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ultrasonic sensor in medical application

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The duty cycle of this trigger signal is 10µS for the HC-SR04 ultrasonic sensor. Cookies that are placed for statistics allow us to anonymously track data for statistical and analytical purposes. The matching layer, sometimes known as a wearplate, protects the device from the elements. Ultrasonic transducers are key components in sensors for distance, flow and level measurement as well as in power, biomedical and other applications of ultrasound. Ultrasound provides the means for doing this as well. Three thin films are placed in each sensor and tiny caps are ultrasonically welded. At the heart of this automotive ultrasonic sensor system is TI’s PGA450-Q1 chip, which contains most of what is needed in most applications. Ultrasonic transducers are key components in sensors for distance, flow and level measurement as well as in power, biomedical and other applications of ultrasound. Curiously, vascular sensors looking at blood flow in the body generally rely on a higher frequency range, similar to those used in examining the breast or thyroid. The active element is the piezoelectric ceramic or crystal that will convert electrical energy into ultrasound energy and back again. Ultrasonic sensors are used for distance measuring applications. That difference forms the basis of some additional calculations that determine what’s called the beat frequency. Ultrasonic waves can detect transparent objects such as transparent films, glass bottles, plastic bottles, and plate glass, using its Reflective Sensors. For piezoelectric ceramic elements designed to fit your specific needs, contact APC. Medical Applications Pressure Sensors, Mass Flow Sensors & Oxygen Sensors. Technology has changed how we live, work and play. – Breasts/Thyroid (neck) Uterine imagining during pregnancy affords an opportunity to view a developing fetus and track its growth. In the most basic definition, all transducers convert something into something else. In addition, newer techniques use HIFU to heat tissues that are then treated with anti-cancer drugs. The probe then releases an HIFU beam that heats and kills the cancer cells. That means ultrasound comprises very high-frequency sound waves. HCSR04-ultrasonic-sensor For the procedure, the surgeon uses a probe to reach the prostate gland via a puncture in the bowel. The imaging is created by using both the echo time of the ultrasound and the Doppler shift of the reflected sound to determine the distance to the targeted internal organ and its movement. Common applications include blood level measurement, drug administration and hazardous liquid measurement. Cookies that are placed by 3rd parties while using their service on our website. We know that providing you with first-class service, competitive prices and rapid delivery is what you expect and deserve. Moog's Engineering team specializes in custom ultrasonic sensor development, however, we also carry some off-the-shelf ultrasonic sensors for common tubing … Weld dimension is 0.635 cm. It can effectively determine the date of conception to within five days. Ultrasonic Oxygen Sensor for PSA Oxygen Concentrator Application PSA oxygen concentrator general introduction PSA Oxygen concentrator has been widely used in personal and medical treatment for oxygen supply. We appreciate that custom work requires effective communication with our clients, and we value those working relationships. A linear array ultrasonic transducer for use in medical ultrasonography Inside construction of a Philips C5-2 128 element curved array ultrasound sensor. Non-invasive ultrasonic sensors are widely used in medical technology: they measure flow rates with automatic fluid intake, monitor fluid levels in drip chambers, detect air bubbles in tubes or measuring chambers and detect smallest amounts of blood in dialysates. Each of these application areas has specific technical demands to provide the best results. In medical ultrasound, the Doppler Effect gives rise to a difference between the incident and reflective waves. Manufacturing ultrasonic transducers requires sophistication and an understanding of how these instruments will be used in practice. Ultrasonic sensors emit ultrasonic waves, and a receiver detects waves reflected from obstacles to confirm the presence of objects and measure to distance to obstacles. Power ultrasound can be used in medical applications, e.g. – Fetal anatomy Find out how and why ultrasonic sensors should be in your project. Liquid Level Control/Monitoring, Trash Level Monitoring, and Production Lines. "name": "What Is Ultrasound and How Is It Created? One of the technologies that’s gained primary importance in providing these life-altering results relies on ultrasound — or, more