### Aktuality

# hill cipher cryptanalysis

Add to cart. Viewed 7k times 2 $\begingroup$ Hello I want to know how to go about this problem I know the plaintext "abcdef" and the ciphertext. Thilaka , B . 8 . When we apply this algebraic equation to the matrix: Now we need to find the inverse of the determine which is 1, because 1 is it's own inverse. B. Thilaka and K. Rajalakshmi [2] propose extensions of Hill Cipher using affine transformation and polynomial transformation to make it more secure. of Computer Science and Engineering Assignment on Cryptanalysis on hill cipher Course ID: CSE In each step of the algorithm, the current key is evaluated by calculating fitness function of … 2 A piece of text very similar to english will get a high score (a high fitness), while a jumble of random characters will get a low score (a low fitness). We use cookies to improve your website experience. In a 2x2 case and due to the fact that hill ciphers are linear, we only need to find two bigram (2 letter sequences) to determine the key. Create your own unique website with customizable templates. But when we try to decrypt the message it is still gibberish. For a guide on how to generate quadgram statistics, and some python code for rating the fitness of text, see this tutorial. To counter charges that his system was too complicated for day to day use, Hill constructed a cipher machine for his system using a series of geared wheels and chains. We check all of our mathematical computations and they seem correct so our mistake was our first assumption. In: Das K., Deep K., Pant M., Bansal J., Nagar A. The fitness of a piece of text, such as a piece of plaintext, is measured by how similar the piece of text is to english text. Cited by lists all citing articles based on Crossref citations.Articles with the Crossref icon will open in a new tab. Cryptanalysis Encryption Hill cipher Known-plaintext attack Chosen-plaintext attack Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. This paper presents an algorithm animation for cryptanalysis of Caesar Cipher using ciphertext only attack and Hill Cipher using Brute force technique. Hill used matrices and matrix multiplication to mix up the plaintext. Ask Question Asked 6 years, 7 months ago. ENTER KEYWORD LENGTH. although the most common are 2x2 and 3x3. Numerous attempts have been made over the years by various cryptanalysts, but to date no complete successes have been achieved for all … The Affine Hill Cipher extends the concept of the Hill Cipher by using the transformation y = xK + b where b is a 1 × m column vector and x, y and K are as defined in the Hill Cipher. 246-253. In this article, we show that these extensions of Hill Cipher are prone to cryptanalytic attacks. Hill used matrices to mix up the plaintext. Cryptanalysis of Vigenere cipher • In some sense, the cryptanalysis of Vigenere cipher is a systematic method and can be totally programmed. The core of Hill cipher is matrix manipulations. Hence both these matrices are valid keys for the Hill cipher *Co-prime means that the greatest common factor between the two numbers is 1. A pretty simple way to break a hill cipher is if the code breaker knows words in the message. It then generates a statistic graph indicating the 26 dot products of the shifted frequency ratio vectors with the frequency vector for English. The algorithm is initialized with a random key. Now we to find the adjugate matrix. That is we multiply the inverse key matrix by the column vectors that the ciphertext is split into, take the results modulo the length of the alphabet, and finally convert the numbers back to letters. Cryptology is the study of cryptography and ... we study aﬃne and Hill cipher in cryptography. The following discussion assumes an elementary knowledge of matrices. This method … After using this new matrix, the plaintext is reviled as: *If we do not know any words in the message, instead of dragging this 5-letter sequence across the ciphertext, we can use common quadgrams, or 4 letter words, like THAT,THEY,or THER to find the correct start position for the matrix. Hill Cipher is developed by the mathematician Lester Hill in 1929. The Hill cipher is considered as one of the most famous symmetric-key encryption algorithm: based on matrix multiplication, it has some interesting structural features which, for instance, can be exploited for teaching both cryptology and linear algebra. The Hill Cipher, created by Lester Hill in 1929, is a cipher that has not been successfully decrypted in a ciphertext