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View Answer, 9. The material removal rate increases with voltage; due to the increase in voltage, machining current also increases. 5. Answer: 1. It was noticed that the evidence of three body material removal mechanism is predominant for micro USM using oil based slurry. In general, the material removal rate increases with the increase in the abrasive particle size for both aqueous abrasive slurry and oil based abrasive slurry. 2. 1. There was a reduction in material removal rate with the increase of the hardness and fracture toughness of the workpiece material. Ans: The various process Parameters that control MRR in USM process are: (i) Frequency: The material removal rate (mrr) increases linearly with the frequency but in actual characteristic is not exactly linear. The depth of cylindrical holes is presently limited to 2.5 times the diameter of the tool. b) Electron beam machining d) Decrease up to a limiting condition 8. To practice all areas of Manufacturing Engineering, here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers. View Answer. View Answer, 3. a) Force Materials Science and Manufacturing Engineering In an ultrasonic machining (USM) process, the material removal rate (MRR) is plotted as a function of the feed force of the USM tool. d) increases, becomes stable and then decreases . b) Insulators 7. a)increases continuously. b) USM This effect appears to be more pronounced in the machining of brittle materials than in the ductile ones. a) True d) Increase in number of particle making impact per cycle (c) 5. The material removal rate is mainly dependent on the flow rate and size of the abrasive particles. d) None of the mentioned a) Water 7. The material removal rates (MRR) in rotary USM are up to four times those in conventional USM. a) Electro chemical machining For a given work material, the removal rate in USM increases with increasing frequency and amplitude of vibration. The main purpose of the concentrator is to increase the amplitude, to the level needed for cutting. Therefore the optimum percentage of abrasives in the slurry is 40-60%. As shown in Fig. a) Conductors Answer: b Explanation: Splashing occurs if amplitude is very high which in turn decreases the material removal rate. d) Increase in amplitude This can be explained on the basis of the Machining rate obtained with different tool materials. c) decreases, becomes stable and then increases . State the working principle of USM equipment ix. The device for converting any type of energy into ultrasonic waves is the ultrasonic transducer. proaches to increase the material removal rate or reduce tool wear in case of titanium or its alloy were presented [3]. The material removal rate was defined as the mean volume of the materials removed by the mass of the two particles. All Rights Reserved. a) Increases a) Decrease in volume of work material per impact a) Tool Axially oscillating, 3.Mechanical, 4. ____ can be used as abrasive carrying medium. The actual shape of an abrasive grain is … c) Metals Relative material removal rate (%) for machining titanium in USM is (a) 66 (b) 4.0 (c) 1.4 (d) 4.8 Ans. In RUM, axial vibration together with tool rotation does the machining, as showninFig.1. Various types of concentrators are used c. fracture of work material due to impact of grains d. none of the above Answer Explanation The mrr tends to be somewhat lower than the theoretically-predicted value. Answer: b Explanation: Splashing occurs if amplitude is very high which in turn decreases the material removal rate. In an ultrasonic machining (USM) process, the material removal rate (MRR) is plotted as a function of the feed force of the USM tool. a) Decreases As an example, if your RDOC is.500″, your ADOC is.100″ and your Feed Rate is 41.5 inches per minute, you’d calculate MRR the following way: MRR =.500″ x.100″ x 41.5 in/min = 2.08 cubic inches per minute. c) Increase and then decrease a) Increases Tool wear rate is insignificantly affected by the type of workpiece material. a) 0.01 – 0.04 mm Hence, material removal due to these two factors has been ignored. 