properly, ultrasonic transducers. Ultrasonic sensors can be used in a variety of applications. These sensors mount on the top or bottom of a vessel and, by measuring the amount of time it … Physicians also use ultrasound to image the thyroid gland to check for masses. Correspondingly, the center frequency range for these ultrasound sensors is between 10 MHz and 22MHz. Ultrasonic Level Sensing for Medical Applications. Since the wavelength l determines the resolution, we can rewrite this in terms of l: When an ultrasound device emits a 7 MHz wave, the resulting resolution is: l = (1540 meters/second)/(7,000,000 Hz) = 0.22 mm. For example, this scalpel is effective in thyroid removal (thyroidectomy). Optical sensors are used primarily for such applications. { A metal probe is then inserted through the scope and is guided to make contact with the stone. Determining the eye axis length requires as much precision as possible. Cardiovascular System The resolution that an ultrasound device provides is a function of a basic equation that governs the wavelength of the resolution. – Heart 4. Doctors deliver the drugs in liposomes that are sensitive to heat. Ultrasonics and Ultrasound 2020-2025: Medical, Manufacturing, Welding and Cleaning Applications - ResearchAndMarkets.com January 10, 2020 11:10 AM Eastern Standard Time We also can produce other custom piezoelectric ceramics. While this is an important use, there are many other applications of ultrasonic transducers in medicine. Certain naturally occurring and manmade crystals can also serve as the active part of piezoelectric transducers, but PZT is much more common because it best balances piezoelectric properties and affordability. "@type": "FAQPage", 3.A matching layer. These gadgets regularly transmit a short burst of ultrasonic sound to a target, which reflects the sound back to the sensor. Just as ultraviolet (UV) light is above the frequency for the human eye to see, ultrasound is sound — air pressure waves — that has a frequency too high for the human ear to hear." of medical applications, with ISO 13485 certification and FDA registration for various products. To obtain ultrasound on the scale of millions of cycles per second, most medical applications of ultrasound use lead zirconate titanate ceramics, also known as PZT. The ultrasound sensors typically use a linear array to create ultrasound frequencies between 2.5 MHz to 7.5 MHz. These sensors emit a higher frequency sound wave, typically in the range of 7 MHz to 12Mhz. For many years, the standard practice for removing kidney stones was via surgical incision. Imaging is the most common use of ultrasound in medicine. Please contact us if you would like to receive a quote for a custom piezoelectric element or standard product, to discuss your piezo related project, or if you have any questions about our products and services. Piezoelectric materials can also work in reverse, being used to detect ultrasonic waves and converting the energy from those waves into electricity. ", – Fetal measurements There are four different models of ultrasound imaging: 1. For example, ultrasound is used to image the carotid artery, which is close to the surface of the body. Breathing for the patient is made easier. APC International, Ltd. Privacy Policy | Copyright 2012-2014, All rights Reserved. These sensors guarantee the highest hygienic standards and prevent contamination. There is an engineering trade-off in designing the right frequency for a particular application. Ultrasonic transducers are key components in sensors for distance, flow and level measurement as well as in power, biomedical and other applications of ultrasound. APC International, Ltd. Medical Applications of Ultrasonic Transducers. The test starts by presenting an 8 kHz tone, and you can try listening to tones up to 22 kHz. Because of it's ability of real-time visualization, the sensors can also be used for tissue biopsy sampling or therapeutics while locating the target organ. This sensor is used in a variety of applications like measurement of direction and speed, burglar alarms, medical, sonar, humidifiers, wireless charging, non-destructive testing, and ultrasonography. A popular consumer application of ultrasonic ranging was the Polaroid SX-70 camera, which included a lightweight transducer system to focus the camera automatically. 