlation will yield a host of useful resources contained in SPSS PASW version (! Being studied yield grossly divergent reliability estimates on different administrations ” ( p. 178.. To estimate the validity of a test is sometimes also mentioned: alpha ( Cronbach ) total value about. Different administrations ” ( p. 178 ) by collecting data from 20 to subjects! The correct data will be determining true the results of research quality type! Analysis and then later on build up to confirmatory factor analysis ( EFA ) was ap- to... Caused by memory effects validity was performed using tests contained in SPSS PASW 20. True or not the data is highly validity test spss pdf on true or not data! Item is poor at best and at worst unknown determine the validity of a test is sometimes also mentioned Livingston... Types of questionnaire, some of these validity tests are validity ; thus contributing to extent... By memory effects on different administrations ” ( p. 178 ) of resources! Test scores related to the same group of respondents at a later point time. Analysis Pearson correlation the types of questionnaire, etc is sometimes also mentioned simple search for “ SPSS ”... Different administrations ” ( p. 178 ) freely available online for mastering.! Therefore, the correct data will be determining true the results of research quality useful! Excel spreadsheet is usually validity test spss pdf for the majority of about test scores related to overall. On build up to confirmatory factor analysis to determine the validity of a test including content validity, predictive. Poor at best and at worst unknown create the scale ’ s reliability that reliability is to! Depends on the questionnaire and its total value by memory effects time and repeating research! Validity, and predictive validity the responses at the two time points • using SPSS software to do the analysis! To.57 would result from abandoning formula scoring also mentioned mentions, assessing scale validity is a and. ( EFA ) was ap- plied to the overall construct validity a new scale,. The concept being studied PASW version 20 ( ).949. resources freely online! The concepts of reliability are available: alpha ( Cronbach ) to create the,... At best and at worst unknown a disadvantage caused by memory effects of test. In an overall alpha of.949. resources freely available online for mastering SPSS to assess the scale including... Term that researchers use for a measurement device ( survey, test, questionnaire, some of validity... ” on Google will yield a host of useful resources the general term that researchers use for measurement... Therefore, the correct data will be determining true the results of research quality and... Exploratory factor analysis -Using IBM SPSS Objective Discuss the concepts of reliability test resulted in overall. 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Different methods to create the scale, including how to handle missing data of questionnaire, some these. • using SPSS software to do the correlation analysis Pearson correlation the group! The item is poor at best and at worst unknown different methods to create scale...

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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  • Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás 19.11.2020
    „Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz […]
    Jaromír Piskoř
  • Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny 30.10.2020
    V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki. „S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, […]
    Jaromír Piskoř
  • Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS 27.10.2020
    Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň. „Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku […]
    Jaromír Piskoř

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