3. c) Remains same It is noted that the interference between the two abrasive particles decreases when the distance between the two adjacent abrasive particles increases, which increases the material removal rate. a) Electro chemical machining 8. Explanation: Different features of tool also affect the material removal in USM. Draw variation in MRR with different process parameters vii. USM can be used only when the hardness of work is more than 45 HRC. If there is an increase in viscosity of slurry, what happens to MRR? a) Increases Amplitude of the oscillation ranges between which of the following values? The microstructure and localized fracture mechanism of materials seem to affect the machined surface characteristics. Gas-As the velocity pressure depends on the composition of gas, the material removal rate is mainly affected by the composition of the gas. Nozzle-In a nozzle, the abrasive grains continuously flow with a very high speed. USM accomplishes the removal of material by the abrasive action of a grit-loaded slurry, circulating between the workpiece and a tool that is vibrated at small amplitude and high frequency. b) 15 – 20 % c) Increase up to a limiting condition In Ultrasonic Machining (USM) the material removal rate would (a) increase (b) decrease (c) increase and then decrease (d) decrease and then increase with increasing mean grain diameter of the abrasive material. d) Decrease and then increase Ultrasonic machining sometimes called ultrasonic abrasive machining or impact machining. d) None of the mentioned The rate of material removal in USM depends on ____. Polycarbonate (UL-752) Glass and USM Tool. The MRR increases with increase in speed of rotation of workpiece. Machinability rate of glass by USM is ____. Draw schematically the USM equipment x. Nozzle-In a nozzle, the abrasive grains continuously flow with a very high speed. The tool material being tough and ductile wears out at a much smaller rate. Factors affecting MRR Tool Oscillation or Vibration • Amplitude of the tool oscillation has the greatest effect of all the process variables. b) decreases continuously. Discuss below to share your knowledge. As the vibration frequency increases, what happens to material removal rate? d) All of the mentioned In an ultrasonic machining (USM) process, the material removal rate (MRR) is plotted as a function of the feed force of the USM tool. 1.In abrasive jet machining, as the distance between the nozzle tip and the work surface increases, the material removal rate. d) 0.10 – 0.20 mm This effect appears to be more pronounced in the machining of brittle materials than in the ductile ones. 14. © 2011-2020 Sanfoundry. Machining time and material removal rates are mainly limited by small discharge energies in micro-EDM . How much percent of the abrasives are recommended in general for abrasive medium? It also observed from the analysis, higher material removal rate also encourage the tool wear rate. Stationary USM Set Up . c) Decrease in frequency c) Velocity The tool material being tough and ductile wears out at a much smaller rate. When the static pressure of the feed is increases, MRR ____. USM accuracy levels are limited to ____ value. c) Remains same View Answer, 6. In USM process, as the machining rate increases, the surface quality deteriorates, the reason being formation of … • MRR and machinability by USM depends on the brittleness criterion which is the ratio of shearing to breaking strength of a material. 9. Phase Diagram, Mechanical Properties & Testing, Ferrous Metal, Non-Ferrous Metal & Heat Treatment, Magnetic & Electrical Properties of Material, Metrology, Welding & Fusion-Welding Processes, Powder Metallurgy, Metal Casting & Gating Systems, here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers, Prev - Manufacturing Engineering Questions & Answers – Laser Beam Machining, Next - Manufacturing Engineering Questions & Answers – Abrasive jet Machining, Digital Circuits Questions and Answers – Shift Registers, Digital Circuits Questions and Answers – Universal Shift Registers, Bioprocess Engineering Questions and Answers, Civil Engineering Drawing and Estimates Questions and Answers, Fluidization Engineering Questions and Answers, Engineering Chemistry I Questions and Answers, Chemical Process Calculation Questions and Answers, Mechatronics Engineering Questions and Answers, Basic Civil Engineering Questions and Answers, Instrumentation Engineering Questions and Answers, Engineering Materials and Metallurgy Questions and Answers, Aeronautical Engineering Questions and Answers, Environmental Engineering Questions and Answers, Metallurgical Engineering Questions and Answers, Best Reference Books – Technology, Engineering and Sciences, Chemical Engineering Questions and Answers, Waste Water Engineering Questions and Answers, Mechanical Engineering Questions and Answers, Machine Tools & Machining Questions and Answers, Manufacturing Engineering / Processes I Questions and Answers, Manufacturing Engineering / Processes II Questions and Answers, Advanced Machining Processes Questions and Answers. The material removal rate increases linearly with an increase in mass flow rate. All Rights Reserved. At a particular pressure the material removal rate increases with the abrasive flow rate but after reaching an optimum value, the material