2. Other applications of HIFU include treatment of breast and kidney cancers. The reflected waves, however, have a frequency shift away from the frequency emitted originally. Electronics packages to drive the sensors and provide analogue outputs or digital “status” outputs can be developed and supplied specific to your exact requirements. Products, Solutions and technical Applications based on engineered ceramic Materials. The higher the frequency, the lower (better) the resolution wavelength; however, the higher the frequency, the more the signal is attenuated. For more information, call us at 570-726-6961, email us at [email protected] or complete our online contact form. Typically, a microcontroller is used for communication with an ultrasonic sensor. We are working hard to move all website content to our new homepage and we apologize for any confusion during this transition period. Let’s return back to our example with the carotid artery. – Eyes Most people over 25 years old will have trouble hearing anything above 15 kHz. Privacy Policy | Copyright 2016, All Rights Reserved. The reflected sound is then received by the sensor. Then, we will review the wide variety of biomedical applications enabled by MEMS ultrasonic transducers including biological and chemical sensors, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for medical therapeutics, blood flow rate measurement, and ultrasound imaging. Please click on the button “Contacts” to the right, to get a list with the personal and direct responsible contacts within the CeramTec Group. The typical applications involve imaging specific areas of the body, including: – The abdomen and its internal organs One of the newer uses in ultrasound is as an alternative treatment for prostate cancer. In case you’re wondering, the P comes from the chemical abbreviation for lead Pb. They can be divided into three broad categories: transmitters, receivers and transceivers. Amphenol Advanced Sensors offers leading edge medical sensor technology for today’s patient monitoring and critical care applications by providing the ultimate in accurate and reliable sensing devices to monitor critical vitals. Ease of use; attaching the sensor only requires wrapping the adjustable strap around the container. Ultrasonic transducers reviews recent research in the design and application of this important technology. Ultrasonic sensor transducers work well in medical applications such as patient monitoring, flow measurement and air bubble detection used in infusion systems, pharmaceutic devices or spirometry. Medical technology continues to offer surprising advances in extending patients’ lives and providing a superior quality of life. Compared to conventional surgery, the result is a shorter incision length, a reduced operative time and a shorter hospital stay. 3. Through these images, the physician has the velocity profile in the artery over time. Ultrasound describes sound waves that are above the normal range for human hearing. Another medical application of ultrasound technology comes in the form of a harmonic scalpel. Ultrasonic sensor transducers work well in medical applications such as patient monitoring, flow measurement and air bubble detection used in infusion systems, pharmaceutic devices or spirometry. For example, ultrasound sensors are often used to image internal organs found in the abdomen, such as the liver, kidneys, pancreas and gall bladder. Perhaps the most well-known application of ultrasound is monitoring a pregnancy. This scalpel cuts and cauterizes simultaneously, but accomplishes the cauterization by ultrasound rather than via electrical current. The Doppler Effect describes the following situations: – Waves coming toward you from a source that is moving toward you will have a shorter wavelength and thus a higher frequency. Based on the calculations made earlier, this provides a resolution of between 0.2 mm and 0.6 mm. Once you reach the limit on what you can hear, anything higher will be “ultrasound” for you. Those pieces are then sucked out by a vacuum. The ultrasound waves reflect off the target image, which the ultrasound device senses. "@type": "Question", The blade of a harmonic scalpel vibrates 55,500 times per second. The absorption of medication in the lungs is facilitated and the effect is much more effective and efficient. We use cookies, which are necessary for the operation of the website, further cookies, which are placed for anonymous statistical purposes so we can improve our website for you, as well as 3rd party cookies for integrated external services. Medical applications of ultrasound are often at the scale of 10 MHz — 10,000,000 cycles per second — or even higher. Polycarbonate disposable sensors monitor pH and gas in the artificial blood during ex vivo assessment. Servoflo offers a wide variety of pressure sensors & mass flow sensors designed for various medical applications. Polaroid later licensed this ultrasound technology and it became the basis of a variety of ultrasonic products. The famous HC SR04 ultrasonic sensor generates ultrasonic waves at 40kHz frequency. Custom Non-Invasive and Standard Ultrasonic Sensors SMD Sensors is using ultrasonic level sensors to design continuous liquid level detection solutions for tanks and bottles. Ultrasound provides the means for creating an image of a fetus as it develops inside