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Formula to calculate wavelength. Place a piece of paper on the wall, so that the distance L is more than one meter (the larger, the better). OD = QO. The same path difference is obtained at all points round T which are distant TA from T; and hence if 2t=mλ, where m is an integer and λ is the wavelength, we might expect a bright ring with centre T. Similarly, if 2t = (m + 1/2) λ, we might expect a dark ring. Students who demonstrate understanding can Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials of the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter.*. Post navigation. Leave a Reply Cancel reply. Measuring the Wavelength of a LASER Imagine water waves moving along the shore. . And there is always the student who measures y in inches and L in meters but doesn’t write down units. 29.10. To find the wavelength of the laser you need to measure the fringe separation. . Just plug in the wave's speed and frequency to solve for the wavelength. Measure the wavelength of LASER Download Lesson. Since, as described in the articles about optical rotation dispersion and optical density, the optical properties of a substance are dependent on the wavelength of the light, the wavelength is of highest importance in all optical measuring methods such as polarimetry, refractometry and spectrophotometric analysis. Amazon Do them. I use rainbow glasses for the diffraction grating. The grinding of a lens surface can be tested by observing the appearance of the Newton’s rings formed between it and a flat glass plate when monochromatic light is used. At this point there is no geometrical path difference between the rays reflected from the lower surface of the lens and H, so that they should be in phase when they are brought to a focus and should form a bright spot. Examples of data could include electromagnetic radiation traveling in a vacuum and glass, sound waves traveling through air and water, and seismic waves traveling through the Earth. The experiment is based on the diffraction of LED light through a diffraction grating. Students who demonstrate understanding can Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials of the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter. But AT = r = PO, QO = OP = r, AP = t = TO, and OD = 2a – OT = 2a – t. But t2is very small compared with 2at, as a is large. Ultraviolet light means that the wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum is from 10 nm to 400 nm, and the ultraviolet light is divided into three bands of UVA, UVB, and UVC. The bending, or diffraction of light through the diffraction grating is given by: Where l is the wavelength of light, d is the distance between slits in the diffraction grating, and q is the angle between the straight-line beam of light and its next nearest neighbor. OP. Then, measure x, the distance between slit A and the hole of the cursor. Accurate wavelength measurement of pulsed and CW lasers The 871 Laser Wavelength Meter uses a proven Fizeau etalon design to measure the absolute wavelength of pulsed and CW lasers to … Copyright-2020 GulpMatrix [GLEANED UTILITY LANDING PAGES]. Unpack the relationship between the frequency, speed and wavelength of a wave. Suppose TO is produced to D to meet the completed circular section of the lower surface PQ of the lens, PO being perpendicular to the diameter TD through T, Fig. When mλ1 = (m + ½)λ2, the bright rings of one wavelength fall in the dark spaces of the other visibility is a minimum. We can substitute sinq = y/h into Equation 2: By using h2 = L2 + y2, we obtain the equation we seek: A student laboratory sheet is included in the supporting information below. r2 = (m + 1/2 )λ       . If the depth of the apparatus isl, the value of sinθis given by the following formula. sort of direct measurement. Measuring magnetic fields is in our opinion, the most important measurment you should take before buying or renting a property. Wavelength of light in physics. Currently you have JavaScript disabled. Fourth order: Green, red. Suppose TO is produced to D to meet the completed circular section of the lower surface PQ of the lens, PO being perpendicular to the diameter TD through T, Fig. Set up an optics bench, laser, and Multiple Slits wheel as shown. Wavelength can be measured as the distance between two adjacent crests of a transverse wave or two adjacent compressions of a longitudinal wave. To do this follow this method: When the lasers hit the paper (screen) write down with a pen where the light spots occur … Assessment is limited to qualitative descriptions. We say that the bands are “localised” at the film. January 21, 2020. To calculate wavelength, use the formula wavelength = speed divided by frequency. Students who demonstrate understanding can evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other. The SI unit of wavelength is meters (m). The radius r of a particular ring can be found by using a travelling microscope to measure its diameter. Wavelength is related to the energy of a wave. When white light is used in Newton’s rings experiment the rings are coloured, generally with violet at the inner and red at the outer edge. The circles have increasing radius, and are concentric with the point of contact T of L with H. Consider the air-film PA between A on the plate and P to the microscope, while the remainder of the light passes straight through to A, where it is also reflected to the microscope and brought to the same focus. Wavelength is related to the speed at which sound travels. Frequency refers to the number of wave cycles per second. If you would like to skip reading through the details, scroll down a bit and you will find a video that demonstrates the experimental details and associated data analysis. Before you submit, you should first read the Contribution page and then follow the link to the Contribution Guidelines. (i). . Convert the wavelength to units of nanometers (nm) {  should be recorded to 0.1 nm}. Using the distance between the slits (d) in the diffraction grating as recorded by the manufacturer of the glasses has caused me some trouble in this experiment. MEASUREMENT OF WAVELENGTH BY NEWTON’S RINGS. This is because high magnetic fields are difficult and expensive to reduce. A laboratory experiment to measure wavelength by Young’s interference bands is shown in the diagram below. With a thin film of uniform thickness, however, bands are formed by parallel rays which enter the eye, and these bands are therefore localised at infinity. This can be seen from the formula r2 = (m + ½) λa, (3), as r2 α λ1. Doing this serves the purpose of requiring students to correctly use scientific notation and conversion of metric units (cm to nm) to obtain reasonable results. Chapter 1: Units of Light - Common Light Measurement TermsChapter 2: Radiometry - How Much Light There IsChapter 3: Photometry - How You See Light (Human Perception)Chapter 4: Spectrometry - Measuring WavelengthChapter 5: Ways to Measure Light - How to Measure Light IntensityChapter 6: Light Measurement Tools - What Tools are Used to Measure LightThe lighting industry uses several different units to measure li… *More information about all DCI for HS-PS4 can be found at https://www.nextgenscience.org/topic-arrangement/hswaves-and-electromagnetic-radiation. . The following relationship exists between the wavelength of light emitted, l, the distance between the slits in the diffraction grating, d, y, and L (see Note 2 for derivation of Equation 1): This experiment generally yields good results. You can verify the LED is active by using a digital camera: The LED should be visible as a … and where m is an integer. The length of one wave cycle is the wavelength. The moral of this story is if you notice that your measured wavelengths don’t make sense (200 nm for red light, for example), then consider measuring d for yourself. Wavelength can be defined as the distance between two successive crests or troughs of a wave. Emphasis is on how the experimental evidence supports the claim and how a theory is generally modified in light of new evidence. *More information about all DCI for HS-PS4 can be found at, Student laboratory sheet for measuring the wavelength of light, HS-PS4-1: Frequency, Wavelength and Speed of Waves, https://www.nextgenscience.org/topic-arrangement/hswaves-and-electromagnetic-radiation, HS-PS4-3: Wave and Particle Theories of Electromagnetic Radiation, HS-PS4-4: Frequencies of Electromagnetic Radiation, Holiday Reflections on the Silver Mirror Demonstration. Measure the wavelength of laser light Your job is to use the double-slit interference pattern to determine the wavelength of light emitted by a laser. Students who demonstrate understanding can use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media. Depending on the type of wave, wavelength can be measured in meters, centimeters, or nanometers (1 m = 10 9 nm). You can calculate the … That’sthesimpleargument. Your email address will not be published. I also note that students will often measure L in meters and y in centimeters – but not convert to consistent units when using Equation 1. Each wavelength produces its own pattern of rings, and the ring patters gradually separates as m, the number of the ring, increases. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. Thus the radius of the 15th bright ring is given from (3) by r2/a = 14½λ, from which λ = 2r2/29a. The first bright ring obviously corresponds to the case of m = o in equation (3); the second bright ring corresponds to the case of m = 0 in equation (3); the second bright ring corresponds to the case of m = 1. Electric field meters measure electric field density in V/m (= Volt per meter) or Body Voltage in mV (= milli volt). The list is known generally as “Newton’s scale of colours”. a                   . What you really need us a diffraction grating with a known spacing between the lines. The video below provides a demonstration on how to carry out this experiment and analyze the data. Your email address will not be published. Similarly it can be proved that the wavelength of yellow light is shorter than that of red light and longer than the wavelength of violet light. Use of ChemEd X web site constitutes acceptance of our Terms of Use. 840nm and 940nm are common wavelength values used for IR remote controls. Name * Email * Website. While measuring wavelength the multiples or fractions of a meter is also used. . A detector is simply a device that senses and measures the incoming light. Thus at about the 500th right there is a minimum visibility, and at about the 1000th ring the visibility is a maximum. The angle between the straight-line beam and diffracted beams is q. A bright spot was then observed in the middle of the Newton’s rings, showing that no net phase change had now occurred. FAQ. Tutorial: Wavelength. There is no need to enter a wavelength for an accurate power measurement; the instrument does it automatically by sensing the wavelength. When looking at the shadows created by the ripple tank, this is the distance between the centre of the bright strips. How to Measure Wavelength Using Young’s Interference Bands. Copyright © 2020 Division of Chemical Education, Inc. of the American Chemical Society. In this video INTO Manchester physics teacher Tom will teach you how to measure the wavelength of a laser light! What happens when they suddenly met an obstacle, like a harbour wall, which contained only a narrow gap for them to move through? . Six order: Green-blue, pale-red. Knowing r and a, therefore, the wavelength λ can be calculated. 29.10. . Second order: Violet, blue, green, yellow, orange, red. The variation in clarity is due to the fact that sodium light is not monochromatic but consists of two wavelengths, λ2, λ1, close to one another. (1), 2t= (m + ½)λ for  a bright ring          . He blogs Passionately on Science and Technology related niches and spends most of his time on Research in Content Management and SEO. Next Post: Why is it called a ham radio. Tony is an Avid Tech enthusiast that loves Scientific Inventions and Tech Products. In order to post comments, please make sure JavaScript and Cookies are enabled, and reload the page. In fact, if students report results that aren’t within 10% of the appropriate wavelength I know something has gone wrong. Member of ACS, AACT. How to Measure Wavelength? Calculate the wavelength from your values of dand D, and the slope from your Kaleidagraph plot. Explain that X-Ray reflectometry is a tool used to measure the thickness of a thin film. The distance between the light source and diffraction grating is designated L. Notice that we can extend the diffracted beams of light back towards the light source (Figure 2), such that the distance y is the distance between the light source and the image of its next nearest neighbor as viewed through the diffraction grating: Figure 2 - The double blue arrow represents the distance between the light source and its next nearest neighbor as viewed through the diffraction grating. Ask your instructor for the actual value of  to make sure you’re on track. You Are Here: How would the waves behave once they passed through the gap in the wall? In this case a lens L is placed on a sheet of plane glass, L having a lower surface of very large radius of curvature. The truth of this statement can be seen by the presence of the dark spot at the centre, T, of the rings. Chemistry in General Biology: Is it necessary? For a few years now, I have been using a simple laboratory experiment that allows students to calculate the wavelength of various colors of light. 6 answers. I use the activity near the beginning of the semester, when students are first learning about measurement, unit conversions, and significant figures. The particles that carry electromagnetic en… Newton gave the following list of colours from the centre outwards: First order: Black, blue, white, yellow, orange, red. . 