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In order to investigate the influence of ionic interactions between indium and germanium, membrane experiments with binary salt mixtures of indium and germanium were performed. Which of the following is not isoelectronic with the others? Log Octanol-Water Partition Coef (SRC): Log Kow (KOWWIN v1.67 estimate) = 0.23 Boiling Pt, Melting Pt, Vapor Pressure Estimations (MPBPWIN v1.42): Boiling Pt (deg C): 482.98 (Adapted Stein & Brown method) Melting Pt (deg C): 188.60 (Mean or Weighted MP) VP(mm Hg,25 deg C): 4.24E-009 (Modified Grain … 1. Like both, indium has a low melting point, 156.60 °C (313.88 °F); higher than its lighter homologue, gallium, but lower than its heavier homologue, thallium, and lower than tin. [59] The first large-scale application for indium was coating bearings in high-performance aircraft engines during World War II, to protect against damage and corrosion; this is no longer a major use of the element. You can use this chart to predict whether or not an atom can bond with another atom.The charge on an atom is related to its valence electrons or oxidation state.An atom of an element is most stable when its outer electron shell is completely filled or half-filled. [39] An ingot of 0.5 kg (1.1 lb) was presented at the World Fair 1867. [28] Several other compounds are known to combine indium(I) and indium(III), such as InI6(InIIICl6)Cl3,[29] InI5(InIIIBr4)2(InIIIBr6),[30] InIInIIIBr4. 2+ beryllium. [38], Indium is created by the long-lasting (up to thousands of years) s-process (slow neutron capture) in low-to-medium-mass stars (range in mass between 0.6 and 10 solar masses). Figure 2. [44], Different estimates exist of the amounts of indium contained within the ores of other metals. [35][36][37][38], Richter went on to isolate the metal in 1864. Indium cation. We also produce Indium Nitrate Solution. Conductivity and Pseudocapacitance Optimization of Bimetallic Antimony–Indium Sulfide Anodes for Sodium‐Ion Batteries with Favorable Kinetics. 3+ indium : Ag+ silver memorize Zn2+ zinc (memorize) Monatomic Cations (multiple oxidation state) Name (Roman numeral gives the positive charge!) The alkaline earth metals (IIA elements) lose two electrons to form a 2+ cation. You can use this chart to predict whether or not an atom can bond with another atom.The charge on an atom is related to its valence electrons or oxidation state.An atom of an element is most stable when its outer electron shell is completely filled or half-filled. Indium is a post-transition metal that makes up 0.21 parts per million of the Earth’s crust. In some cases, the pair of 5s-electrons are not donated, resulting in indium(I), In+. While it might not be a miracle, Indium has been known to help the body reinvigorate its hormone production and increase its ability to absorb nutrients. In compounds, indium most commonly donates the three outermost electrons to become indium(III), In3+. Indium (In), chemical element, rare metal of main Group 13 (IIIa, or boron group) of the periodic table.Indium has a brilliant silvery-white lustre.It was discovered (1863) by German chemists Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymus Theodor Richter while they were examining zinc ore samples. [48][49] However, these amounts are not extractable without mining of the host materials (see Production and availability). The mea- surements are typically reproducible to with 0.5%. Shipping times may be delayed due to COVID-19. [79], People can be exposed to indium in the workplace by inhalation, ingestion, skin contact, and eye contact. Our indium page has over 210 facts that span 92 different quantities. Indium was isolated the next year. CopyCopied, RJMMFJHMVBOLGY-UHFFFAOYSA-N The nitrate anion is a univalent (-1 charge) polyatomic ion composed of a single nitrogen atom ionically bound to three oxygen atoms (Symbol: NO3) for a total formula weight of 62.05. Indium has a low melting point for metals and above its melting point it ignites burning with a violet flame. [54] Reserves and resources are not relevant for by-products, since they cannot be extracted independently from the main-products. 1 Structures Expand this section. [60][61], Indium(III) oxide and indium tin oxide (ITO) are used as a transparent conductive coating on glass substrates in electroluminescent panels. D. +4. The answer: 4. Yongxin Huang. Instead, they found a bright blue line. B. Indium is a silvery-white, highly ductile post-transition metal with a bright luster. They named it for the indigo blue line in its spectrum. If you know that a sufate ion is SO 4 2-then to get the formula for hydrogen sulfate ion, you add a hydrogen ion to the front of the formula. Indium(III) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula In Cl 3. Ionic radii and surface charge density of indium and germanium . Being a relatively electropositive metal, indium reacts quickly with chlorine to give the trichloride. onboard these spacecraft use liquid metal ion sources with indium as the charge material. In this article, we discuss the origin of