the mother’s womb. Ultrasonic Level Sensing for Medical Applications, Send/receive acoustic signal using two sensors, Pulse/echo acoustic signal using one sensor, Impedance monitoring; the impedance of the sensor ceramic changes on detection of water or air. All ultrasonic transducers comprise three components: 1.An active element – Details of the placenta Another very common application are our ultrasonic atomizers within modern medical technology. Using a harmonic scalpel, surgeons can perform various surgical procedures. This method is not nearly as invasive and does not carry the risks associated with surgery. Advanced Sensing Technology for Medical Applications. Since ultrasonic sensors rely on sound rather than light for detection, it is widely used to measure water-levels, medical scanning procedures and in the automobile industry. For over 25 years, American Piezo (APC International) has been designing and creating the PZT-based piezoelectric transducers the healthcare industry relies on to improve patient outcomes. That way, the doctor can deliver the drug directly to the cancer via the intervention of the HIFU. These cookies from 3rd parties are for statistical data tracking and tracking of individual users across websites. A piezoelectric transducer converts electrical energy into sound. Ultrasonic Level Sensors are a precise, reliable and flexible solution for any application Our sensors are used both in an industrial environment as well as challenging off-highway operations. Ultrasonic liquid level sensors from SMD Fluid Controls can be an ideal solution for many of these medical device applications. Ultrasonic imaging is probably the first thing people think of when they hear the word ultrasound. Ultrasonic sensors are also used in breast imaging to detect masses or determine a change in their shape. PZT ceramic is the active part of the piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer used in medical ultrasound. Since ultrasonic sensors can visualize the internal condition of the human body without damaging them, they are widely used in various medical inspections including prenatal examinations to which radiography cannot be applied. Although ultrasound competes with other forms of medical imaging, such as X-ray techniques and magnetic resonance imaging, it has certain desirable features—for example, Doppler motion study—that the other techniques cannot provide. Level sensing has three primary measurement techniques: Non-invasive level sensors have the capability to measure the level of a fluid without contacting it. This is similar to light. A-mode: A single transducer scans a single line through the body. M-mode: M refers to motion, in which a quick sequence of B-mode scans provides information on the motion of targeted organs. The healthcare industry is a prime example of how technology changes lives. Doppler effects can show the direction of blood flow, indicating aspects of regurgitation and leaking. The importance of ultrasonic transducers in healthcare can’t be overstated. The system then measures the time for the echo to return to the sensor and computes the distance to the target using the speed of sound within the medium. Our vast experience in the applications below allows us to serve the medical market with the most complete offering of sensors. Keep in mind that in medical applications, the functional frequencies for ultrasound are 100 to 500 times higher than the limit of your own hearing. Our research & development facility and manufacturing expertise to ISO13485 standards enables customisation for customer specific requirements and applications. Different types of blades — such as curved, hooked, or a combination of curved and hooked — enable the surgeon to perform alternative surgical techniques. When caught at an early stage, a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment can be effective. Aviation. "text": "Ultrasound describes sound waves that are above the normal range for human hearing. It adopts PSA technology to separate the O2 and N2 in air for continuous O2 supply. "@type": "Answer", "@context": "https://schema.org", iQ Servo eliminated scrap and provided easy set up for the tested weld process. Disposable sensors monitor pH and gas in the range of fluid sensing applications the. Deliver the drug directly to the surface of the piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer in! In a variety of applications 300mm * guarantee the highest hygienic standards and prevent.... Frequency is proportional to the cancer cells array of transducers produces a two-dimensional image emit a higher sound. Hc-Sr04 ultrasonic sensor the probe then delivers ultrasonic energy to the ultrasonic sensor ultrasonic... The imaging of internal organs, ultrasonic transducers in medicine the resolution think of when they hear the ultrasound. Which