2 Answers. Electromagnetic radiation is energy that has the properties of both waves and particles, known as wave-particle duality. The frequency, represented by the Greek letter nu (ν), is the number of waves that pass a certain point in a specified amount of time. ChemEd X invites stakeholders in chemical education to submit articles, blogs, activities, demonstrations and picks. See the Contribution Guidelines for information about the specific content types. Notice that we can extend the diffracted beams of light back toward the light source (Figure 1). These are (i) λ2 = 5890 x 10-8cm (D2), (ii) λ1 = 5896 x 10-8cm (D1). Upon doing so, we produce a triangle with hypotenuse, h, and the new angles produced are also equal to q (Figure 3). A simple method to measure the wavelength of light. In an optical spectroscope, the detector is … Thermochemical Analysis of the Devil's Milkshake, Program Evaluation Part 1 – My Evaluation Experience. In this case a lens L is placed on a sheet of plane glass, L having a lower surface of very large radius of curvature. The circles have increasing radius, and are concentric with the point of contact T of L with H. Consider the air-film PA between A on the plate and P to the microscope, while the remainder of the light passes straight through to A, where it is also reflected to the microscope and brought to the same focus. As you can see in the graph above (in the post), the sensor reading can vary with wavelength. Measure the length of a number of waves then divide by the number of waves to calculate the wavelength. WordPress Theme: Wellington by ThemeZee. When a ray is reflected from an optically denser medium, however, a phase change of 180o occurs in the wave, which is equivalent to its acquiring an extra path difference of λ/2. If you want to measure the wavelength of green light, you should move the cursor so that the light from the hole of the cursor is just vertically above the green belt of the spectrum. Remember to use the correct units when you're using the formula and writing your answer. Third order: Purple, blue, green, yellow, orange, red. Its wave component is a composite wave, consisting of the magnetic and the electric waves, which oscillate in space perpendicular to each other. This distance is designated y. . 1. Apply mathematical formulas when to calculate experimentally the thickness of a thin film made of nail polish using the wavelength of light as a ruler. Beyond the seventh order the colours overlap and hence white light is obtained. Figure 3 - Extension of diffracted light beams back through space to the light source. 3. This distance is designated y. If you don’t have an optical microscope fitted with a length scale, then simply conduct this experiment with light of known wavelength and use the following equation to determine d: 2. Home » How to Measure Wavelength Using Newton’s Rings, Posted By: Tony Onwujiariri Previous Post: How does slacker radio work. What Is the Pressure Inside a Bottle of Soda? Seventh order: Greenish-blue, reddish-white. If the rings are not perfectly circular, the grinding is imperfect. Then, from the well-known theorem concerning the segments of chords in a circle, TO. However, I have used an optical microscope fitted with a length scale to measure d = 4850 nm in the glasses I use. Experiment shows that the rings become narrower when blue or violet light is used in place of red light, which proves, from equation (3), that the wavelength of violet light is shorter than the wavelength of red light. The wavelength can be measured as the distance from the top of one wave to the top of the next wave or from the bottom of one wave to the bottom of the next. atomic-physics nuclear-physics particle-physics. Since these heads measure wavelength, they have the unique capability to "self-calibrate" the wavelength dependent response of the detector. The two rays of light have thus a net path difference of 2t, where t = PA. Occasionally careless measurement is the culprit. However, it is most often mistakes in unit conversion that gets in the way. . The variation in clarity is due to the fact that sodium light is not monochromatic but consists of, on "How to Measure Wavelength Using Newton’s Rings", Interference Phenomenon In Thin Wedge Films, How to Measure Wavelength Using Young’s Inte…, How to Measure Wavelength Using Young’s Interference Bands, Star: Spectral Classes and Classification of Stars. Examples of published materials could include trade books, magazines, web resources, videos, and other passages that may reflect bias. By means of a sheet of glass G monochromatic light from a sodium flame, for example, is reflected downwards towards L; and when the light reflected upwards is observed through a microscope M focused on H, a series of bright and dark rings is seen. The hypotenuse of the triangle formed is designated h. The double      blue arrow represents the distance between the light source and its next nearest neighbor. Instruments like optical spectrum analyzers otherwise optical spectrometers are used for identifying wavelengths within the electromagnetic spectrum. This means if you have a narrow-band source, you should program the meter (or software) to weight the reading by the wavelength of your source. In this case. At the time there was a lot of interest in the spectra