removal rate decreases with the further increase in abrasive flow rate. Relation (6.11) indicates that the rate of material removal is proportional to d 1/4, but actually it is proportional to d. This discrepancy between the theoretical prediction and the observed fact was explained by Shaw as follows. View Answer, 8. Join our social networks below and stay updated with latest contests, videos, internships and jobs! 3. Discuss the various process parameters that control MRR in USM process. Wear of the tool increases the angle of the hole, while sharp corners become rounded. b) Benzene As the tool vibrates, it leads to indentation of the abrasive grits. As the tool area increases, what happens to MRR? d) None of the mentioned High grain size will always produce more metal removal. Electrochemical Machining. The development of USM was motivated by the need to machine hard, … 8. • The rate of material removal, in USM, depends, on the frequency of tool vibration, static pressure, the size of the machined area, and the abrasive and workpiece material. Material removal primarily occurs due to the indentation of the hard abrasive grits on the brittle work material. b) decrease MRR. As the percentage of abrasive particles in the slurry is increasing the material removal rate is increasing but the flow characteristics of the slurry are decreasing. High grain size will always produce more metal removal. Hence, material removal due to these two factors has been ignored. advertisement. Initially with the increase in concentration of abrasive particles in the slurry, the number of active particles supplied to the workpiece surface increases, as a result material removal rate increases. However, a more cost-effective method for machining ceramic components is needed [4]. It is difficult to drill deep holes, as slurry movement is restricted. Material removal rate in USM increases with (b) 6. The material removal rate is mainly dependent on the flow rate and size of the abrasive particles. increase in abrasive size up to a limit after which it decreases. b) False ULTRASONIC MACHINING PROCESS (USM) BY, ARAVINDKUMAR B 2. 1.In abrasive jet machining, as the distance between the nozzle tip and the work surface increases, the material removal rate. Erosion, 2. In general, the material removal rate increases with the increase in the abrasive particle size for both aqueous abrasive slurry and oil based abrasive slurry. Abrasive carrying liquid for the abrasive slurry in USM is (a) Water (b) Heavy paraffin oil (c) Silicone oil (d) Glycerol Ans. d) Decreases in the number of particle making impact per cycle d) None of the mentioned  In USM process, as the machining rate increases, the surface quality deteriorates, the reason being formation of larger micro cavities at the time of machining. There is an optimum mixing ratio (mass fraction of the abrasive in the jet) for which the metal removal rate is the highest. Ultrasonic machining process can be used for a) Milling 2. 10. MRR = material removal rate TWR = tool wear rate SR = surafce roughness OA = orthogonal array . b) Decrease in volume of work material per impact View Answer, 9. a) Decrease in amplitude 1 Answer to In Ultrasonic Machining (USM) the material removal rate would (a) increase (b) decrease (c) increase and then decrease (d) decrease and then increase With increasing mean grain diameter of the abrasive material. When the static pressure of the feed is increases, what happens to MRR? iii) Erosion due to cavitation iv) Chemical action associated with fluid used. Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Advanced Machining. it concludes that hard abrasive gives the large stressed zone, which increases the material removal rate. Join our social networks below and stay updated with latest contests, videos, internships and jobs! 5. Beyond this point, the material removal decreases with the increasing static load. b) Decreases Surface finish -0.25 micron to 0.75 micron 7. b) 0.04 – 0.08 mm As the tool area increases, MRR ____. d) All of the mentioned If splashing occurs, it will result in an increase of material removal rate in USM. b) Decreases View Answer, 5. Through analysis, it concludes that hard abrasive gives the large stressed zone, which increases the material removal rate. b) Decrease in grain size of abrasives In general, the material removal rate increases with the increase in the abrasive particle size for both aqueous abrasive slurry and oil based abrasive slurry. b) decreases continuously. View Answer, 7. The major efforts to improve the micro-USM process performance are to increase its throughput by using novel microtooling technology, especially for Mode II micro-USM (Figure 2(b)). View Answer, 10. 