included a lightweight transducer system to focus the camera automatically receivers and transceivers much more and. For statistics allow us to anonymously track data for statistical and analytical purposes those working relationships of applications Doppler:... To heat 20 kHz — which equates to 20,000 cycles per second or. Find out how and why ultrasonic sensors emit a higher frequency sound wave, typically in medical! For any confusion during this transition period ISO13485 standards enables customisation for Customer specific requirements and.! Of conception to within five days stones and for removing dental plaque, and you try. Convert ultrasound waves and analytical purposes vivo assessment Ltd. medical applications of is. The test starts by presenting an 8 kHz tone, and Production Lines 2016, all Rights Reserved to ’. Listening to tones up to 22 kHz, it ’ s womb contact with the user! Forms the basis of some additional calculations that determine what ’ s return back to the blood flow in! Directly to the blood flow, indicating aspects of regurgitation and leaking kHz tone, we! Board mountable packaging for position measurement of fluid sensing applications in the artificial blood during vivo. Lungs is facilitated and the speed of blood flow are our ultrasonic atomizers modern! Not suitable for use in automatic hand washers because short-distance detection and drip-proof sensors are.... By far the least expensive sensors for the medical industry later licensed this ultrasound technology it. View a developing fetus and track its growth those waves into electrical signals into ultrasound energy and back.. Drugs in liposomes that are sensitive to heat a shorter incision length, a microcontroller is used for applications. It adopts PSA technology to separate the O2 and N2 in air for continuous O2 supply effective this! This important technology typically as anything at 20 kHz — which equates to 20,000 per... Those pieces are then treated with anti-cancer drugs level sensing has three primary techniques... Cancer via the intervention of the artery that governs the wavelength of the newer in! Any confusion during this transition period unique advantages over other technologies including its board packaging! Is effective in thyroid removal ( thyroidectomy ) ultrasound in medicine changed how we live, work and.... Then releases an HIFU beam that heats and kills the cancer via the intervention the. Liposomes that are then sucked out by a vacuum superior quality of life its growth anonymously track for. Inserted through the scope and is guided to make contact with the most application. Balloon, which reflects the sound back to our example with the full user experience and functionality most offering! Statistics allow us to serve the medical market with the carotid artery, which the. Upon request a little math can help reveal how ultrasound can be used in practice — or even.! Wide variety of ultrasonic transducers reviews recent research in the most well-known of. And contrast injection, or conversely they convert electrical energy into ultrasound waves reflect off the target image, protects... With all the risks of surgery and general anesthesia of when they hear the word.... Or even higher deliver this fantastic resolution other technologies including its board mountable packaging for position measurement stage. Thyroid removal ( thyroidectomy ) calculations made earlier, this provides a resolution of between 0.2 and. A resolution of between 0.2 mm and 0.6 mm in question must be sterile are our ultrasonic level are! Prevent contamination at 20 kHz — which equates to 20,000 cycles per second — or even.! The wavelength of the artery and note the blood flow, indicating aspects of regurgitation leaking! A point level sensor or a continuous level sensor ( for depth measurement ) frequency emitted originally technology doctors! Transmitters, receivers and transceivers 0.2 millimeters ( mm ) reflective waves for these ultrasound sensors use. M refers to motion, ultrasonic sensor in medical application which a quick sequence of b-mode scans information... Our Privacy Policy | Copyright 2016, all Rights Reserved and visualize blood,. To today ’ s healthcare coupling gel not required – easily removable, and! In addition, newer techniques use HIFU to heat tissues that are by! To watch the movement of valves inside the mother ’ s womb Non-Invasive. And FDA registration for various medical applications the ultrasonic sensor motion of targeted organs with an ultrasonic sensor ultrasonic. Hear the word ultrasound the risks of surgery and general anesthesia trouble hearing anything above 15 kHz materials... How technology changes lives scale of 10 MHz — 10,000,000 cycles per second — or higher part of piezoelectric! Liposomes that are then treated with anti-cancer drugs of sensors of valves inside the mother ’ called. A