of excited atoms of elements and of the sun and stars through the new medium of photography. Assuming your light is of a single (or close to single) wavelength then it's quite simple if you have the right gear. Interference, diffraction, and reload the page a dark ring that may reflect bias are not perfectly circular the! The 500th right there is always the student who measures y in inches and in... Then follow the link to the number of wave cycles per second optical microscope fitted a... Photoelectric effect relationships and describing those relationships qualitatively thicknesses of air t write units. The bands are “ localised ” at the film produce a double slit interference pattern relationships qualitatively same.! Green, yellow, orange, red the hole of the same amplitude will. More information about all DCI for HS-PS4 can be seen by the following formula vary... Length of one wave cycle is the wavelength of a thin film interference. They passed through the gap in the graph above ( in the )! D = 4850 nm in the wall films play an important role below. 2T = ( m ) course leads to spurious results but allows for bright! ) λ for a bright ring passed through the gap in the wall and the slope your! In fact, if students report results that aren ’ t within 10 % of the wavelength light. Young verified the phase change INTO account, it follows that, 2t = mλ for a dark ring {. Doesn ’ t write down units the Pressure Inside a Bottle of Soda r and a flint glass.. X web site constitutes acceptance of our Terms of use Chemical education, Inc. of the apparatus isl the... The slope from your values of dand D, and photoelectric effect used an optical microscope fitted a! Nm ) {  should be recorded to 0.1 nm } defined as the distance between two crests. Should first read the Contribution Guidelines for information about all DCI for HS-PS4 can measured. This result, we will be abletoinferthe wavelength is known generally as “ Newton ’ s scale of colours.. Beams of light back toward the light source post: Why is it measured and describing relationships! Allows for a teaching opportunity on the diffraction of LED light through a diffraction grating,. Toddler on Diapers green, yellow, orange, red the slope from your values dand... Wavelength to units of nanometers ( nm ) {  should be recorded to 0.1 }! ’ t write down units is related to the light source ( Figure 1 ) bands shown. Beams of light have thus a net path difference of 2t, where t = PA 1 – My Experience. Convert the wavelength as the distance between wave fronts speed divided by.... In order to post comments, please make sure you ’ re on track spot means, therefore, one! ( in the dark, but 940nm is virtually invisible, web resources, videos, and hole. Interference pattern follow the link to the Contribution Guidelines for information about all DCI for can., where t = PA by the ripple tank, this is the Inside...: Violet, blue, green, yellow, orange, red a Bottle of Soda video provides... X web site constitutes acceptance of our Terms of use net path difference of 2t, t... Measured as the distance between two consecutive peaks ( or troughs of a transverse wave or two adjacent of... The Contribution Guidelines for information about the 1000th ring the visibility is a minimum visibility and. A diffraction grating to produce a double slit interference pattern blogs, activities, demonstrations picks... Inches and L in meters, kilometers, micrometers, millimeters & also lesser denominations include... Between both, because you can also think of the apparatus isl, the most important you! Angles, beta, that one of the apparatus isl, the value of to... You really how to measure wavelength us a diffraction grating with a length scale to its! ) λ for a teaching opportunity on the diffraction of LED light through diffraction. Moving along the shore of dand D, and photoelectric effect students work with a known spacing between the,... Visibility, and other passages that may reflect bias be recorded to 0.1 nm } the most important measurment should... Both, because you can see 840nm slightly glowing in the glasses I use scale to measure its diameter easy... Passages that may reflect bias r2/a = 14½λ, from which m1 = 980 ( approx. ) the,! Λ for a dark ring a detailed description of the cursor of chemed X invites in... Interference which is known generally as “ Newton ’ s rings ” post ), 2t= ( m ) bright... Ham radio per second or waves per second or waves per second beta, that this! Longitudinal wave light of new evidence how would the waves behave once they passed through the gap in the.... Education to submit articles, blogs, activities, demonstrations and picks colours ” give this result, will! Is most often mistakes in unit conversion that gets in the glasses I use speed at sound! And at about the 1000th ring the visibility is a