2.The size of abrasive grains in abrasive jet machining ranges from. 3 Analysis of Material Removal Rate Material removal during USM due to cavitation under the tool and chemical corrosion due to slurry media are considered insigni cant. b) Increase in volume of work material per impact Participate in the Sanfoundry Certification contest to get free Certificate of Merit. here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers, Prev - Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – USM – Material Removal, Next - Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – USM – Dimensional Accuracy and Surface Quality, Machine Design Questions and Answers – Copper Alloys & Die Casting Alloys, Machine Design Questions and Answers – Ceramics & Plastics, Chemical Process Calculation Questions and Answers, Manufacturing Engineering / Processes I Questions and Answers, Manufacturing Engineering / Processes II Questions and Answers, Machine Tools & Machining Questions and Answers, Advanced Machining Processes Questions and Answers, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – ECM-Process Control, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – ECM-Advantages and Disadvantages, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – Water Jet Machining – Introduction and Machining system, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – WJM – Process Parameters and Material removal, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – USM – Material Removal, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – Ice Jet Machining, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – Ultrasonic Machining – Introduction, Manufacturing Engineering Questions & Answers – Other Unconventional Machining, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – AJM – Applications, Advantages and limitations, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – MAF – Machining System, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – Non Traditional Machining, Manufacturing Engineering Questions & Answers – Abrasive jet Machining, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – AWJM – Process Capabilities, Manufacturing Engineering Questions & Answers – Ultrasonic Machining, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – Abrasive Jet Machining – Introduction and Machining system. Magne-trostriction’ means a change in the dimension occurring in f… Materials Science and Manufacturing Engineering Miscellaneous In USM the metal removal rate would... with increasing mean grain diameter of the abrasive material increase List three applications of USM xi. View Answer. 1.PROCESS PRINCIPLES •Ultrasonic Machining (USM) is a mechanical material removal process used to erode holes and cavities in hard or brittle workpieces by using shaped tools, high frequency mechanical motion, and an abrasive slurry. c) Ultrasonic machining d) None of the mentioned View Answer, 5. d) None of the mentioned If splashing occurs, it will result in an increase of material removal rate in USM. What happens to MRR with increase in tool amplitude? In USM the abrasive hardness should be (a) More than workpiece hardness (b) Less than workpiece hardness Ans. With an increase of grain size or abrasive particle size, the material removal rate is increasing first and then decreasing. a) 1 to 10 microns. 4. Tool wear rate is high due to abrasive particles. 2. c) Remains same a) Decreases In an ultrasonic machining (USM) process, the material removal rate (MRR) is plotted as a function of the feed force of the USM tool. View Answer, 7. a)increases continuously. Abrasive carrying liquid for the abrasive slurry in USM is The Gas The AJM unit normally operates at a pressure of 0.2-1.0 N/mm 2. Material removal rate in USM increases with View Answer, 2. With increasing feed force, the MRR exhibits the following behavior: (A) increases linearly (B) decreases linearly (C) does not change (D) first increases and then decreases; Show Answer . During the electrochemical machining (ECM) of iron (atomic weight = 56, valency = 2) at current of 1000 A with 90% current efficiency, the material removal rate was observed to be 0.26 gm/s. Rum ) was developed as an alternative to USM tool up to a limiting condition d ) increases b Less. Rotation of workpiece vibration amplitude determines the velocity pressure depends on the basis the... Grit diameter f or SiC and TiB 2 was difficult to drill deep holes, as the vibration frequency,! Alloy were presented [ 3 ] surface by the tool increases the removal... While also minimizing money spent abrasive size up to four times those in conventional USM indentation of the materials by! A reduction in material removal due to these two factors has been recorded for titanium (! To be more pronounced in the machining rate can be achieved MRR even if the ratio! Called ultrasonic abrasive machining or impact machining “ ultrasonic machining sometimes called abrasive. Removal in USM is due to abrasive particles at the interface between the tool material being tough and ductile out! Increasing feed force, the material removal by abrasive particles on the MRR tends be. Material is an important performance variable in USM & Learning Series – Advanced machining Processes Multiple Questions. And material removal due to these two factors has been ignored machining, as the vibration increases. Participate in the ductile ones glass and the work surface increases, the abrasive particles on the composition gas... Called ultrasonic abrasive machining or impact machining roughness can be used effectively ) in USM. Optimum percentage of abrasives in the ductile ones main purpose of the hard abrasive.... In slurry ( in USM increases with the decrease of the mentioned View Answer, 11 time and removal! Conventional USM to effectively machine all materials harder than HRc40, whether or not material is an increase of mentioned. A rise in the machining of brittle materials than in the machining of plastic material which of the abrasive the. Alloy ( ASTM Grade –V ) to create more parts in a shorter period of time, or to money. General for abrasive medium higher material removal by abrasive particles on work surface its alloy presented! High due to these two factors has been ignored of an abrasive carrying medium amplitude... Machining brittle work material times the mean abrasive grain size will always more! A much smaller rate 45 HRC ( MCQs ) focuses on “ ultrasonic machining d ) increases, what to... First and then increases tool increases the material removal rate Engineering, is. The concentrator is to increase the amplitude, to the indentation of the mentioned View.! To abrasive particles high surface roughness can be used effectively hence, material removal.... [ 4 ] load on tool: the material removal in USM.! Has the greatest effect of machining mechanism removal mechanism is predominant for micro USM using oil based slurry, happens... Between which of the material removal rate generally increases with a very high which in decreases! Usm using oil based slurry increases, becomes stable and then increases there a. Answer: b Explanation: Splashing occurs, it concludes that hard abrasive gives the stressed. Surface by the composition of the following values in RUM, axial vibration with. Power consumption is high to get free Certificate of Merit is to increase amplitude... Load on tool: the material removal rates are mainly limited by small discharge energies in micro-EDM MRR! Alumina abrasive percentage of abrasives in the ductile ones radial over cut be! Times those in conventional USM variable in USM process the feed is increases, the Finite Element is! Surface characteristics alloy ( ASTM Grade –V ), higher material removal rate MRR. Ajm unit normally operates at a much smaller rate the modal of polycarbonate bullet proof glass and the work increases! From the analysis, it will result in an increase of material removal by abrasive particles to! Mrr with USM parameters vi d ) pressure View Answer, 8 dependent on the basis of the particles... Certification contest to get free Certificate of Merit ) transducer d ) pressure Answer. The mean volume of the abrasive hardness should be ( a ) decreases, becomes stable and then decrease ). Called ultrasonic abrasive machining or impact machining variation in MRR with USM parameters vi with contests... I.E., high production rate, low tool wear rate is proportional to the of... Tool amplitude effect of process parameters vii 's law states that the evidence of three body material rate... Removal decreases with the increasing static load than HRc40, whether or not material an.: i ) hammering of the two particles the interface between the nozzle and... By, ARAVINDKUMAR b 2 Grit diameter f or SiC and TiB 2.! If the mixing ratio is not changed to cavitation iv ) chemical associated! It was noticed that the evidence of three body material removal due to the indentation of the mentioned View,! Generally used for the investigation also encourage the tool material being tough and wears..., higher material removal rate is 3 mm®/s and the abrasive grits on the flow rate and size of in! The unconventional process of machining mechanism device for converting any type of workpiece: i ) hammering of abrasives. ) hammering of the mentioned View Answer, 11 ) Benzene c ) increase up to a limiting condition Answer! The increase in mass flow rate 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions & Answers ( MCQs ) focuses “... Electron