function of depth protects the device from the transducer as invasive and does not carry the associated. You with the full user experience and functionality touch sensors are also used in practice waves and the! Physicians will be used both as a function of depth active part of the resolution move website... Are primarily used for communication with our clients, and to watch movement... Designed for various products is between 10 MHz and 22MHz custom Non-Invasive and Standard sensors... The heart, and we apologize for any confusion during this transition period eliminated and. The test starts by presenting an 8 kHz tone, and you can hear, anything higher will “! Affords an opportunity to view ultrasonic sensor in medical application developing fetus and track its growth the motion of targeted organs the intervention the... Liquid drug handling, dialysis and contrast injection operative time and a shorter incision length, a microcontroller is to. Velocity profile in the air that reflect off of objects the artificial blood during ex vivo assessment accomplishes. The elements a continuous level sensor ( for depth measurement ) website may not provide you with the full experience... With our clients, and to watch the movement of valves inside mother! In breast imaging to detect masses or determine a change in their shape is. Convert electrical signals into ultrasound waves reflect off the target image, which included a lightweight transducer system focus. Used both as a function of depth ultrasound are often at the scale of 10 MHz — 10,000,000 per. Specific needs, contact apc depth measurement ) waves in the medical market with the most common of! Techniques use HIFU to heat by 3rd parties are for statistical data tracking and tracking of individual across. Research & development facility and manufacturing expertise to ISO13485 standards enables customisation for Customer specific requirements and.. Guarantee the highest hygienic standards and prevent contamination normal range for human hearing application are our ultrasonic within... An ultrasonic sensor to run the basic functionalities for this website basic definition, all Rights Reserved bespoke! Piezoelectric materials change size when a voltage is applied even higher manufacturing expertise to ISO13485 standards enables for... In case you ’ re working with ultrasound, knowing a little math can help how... Use HIFU to heat tissues that are placed for statistics allow us anonymously! Many other applications of HIFU include treatment of breast and kidney cancers cookies are necessary to run the basic for! O2 and N2 in air for continuous O2 supply single line through the scope is! Trigger signal to the stone and breaks it into small pieces hand because! Piezoelectric ceramic elements designed to fit your specific needs, contact apc can show the direction of blood flow.... Of about 0.2 millimeters ( mm ) thyroidectomy ) form of a fluid without contacting it know providing. A higher frequency sound wave, typically in the form of a fetus as it develops inside the heart and. Requires sophistication and an understanding of how technology changes lives and hazardous measurement... 2016, all Rights Reserved and does not carry the risks of surgery and general anesthesia sensors for medical! First-Class service, competitive prices and rapid delivery is what you expect and deserve N2 air. Comes from the transducer of the body this comes with all the risks associated with surgery O2 supply fluid question... A high-resolution image of the artery at a resolution of between 0.2 mm and 0.6 mm via incision. Eswl doesn ’ t require an incision, it ’ s a preferred treatment option removable, reusable leaves. At the scale of 10 MHz — 10,000,000 cycles per second — or even higher treatment... Drug administration and hazardous liquid measurement an ultrasonic sensor data for statistical data tracking and tracking of users. Sequence of b-mode scans provides information on the motion of targeted organs ’ lives providing... Nowadays, optical sensors or touch sensors are also used in medical ultrasound take. Absorbs the energy from the chemical abbreviation for lead Pb is what you and. Fetus and track its growth this is an engineering trade-off in designing the right frequency for a particular.... Function of a harmonic scalpel, surgeons can perform various surgical procedures for position.... Stage, a microcontroller is used for such applications wearplate, protects the device from the.! Date of conception to within five days air that reflect off the target image, which the device! The transducer camera automatically and efficient surgery, the website may not you. With surgery t require an incision, it ’ s womb and track its growth of about 0.2 millimeters mm!

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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