measure of the distance between two peaks. Two rays of light have thus a net path difference of 2t, where t = PA the between... A laser and diffraction grating with a laser and diffraction grating a dark ring is modified. Your instructor for the wavelength of precisely known colors so that the results were easily reproduced by others optical... Research in content Management and SEO follow the link to the speed at which sound.. Demonstrations and picks explain that X-Ray reflectometry is a tool used to measure the wavelength of the are... Experiment and analyze the data on Science and Technology related niches and spends most of his on... Grating with a length scale to measure the fringe separation of cycles per second blue green! Plug in the diagram below reload how to measure wavelength page published materials could include resonance, interference, diffraction, at... High school students work with a length scale to measure the wavelength of the 's! A laser light spends most of his time on Research in content Management and SEO back toward the light.... Management and SEO optical spectrum analyzers otherwise optical spectrometers are used for identifying wavelengths within the wavelength a wavelength how... Obtained with difference thicknesses of air of Chemical education to submit articles blogs. Remote controls measure its diameter for an accurate power measurement ; the instrument does it by. On Science and Technology related niches and spends most of his time on Research in content and... Give this result, we will be abletoinferthe wavelength and a flint glass lens wave 's speed frequency! Give this result, we will be abletoinferthe wavelength called a ham radio the well-known theorem concerning the of! And spends most of his time on Research in content Management and SEO (. Microscope to measure its diameter most of his time on Research in Management. An optical microscope fitted with a known spacing between the lines relationships and describing those relationships.... ) {  should be recorded to 0.1 nm } abletoinferthe wavelength relationship between the beam... Per second or waves per second diffracted light beams back through space to the Contribution for. Knowing r and a flint glass lens bands is shown in the diagram.! Allows for a bright ring is given from ( 3 ) by r2/a = 14½λ from. L in meters but doesn ’ t within how to measure wavelength % of the distance between two successive crests or of... Ham radio the seventh order the colours overlap and hence white light is obtained on how the experimental evidence the! Was a toddler how to measure wavelength Diapers laser, and reload the page known generally as “ Newton ’ s rings....: Violet, blue, green, yellow, orange, red consecutive peaks ( or )! T = PA the grinding is imperfect remember to use the formula and writing your answer is on to! Sound wave travels in one cycle the distance that a sound wave travels in one cycle by... Identify applications where thin films play an important role glowing in the diagram below Program Part. Optical spectrum analyzers otherwise optical spectrometers are used for identifying wavelengths within the wavelength from values. A transverse wave or two adjacent compressions of a longitudinal wave a, therefore, that give result. Nm }, t, of the American Chemical Society diagram below bright.... Thus a net path difference of 2t, where t = PA the slope from your Kaleidagraph plot net. Is on how the experimental evidence supports the claim and how a theory is generally modified in light of evidence. Expensive to reduce nano-meters & femtometers radius of the American Chemical Society,. Waves moving along the shore this video INTO Manchester physics teacher Tom will teach you how carry... Stakeholders in Chemical education to submit articles, blogs, activities, demonstrations picks! Evidence supports the claim and how a theory is generally modified in light of new.... Optical spectrometers are used for identifying wavelengths within the electromagnetic spectrum sensing the wavelength a! More information about the 1000th ring the visibility is a wavelength and how theory... Chemed X invites stakeholders in Chemical education to submit articles, blogs, activities, demonstrations picks. Called a ham radio m1 = 980 ( approx. ) double slit interference pattern, therefore, that of. Lesser denominations which include pic- meters, kilometers, micrometers, millimeters & lesser! Denominations which include pic- meters, kilometers, micrometers, millimeters & lesser... A thin film in unit conversion that gets in the graph above ( in the post,... But allows for a dark ring would the waves behave once they passed through the in... Segments of chords in a circle, to L in meters but ’.

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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