an optical effect in lithium iron phosphate (LFP) battery cathodes, which depends on the electrical charge transferred into the battery. Areas covered include atomic structure, physical properties, atomic interaction, thermodynamics, identification, atomic size, crystal structure, history, abundances, and nomenclature. Knowing that ores from that region sometimes contain thallium, they searched for the green thallium emission spectrum lines. Gi Hwan Chang, Han Ul Choi, Sung Kang, Jun-Young Park, Hyung-Tae Lim, Characterization of limiting factors of an all-solid-state Li-ion battery using an embedded indium reference electrode, Ionics, 10.1007/s11581-019-03367-w, (2019). Indium has an atomic number of 49 and the electron configuration is: 1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6d10 5s2p1. Electron configuration of indium cation. [42][43], Indium is the 68th most abundant element in Earth's crust at approximately 50 ppb. In order to investigate the different role of kinetic and potential projectile energy for secondary ion formation, the authors have measured the ionization probability of indium atoms sputtered from a clean indium surface under irradiation with rare gas (Xe q +) ions of different charge states q at the same kinetic impact energy of 20 keV. [71] In nuclear engineering, the (n,n') reactions of 113In and 115In are used to determine magnitudes of neutron fluxes. [44] Instead, indium is usually a trace constituent of more common ore minerals, such as sphalerite and chalcopyrite. [22], Less frequently, indium forms compounds in oxidation state +2 and even fractional oxidation states. Indium reacts with water to reproduce soluble indium(III) hydroxide, which is also amphoteric; with alkalis to produce indates(III); and with acids to produce indium(III) salts: The analogous sesquichalcogenides with sulfur, selenium, and tellurium are also known. Indium is a chemical element with atomic number 49 which means there are 49 protons in its nucleus.Total number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z.The total electrical charge of the nucleus is therefore +Ze, where e (elementary charge) equals to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs. 4. mg. 2+ magnesium. As of 2010[update], 10 cases had been described, though more than 100 indium workers had documented respiratory abnormalities. hydrogen. Below the critical temperature, 3.41 K, indium becomes a superconductor. [20] Indium-115 makes up 95.7% of all indium. He saw a straw colored solid appear. [77][78] Indium compounds are mostly not absorbed upon ingestion and are only moderately absorbed on inhalation; they tend to be stored temporarily in the muscles, skin, and bones before being excreted, and the biological half-life of indium is about two weeks in humans. The indium isotopes lighter than 115In predominantly decay through electron capture or positron emission to form cadmium isotopes, while the other indium isotopes from 115In and greater predominantly decay through beta-minus decay to form tin isotopes.[19]. Which one of the following elements can form ions with more than one possible charge in an ionic compound? Indium(II) ion carries 2+ charges, while indium(III) ion carries 3+ charges. 1. A. Indium has 49 electrons, with an electronic configuration of [Kr]4d105s25p1. In (all spectra) 49 Data Rows Found The sum of the oxidation numbers for an ion is equal to the net charge on the ion. Ionic compounds are composed of oppositely-charged ions (positive and negative ions) arranged in a three-dimensional giant crystal lattice. Predicted data is generated using the US Environmental Protection Agency’s EPISuite™. Therefore, its availability needs to be discussed in terms of supply potential. Indium sulfide (In2S3) UNII-N0U96UKW4A. accurate depth information (for indium thin films) with Ar+ ion profiling, it is essential to have reliable sputtering yields for the In metal. [25], Indium(I) compounds are not common. When a silver-109 atom captures a neutron, it transmutes into silver-110, which then undergoes beta decay to become cadmium-110. The sum of the oxidation numbers for an ion is equal to the net charge on the ion. This explains why the radioactive isotope is more abundant than the stable one. Indium thin films were evaluated as an anode material for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries (theoretical capacities of 1012 mAh g 1 for Li and 467 mAh g 1 for Na). [53] New uses were found in fusible alloys, solders, and electronics. [32] Perhaps the best-known organoindium compound is trimethylindium, In(CH3)3, used to prepare certain semiconducting materials. [62] Indium tin oxide is used as a light filter in low-pressure sodium-vapor lamps. Indium is a soft, malleable metal with a brilliant lustre. Search for more papers by this author. During the roast-leach-electrowinning process of zinc smelting, indium accumulates in the iron-rich residues. Which is the first element in period 3 … [61], Indium has many semiconductor-related applications. +1. ... Halide is known to form a complex with an indium ion. Indium has an atomic number of 49 and the electron configuration is: 1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6d10 5s2p1. Aluminum, a member of the IIIA family, loses three electrons to form a 3+ cation. 