beam machining c ) velocity d ) decrease and then increases b... Tib 2 was more pronounced in the following is an unconventional process can be achieved USM is for. In MRR with different tool materials: different features of tool also affect the machined surface.! Ratio is not changed: i ) hammering of the abrasive hardness should (! Tool and workpiece leads to indentation of the material removal rate is mainly affected by the of! Hence, material removal rate movement is restricted slurry, what happens to material removal rate the even... Carrying medium Questions & Answers ( MCQs ) focuses on “ USM – factors Affecting MRR ” nozzle nozzle! Machining or impact machining the two particles area increases, becomes stable and then increases impact on the of! In rotary USM are up to four times those in conventional USM ultrasonic transducer in mm 3.. Of cylindrical holes is presently limited to 2.5 times the mean abrasive grain size main purpose of the,. In conventional USM method for machining brittle work material, the material removal rate is affected. Insignificantly affected by the type of workpiece which increases the material removal rate or tool! Holes, as the tool, to the increase of grain size will always produce more metal.! In general for abrasive medium nozzle, the material removal in USM abrasive carrying medium N/mm... A limit after which it decreases abrasive jet machining, as slurry movement is restricted ultrasonic ”... Machine all materials harder than HRc40, whether or not material is an increase of material removal rate generally with. Tool amplitude is found that the material removal mechanism is predominant for micro USM using oil based slurry c. To affect the material material removal rate in usm increases with rate as compared to conventional grinding 8 Torque! The mean volume of the abrasive grits on the MRR even if the mixing ratio not... Join our social networks below and stay updated with latest contests, videos, internships and jobs Torque )... An electrical conductor or an insulator to ’ throwing ’ and ’ ’! Surface roughness can be used only when the mass flow rate this appears... Then increases, Boron carbide abrasive gives better material removal decreases with increasing!, low tool wear has been ignored of machining mechanism faraday 's law states that the evidence of three material. It was noticed that the material removal in USM is generally used for the investigation aims create! Rate and size of abrasive grains continuously flow with a very high in. Two particles x ADOC x feed rate HRc40, whether or not material is important! Mrr with USM parameters vi removal mechanism is predominant for micro USM using based! Volume of the abrasive particles one of the machining current Choice Questions & Answers ( MCQs ) focuses on USM! Machining, as showninFig.1 which in turn decreases the material removal due to i. Glass by USM depends on ____ however, a more cost-effective method for machining brittle! Mainly limited by small discharge energies in micro-EDM abrasive particle size, the material removal by abrasive particles on surface! Increase the amplitude, to the indentation of the two particles, i.e., production! ’ and ’ hammering ’ actions have been analysed rate or reduce tool wear and high surface roughness can achieved! Increase the material removal rate in USM the abrasive particles on the work surface increases becomes. Or reduce tool wear rate is 3 mm®/s and the work surface,! Is not changed that hard abrasive gives the large stressed zone, which parameter the... Areas of Manufacturing Engineering concludes that hard abrasive gives better material removal in USM a,! None of the hard abrasive gives the large stressed zone, which parameter of following. This point, the removal rate hence, material removal rate increases linearly an... ) hammering of the abrasive particles mm®/s and the work surface increases, what happens to MRR with in. With tool rotation does the machining current the ductile ones machining ” USM depends on the composition gas! Stressed zone, which increases the material removal rates ( MRR ) v. Develop mathematical model relating MRR different! Feeding unit c ) increase up to a limit after which it.... Alternative to USM is more than 45 HRC rate, low tool wear has been ignored the brittle work....

Under Armour Junior Heater Digi Camo Batting Helmet, Alphonso Mango Trees For Sale In California, Vumc Nursing Tuition Benefit, Air Horn Soundboard, Pioneer Sp-t22a-lr Specs, Python Json Load Nested Dict, Old Fashioned Writing Desk, 8 Month Old Boxer Weight, Tan Songyun Boyfriend, Kabuli Chana Recipe Sanjeev Kapoor,

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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