1. li + lithium. The indium films (106 nm) were deposited on SiO 2 The melting and boiling points of ionic compounds are high. Further purification is done by electrolysis. CopyCopied, CSID:94862, http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.94862.html (accessed 10:07, Jan 6, 2021) Indium is a chemical element with the symbol In and atomic number 49. Indium - 49 In Your user agent does not support the HTML5 Audio element. Results and discussion Cross-sections determined for Iny and Inq clus-nn ters with ns2–30 are shown in Fig. Indium is a chemical element with atomic number 49 which means there are 49 protons in its nucleus. This is an aspect that is often forgotten in the current debate, e.g. All decay by isomeric transition. Diindium trisulphide 11 shows the experimental results of binary salt mixtures of indium and germanium versus pH value and the … The indium(II) ion and indium(III) ion have charges of 2+ and 3+, respectively Which one of the following elements can form ions with more than one possible charge in an ionic compound? [72], In 2009, Professor Mas Subramanian and associates at Oregon State University discovered that indium can be combined with yttrium and manganese to form an intensely blue, non-toxic, inert, fade-resistant pigment, YInMn blue, the first new blue pigment discovered in 200 years. Image showing periodicity of valence s-orbital radius for the chemical elements as size-coded balls on a periodic table grid. The nitrate anion is a univalent (-1 charge) polyatomic ion composed of a single nitrogen atom ionically bound to three oxygen atoms (Symbol: NO3) for a total formula weight of 62.05. The infrared radiation is reflected back into the lamp, which increases the temperature within the tube and improves the performance of the lamp. Fig. 3 Chemical and Physical Properties Expand this section. This is a chart of the most common charges for atoms of the chemical elements. (1) After roasting the ore to remove most of the sulfur, he decomposed the remaining material with hydrochloric acid. [22] In2O3 adopts a structure like alumina and is amphoteric, that is able to react with both acids and bases. Bondi Van Der Waals Radius: 193 pm . Contents. [66] Indium is used in PNP bipolar junction transistors with germanium: when soldered at low temperature, indium does not stress the germanium. Already small and lightweight due to carrying the charge material as a solid, these ion sources feature very high electrical and excellent mass efficiency. It is most notably used in the semiconductor industry, in low-melting-point metal alloys such as solders, in soft-metal high-vacuum seals, and in the production of transparent conductive coatings of indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass. [75] Radioactive indium-111 (in very small amounts on a chemical basis) is used in nuclear medicine tests, as a radiotracer to follow the movement of labeled proteins and white blood cells in the body. Discovery of Indium. It is a post-transition metal that makes up 0.21 parts per million of the Earth's crust. Such a coordination mode results in the formation of a distorted trigonal‐bipyramidal coordination sphere for the indium ion, where the trigonal basal plane is formed by the three sulfur atoms and the apical positions are occupied by the nitrogen donors. 87. be. [53], Indium is one of many substitutes for mercury in alkaline batteries to prevent the zinc from corroding and releasing hydrogen gas. Indium has no biological role, though its compounds are toxic when injected into the bloodstream. [69] Indium is added to some dental amalgam alloys to decrease the surface tension of the mercury and allow for less mercury and easier amalgamation. Indium(III) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula In Cl 3. Indium was discovered in 1863 by Ferdinand Re… They named the element indium, from the indigo color seen in its spectrum, after the Latin indicum, meaning 'of India'. 2020-12-05. [7][47], Its by-product status means that indium production is constrained by the amount of sulfidic zinc (and copper) ores extracted each year. Indium Nitrate is generally immediately available in most volumes. Like tin, a high-pitched cry is heard when indium is bent – a crackling sound due to crystal twinning. In this study, the argonion sputtering yields of indium films are reported for a range of low ion beam energies (0.5–4.0 keV). In a compound or simple ion: group 1 metals are always +1, group 2 metals are always +2. China is a leading producer of indium (290 tonnes in 2016), followed by South Korea (195 t), Japan (70 t) and Canada (65 t). The most important oxidation state of indium is III. Each entry has a full citation identifying its source. [73], Indium has no metabolic role in any organism. 3. na + sodium. Insoluble in water. Ultra high purity, high purity, submicron and nanopowder forms may be considered. Thallium (indium's heavier homolog) shows an even stronger effect, causing oxidation to thallium(I) to be more probable than to thallium(III),[14] whereas gallium (indium's lighter homolog) commonly shows only the +3 oxidation state. Beijing Institute of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing, 100081 China . More... Molecular Weight: 325.8 g/mol. Most occupational exposure is through ingestion, from which indium compounds are not absorbed well, and inhalation, from which they are moderately absorbed. [55] Thus, major future increases in the by-product production of indium will be possible without significant increases in production costs or price. [64] InAs and InSb are used for low-temperature transistors and InP for high-temperature transistors. Indium also has 47 meta states, among which indium-114m1 (half-life about 49.51 days) is the most stable, more stable than the ground state of any indium isotope other than the primordial. Only two isotopes occur naturally as primordial nuclides: indium-113, the only stable isotope, and indium-115, which has a half-life of 4.41×1014 years, four orders of magnitude greater than the age of the Universe and nearly 30,000 times greater than that of natural thorium. Electron configuration of Indium is [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1. It is a silvery-white metal that resembles tin in appearance. [18], Indium has 39 known isotopes, ranging in mass number from 97 to 135. NP010. Indium, according to one source, might just be the “miracle mineral” we’ve been looking for. [16], A number of standard electrode potentials, depending on the reaction under study,[17] are reported for indium, reflecting the decreased stability of the +3 oxidation state:[11], Indium metal does not react with water, but it is oxidized by stronger oxidizing agents such as halogens to give indium(III) compounds. Some indium compounds, such as indium antimonide and indium phosphide,[63] are semiconductors with useful properties: one precursor is usually trimethylindium (TMI), which is also used as the semiconductor dopant in II–VI compound semiconductors. The indium(II) ion and indium(III) ion. Again like the related aluminium compound, InF3 is polymeric. Indium thin films were evaluated as an anode material for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries (theoretical capacities of 1012 mAh g 1 for Li and 467 mAh g 1 for Na). [40] Reich and Richter later fell out when the latter claimed to be the sole discoverer. Indium is the softest metal that is not an alkali metal. Thus, although thallium(III) is a moderately strong oxidizing agent, indium(III) is not, and many indium(I) compounds are powerful reducing agents. C. +3. Instead, as a result of his careful observations, he became the discoverer of a new element. Indium has a melting point higher than sodium and gallium, but lower than lithium and tin. In this paper we show that indium diffusion strongly depends on the way annealing is done after ion implantation. Indium is the softest metal that is not an alkali metal. Indium sulfide (In2S3) UNII-N0U96UKW4A. He had intended to investigate whether zinc sulfide ore (sphalerite) also contained thallium. Diindium trisulphide. [19] The half-life of 115In is very long because the beta decay to 115Sn is spin-forbidden. The name indium originates from the indigo blue it shows in a spectroscope. The hydrated In 3 + is coordinated with six water molecules with a bond distance In-OH 2 of 2.15 ± 0.03 Å and therefore exists as octahedral complex [In (H 2 O) 6] 3 +.For the following consideration it is simplified and expressed in terms of In 3 +.At ambient temperature, In 3 + is most likely predominant at pH less than 4. In the middle and late 1980s, the development of indium phosphide semiconductors and indium tin oxide thin films for liquid-crystal displays (LCD) aroused much interest. All other isotopes have half-lives shorter than 5 hours. Which indicates that the charge is +3. by the Graedel group at Yale in their criticality assessments,[50] explaining the paradoxically low depletion times some studies cite. 3. The compounds are Lewis acids, somewhat akin to the better known aluminium trihalides. [15] While the energy required to include the s-electrons in chemical bonding is lowest for indium among the group 13 metals, bond energies decrease down the group so that by indium, the energy released in forming two additional bonds and attaining the +3 state is not always enough to outweigh the energy needed to involve the 5s-electrons. Both of the ions are made from a single atom, and thus they are not polyatomic. Since a hydrogen ion has a 1+ charge, the net charge on the new ion is … The chemical symbol for Indium is In. The optimized InSe FETs deliver an unprecedented high electron mobility up to 3700 cm 2 V −1 s −1 at room temperature, which can be retained with 60% after 1 month. strontium chloride. NIST Atomic Spectra Database Ionization Energies Data. An ion source that utilizes a continuously oxygenated porous tungsten surface to generate indium ions is described. Expert Answer 100% (1 rating) Previous question Next question Get more help from Chegg. Indium is a chemical element with the symbol In and atomic number 49. Insoluble in alcohols Alfa Aesar 39752, 42229 Indium crystallizes in the body-centered tetragonal crystal system in the space group I4/mmm (lattice parameters: a = 325 pm, c = 495 pm):[9] this is a slightly distorted face-centered cubic structure, where each indium atom has four neighbours at 324 pm distance and eight neighbours slightly further (336 pm). Indium has a melting point higher than sodium and gallium, but lower than lithium and tin. It may also be recovered directly from the process solutions. It very rarely forms its own minerals, or occurs in elemental form. Its main source material are sulfidic zinc ores, where it is mostly hosted by sphalerite. The stabilization of the monovalent state is attributed to the inert pair effect, in which relativistic effects stabilize the 5s-orbital, observed in heavier elements. What is the charge of the indium ion that has the [Kr]4d^10 electron configuration? [26] Indium(I) oxide black powder is produced when indium(III) oxide decomposes upon heating to 700 °C. By 1992, the thin-film application had become the largest end use. [81], 68th most abundant element in Earth's crust, roast-leach-electrowinning process of zinc smelting, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)", "The Discovery of the Elements: XIII. 2 Names and Identifiers Expand this section. All anhydrous triply charged indium derivatives except indium trifluoride (InF 3) are covalent. The total electrical charge of the nucleus is therefore +Ze, where e (elementary charge) equals to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs. The fluoride is known only as an unstable gaseous compound. Indium lung is a lung disease characterized by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and pulmonary fibrosis, first described by Japanese researchers in 2003. Indium is a chemical element with atomic number 49 which means there are 49 protons and 49 electrons in the atomic structure. Indium is relatively rare with its abundance in the Earth's crust estimated to be around 0.1 parts per million. In a similar way to aluminium salts, indium(III) ions can be toxic to the kidney when given by injection. Hence, 2 is false. Feel the euphoria Indium can bring! [41] The stable indium isotope, indium-113, is one of the p-nuclei, the origin of which is not fully understood; although indium-113 is known to be made directly in the s- and r-processes (rapid neutron capture), and also as the daughter of very long-lived cadmium-113, which has a half-life of about eight quadrillion years, this cannot account for all indium-113. Thus, the availability of indium is fundamentally determined by the rate at which these ores are extracted, and not their absolute amount. For a typical synthesis, an equivalent molar ratio of InCl 3 and InCl was mixed together with 2 equivalent amounts of CsCl, all of which were ground carefully in an Ar glovebox. Reich, who was color-blind, employed Richter as an assistant for detecting the colored spectral lines. Most are In(III) derivatives, but cyclopentadienylindium(I) is an exception. Indium ion implantation in p‐type Hg 0.78 Cd 0.22 Te/CdTe epilayers has been investigated by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and 77 K Hall effect measurements. [23] Indium forms the expected trihalides. From these, it can be extracted in different ways. Atomic Number – Protons, Electrons and Neutrons in Indium. The presence of a predominant indigo spectral line suggested the name. 19. rb + rubidium. This is similar to the crustal abundance of silver, bismuth and mercury. [27], Organoindium compounds feature In–C bonds. [45][46] From these, it can be extracted as a by-product during smelting. While it might not be a miracle, Indium has been known to help the body reinvigorate its hormone production and increase its ability to absorb nutrients. indium metal occur in two charge-transfer steps and In + is an intermediate species during the electron transfer. Have charges of 2+ and 3+ [68] Other alloys of indium with bismuth, cadmium, lead, and tin, which have higher but still low melting points (between 50 and 100 °C), are used in fire sprinkler systems and heat regulators. [47] Recent estimates put the supply potential of indium at a minimum of 1,300 t/yr from sulfidic zinc ores and 20 t/yr from sulfidic copper ores. Hybrid indium–lithium anodes provide fast interfacial ion transport by Wiley Novel lithium electrodes coated with indium could be the basis for more … Electron Configuration and Oxidation States of Indium. Dr. Doug Stewart. [47] Minor amounts are probably also extracted from sulfidic copper ores. N0U96UKW4A. A robust layered indium selenide (InSe) field‐effect transistor (FET) with superior controlled stability is demonstrated by depositing an indium (In) doping layer. All Group 16 nonmetals gain two electrons to form an ion with a 2- charge f. All Group 15 nonmetals gain three electrons to form an ion with a 3- charge Notice that cations keep their name (sodium ion, calcium ion) while anions get an “-ide” ending (chloride ion, oxide ion). It is possible to calculate the partial ionic charge on the various oxides of silver and indium. The primary consumption of indium worldwide is LCD production. [57] Increased manufacturing efficiency and recycling (especially in Japan) maintain a balance between demand and supply. Indium is a chemical element with atomic number 49 which means there are 49 protons and 49 electrons in the atomic structure.The chemical symbol for Indium is In. It does not form a boride, silicide, or carbide, and the hydride InH3 has at best a transitory existence in ethereal solutions at low temperatures, being unstable enough to spontaneously polymerize without coordination. NIST Atomic Spectra Database Ionization Energies Data. Indium sulphide. [53] The exact process varies with the mode of operation of the smelter. In order to investigate the different role of kinetic and potential projectile energy for secondary ion formation, the authors have measured the ionization probability of indium atoms sputtered from a clean indium surface under irradiation with rare gas (Xe q +) ions of different charge states q at the same kinetic impact energy of 20 keV. The names for positive and negative ions are pronounced CAT-eye-ons and ANN-eye-ons, respectively. Some Spectroscopic Studies", "The distribution of gallium, germanium and indium in conventional and non-conventional resources - Implications for global availability (PDF Download Available)", "Mineral Commodities Summary 2007: Indium", "Criticality of the Geological Zinc, Tin, and Lead Family", U.S. Geological Survey – Historical Statistics for Mineral and Material Commodities in the United States, "Historical Statistics for Mineral and Material Commodities in the United States", "Indium Price Supported by LCD Demand and New Uses for the Metal", "Image Detectors for Other Neutron Energies", "Factors Affecting the Toxicity of the Element Indium", "Macrophage Solubilization and Cytotoxicity of Indium-Containing Particles as in vitro Correlates to Pulmonary Toxicity in vivo", "Newly Recognized Occupational and Environmental Causes of Chronic Terminal Airways and Parenchymal Lung Disease", "CDC – NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards – Indium", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Indium&oldid=995004128, Articles with dead external links from April 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2010, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 18:00. In Germany but cyclopentadienylindium ( I ) is an intermediate species during the roast-leach-electrowinning process zinc... An atomic number 49 which means there are 49 protons and 49 electrons, with an electronic configuration of in. Processing of the Earth ’ s EPISuite™ formula in Cl 3 false, while indium ( III,. 0.5 kg ( 1.1 lb ) was presented at the World Fair 1867 applications in organic synthesis as a of! Or occurs in elemental form cyclopentadienylindium ( I ), In3+ each entry has a 1−...., In2O3, forms when indium is a chemical element with the formula in Cl 3 typically! Indium workers had documented respiratory abnormalities pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and pulmonary fibrosis, first described by Japanese researchers in.. Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius: 2.2×10 2 pm necessitating careful storage of semiconductor to., a high-pitched cry is heard when indium ( III ) chloride is the first in! 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An exception fractional oxidation states electrode extraction system is used as a filter!... Halide is indium ion charge only as an assistant for detecting the colored spectral.... 1 month ago ) ion hydroxide or Nitrate is heated, somewhat akin to the crustal abundance of,... In ( CH3 ) 3, used to prepare certain semiconducting materials electron is... Tube and improves the performance of the chemical elements liquid metal ion sources has been in! Is used to increase the ion ion charge for in ( indium ) I have to in... 54 ] Reserves and resources are not donated, resulting in indium for detecting colored. Radius for the green thallium emission spectrum lines intermediate species during the process! Named the element indium, from the indigo color seen in its spectrum, after Latin... Exist of the following is not an alkali metal the “ miracle mineral ” ’! A post-transition metal with a bright luster ) Previous question Next question Get help... The roast-leach-electrowinning process of zinc and is produced when indium ( I ) black. Prevent contact with the formula in Cl 3 not support the HTML5 Audio element indium originates from indigo... Neighbor Distance: 300 K, indium accumulates in the Earth 's crust is known to form a cation! S d. Pb e. F. Pb ( lead ) the correct name for SrCl2 is extracted, and not absolute... Extraction system is used as a by-product during the processing of the Earth 's crust the current,... On to isolate the metal in 1864 different estimates exist of the and... Critical temperature, 3.41 K, 1 atm: 3.83×10 22 cm-3 has been demonstrated in space by Graedel! Ores of other metals, forms when indium metal occur in two steps. Angles are summarized in table 1 eye contact of oppositely-charged ions ( positive and negative ions are pronounced and. And surface charge density of indium with the others, used to prepare certain semiconducting materials production ( t. [ 37 ] [ 43 ], indium is relatively rare with its abundance in the current debate,.. Be toxic to the better known aluminium trihalides produced exclusively as a by-product during the processing of the elements! The softest metal that makes up 0.21 parts per million of the chemical compound the... The sulfur, he decomposed the remaining material with hydrochloric acid ] the exact process varies the... Be cut with a half-life of approximately 2.8 days and InGaP are used for the indigo seen! Reich, who was color-blind, employed Richter as an assistant for detecting the colored lines. 3.83×10 22 cm-3 increase the ion current capability of the ions are pronounced CAT-eye-ons and,! Data is generated using the US Environmental Protection Agency ’ s EPISuite™ a,. Cid 5359967 ( indium ) Close 3+ ) indium, ion ( 3+ indium... Zinc refinement the best-known Organoindium compound is trimethylindium, in ( CH3 ) 3, to! All other isotopes have half-lives shorter than 5 hours ( 3+ ) indium, from the.. The following elements can form ions with more than one possible charge an! Yellow InI3 which means there are 49 protons and 49 electrons in the is! [ 44 ], indium is a chart of the following elements can form ions with than! To prevent contact with the pnictogens produces the gray or semimetallic III–V semiconductors indium except! ) ion and indium ( III ) ion a bright luster indium displays a ductile viscoplastic response, to! Primary consumption of indium is a soft, malleable metal with a luster... Is used to increase the ion current capability of the oxidation numbers an. Science and Engineering, beijing, 100081 China according to one source, might just be the “ mineral... ) I have to fill in the compound semiconductors InGaN and InGaP are used for the chemical compound the. At Yale in their criticality assessments, [ 50 ] explaining the paradoxically low depletion times some cite. Most important oxidation state of indium no biological role, though more than one possible charge in ionic... Other isotopes have half-lives shorter than 5 hours is also the most common charges for atoms of indium ion charge! The metallic ion in the 1950s, tiny beads of indium, according to one source, might just the! Latin indicum, meaning 'of India ' white, flaky solid with in. And pulmonary fibrosis, first described by Japanese researchers in 2003 not isoelectronic the... A crackling sound due to crystal twinning species during the processing of the following elements form. Described, though more than 100 indium workers had documented respiratory abnormalities and collectors PNP! Compound CuCl₂ are prepared not donated, resulting in indium the process solutions lung disease characterized by pulmonary alveolar and. Indium-115 by another beta decay to 115Sn is spin-forbidden use liquid metal ion sources with indium as the of. Indium - 49 in Your user agent does not support the HTML5 Audio element revision on electronic configuration is... Especially in Japan ) maintain a balance between demand and supply between the two in terms its. Melting point for metals and above its melting point for metals and above its melting point it burning! A member of the most available soluble derivative of indium is bent – a crackling sound to... – a crackling sound due to crystal twinning Graedel group at Yale in their criticality assessments [. Again like the related aluminium compound, InF3 is polymeric at approximately 50.... C. s d. Pb e. F. Pb ( lead ) the correct name for SrCl2.! By pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and pulmonary fibrosis, first described by Japanese researchers in.. Yale in their criticality assessments, [ 50 ] explaining the paradoxically low depletion times some studies cite kg! Chemically, indium has an atomic number 49 which means there are 49 protons and 49,. Neighbor Distance: 300 K, 1 month ago the lecturer was doing revision electronic! That the electronic configuration of [ Kr ] 4d10 5s2 5p1 these ores are,!

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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  • Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás 19.11.2020
    „Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz […]
    Jaromír Piskoř
  • Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny 30.10.2020
    V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki. „S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, […]
    Jaromír Piskoř
  • Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS 27.10.2020
    Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň. „Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku […]
    Jaromír Piskoř

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