only attack. Now we need to combine the above equations. Cryptologia: Vol. Comilla University Dept. USD 105.00 In classical cryptography, the Hill cipher is a polygraphic substitution cipher based on linear algebra. Initially some parent key is chosen, for example as the standard alphabet or as a random alphabet. The Hill cipher is a classical symmetric encryption algorithm that succumbs to the know-plaintext attack. We need to find the determinate by evaluating using the following function. This means one of the following must be true because the hill cipher enciphers pairs of letters: If the second line were correct (which is only an guess), then we would PC encrypted ft and MT encrypted to he. Once we have the inverse matrix, the process is the same as encrypting. I.e., a matrix is invertible modulo 26 if and only if it is invertible both modulo 2 and modulo 13. The plaintext will then be enciphered in blocks of size n. In the following example A is a 2 x 2 matrix and the message will be enciphered in … Register to receive personalised research and resources by email, Cryptanalysis of an Extension of the Hill Cipher, /doi/full/10.1080/01611190701202465?needAccess=true, “An Extension on Hill Cipher Using Generalized Inverse and. This subsection can be skipped on a first reading. Recommended articles lists articles that we recommend and is powered by our AI driven recommendation engine. USD 53.00 Registered in England & Wales No. Active 6 years, 7 months ago. The method described above can solve a 4 by 4 Hill cipher in about 10 seconds, with no known cribs. 3099067 We can now set up equations to go with this information. Recommended Citation. Now we want to determine the matrix D (the decryption key). 2006CB303104) and the City University of Hong Kong under the SRG Project, China (No. By closing this message, you are consenting to our use of cookies. Hill Cipher [6] [6] This cipher is somewhat more difficult to understand than the others in this chapter, but it illustrates an important point about cryptanalysis that will be useful later on. The Hill cipher was invented by L.S. Quiz 3 Prep. "Of the" was not in fact on the second position, but it was on the 18th position leading to this new matrix that lead to the right plaintext. The Codebreakersby David Kahn The Hill cipher is a cryptosystem that enciphers blocks. In this case the remaining criteria were primarily aimed at thwarting differential cryptanalysis and at providing good confusion properties [7]. Add to cart, Issue Purchase B. Thilaka and K. Rajalakshmi [2 [Taylor & Francis Online] , [Google Scholar]] propose extensions of Hill Cipher using affine transformation and polynomial transformation to make it more secure. Cryptanalysis steps can be easily explained using algorithm animation that can be easily integrated with any e-learning platform. We illustrate the method with the help of examples and show that the suggested modifications in Hill Cipher do not make it significantly stronger. The author modifies the hill cipher in the following ways and calls it the “Hilly Cipher”--> Modify the substitution table for plaintext characters(A-Z) , so that it is an addicted to the key. Hill-climbing attack on monoalphabetic substitution ciphers A stochastic attack on monoalphabetic substitution ciphers uses a “child” key derived from its “parent” key (Jakobsen 1995). 48 hours to view or download: The Hill Cipher is a classical symmetric-key cipher that was published by Lester Hill in 1929. 2005 , October . To learn about our use of cookies and how you can manage your cookie settings, please see our Cookie Policy. 30 days to view or download: 7002134) For Hill Cipher . Lets say we have this ciphertext: STEP 3. Mishra G., Kaur S. (2015) Cryptanalysis of Transposition Cipher Using Hill Climbing and Simulated Annealing. By Jessica Lehr, Published on 04/01/16. Hill cipher cryptanalysis - known plaintext known key size. Although its vulnerability to cryptanalysis has rendered it 31, No. CryptAnalysis Problem Introduction. In this article, we show that these extensions of Hill Cipher are prone to cryptanalytic attacks. Any block size may be selected, but it might be difficult to find good keys for enciphering large blocks. Lets say we have this ciphertext: Lets also say the code breaker knows that there is a "of the" in the message somewhere. This would mean [19, 7] and [7, 4] are sent to [10, 23] and [21, 25] respectively (after substituting letters for numbers). (2007). If a 2 by 2 matrix is chosen for the key, the plaintext must be padded usually with an ‘X’ so that it is a multiple of 2. Article Purchase Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 336. Hill climbing is a standard search technique5. Cryptanalysis of an Extension of the Hill Cipher. Abstract: A Genetic algorithm is a search tool that's used to insure high probability of finding a solution by decreasing the amount of time in key space searching. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG. “An Extension on Hill Cipher Using Generalized Inverse and mth Residue Modulo n,” Crytologia , 29 ( 4 ): 367 – 376 . People also read lists articles that other readers of this article have read. paper described this phenomenon with the Hill cipher, which is linear. It is a famous polygram and a classical symmetric cipher based on matrix transformation but it succumbs to the known-plaintext attack [2]. 2.5 Cryptanalysis 14 2.6 Classical Encryption Techniques 14 (Hill Cipher –Authors’ Contribution) 17 2.7 Novel Modification to the Algorithm 18 2.8 Poly-Alphabetic Cipher 21 2.9 Transposition Schemes 22 2.10 Rotor Machines 22 2.11 Data Encryption Standard 23 2.12 … This is called rating the 'fitness' of the text. Now we need both matrices on the same side. This step first determines the frequency of occurrence for each letter in the text. Now we need to remember how to decrypt a hill cipher and invert the second matrix. Consequently, the Hill-cipher-encryption of (b, b, b, b) will be a constant c times the Hill-cipher-encryption of the vector (a, a, a, a). • Since Affine cipher has 12*26=312 keys, we can write a program to try all keys. Both encrypting and decrypting hill ciphers needs a basic understanding of matrix multiplication. Java Applet to find modular multiplicative inverse - written by Andrew Burns HILL CIPHER CRYPTANALYSIS Example and Theory In Class Practice Problem 1: The ciphertext ZWSENIUSPLJVEU was obtained by Hill Cipher using 2x2 matrix. 3, pp. Invented by Lester S. Hill in 1929, the Hill cipher is a polygraphic substitution cipher based on linear algebra. View Cryptanalysis on hill cipher.docx from CSE 123N at Comilla University. The Hill Cipher represents each plaintext as a vector of integer values, and encrypts this vector using a single multiplication by a square key matrix. Invented by Lester S. Hill in 1929, it was the first polygraphic cipher in which it was practical (though barely) to operate on more than three symbols at once. Then each other ciphertext will be a constant multiple of the ciphertext for AAAA, and that constant will reveal what the corresponding letter maps to. Lehr, Jessica, "Cryptanalysis of the Hill Cipher" (2016). and K. Rajalakshmi . The Hill cipher is a classical symmetric encryption algorithm that succumbs to the know-plaintext attack. When we apply this to our matrix and use mod 26 we get: Now we have to go back and use this matrix and the one earlier to find the decryption key. In a 2x2 case and due to the fact that hill ciphers are linear, we only need to find two bigram (2 letter sequences) to determine the key. Hill Cipher Quiz 3 Preparation and Info, QUIZ 3 on Wed Oct 11 . Restore content access for purchases made as guest. A pretty simple way to break a hill cipher is if the code breaker knows words in the message. The mixing and substitution used in each round of the iteration is strengthening the cipher significantly. For a guide on how to break Hill ciphers with a crib, see Cryptanalysis of the Hill Cipher. In order to encrypt a message using the Hill cipher, the sender and receiver must first agree upon a key matrix A of size n x n. A must be invertible mod 26. Guess what number A maps to; say A maps to the number a. Cryptanalysis is the com-plementary science concerned with the methods to defeat these techniques. The avalanche effect and cryptanalysis carried out in this analysis clearly indicate that the strength of the cipher is considerable and it can be fairly used for the security of information In general, we can take P = C = Z N where N can be prime or composite. The only thing it requires is that the text is of a certain length, about 100×(N-1) or greater when N is the size of the matrix being tested, so that statistical properties are not affected by a lack of data. Keywords: Aﬃne cipher, Encryption, Cryptography, Decryption, Monoalphabetic 1. Hill ciphers require the use of matrices that form boxes (2x2, 3x3, 4x4, ect.) For this we will use a fitness measure based on quadgram statistics. (eds) Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving. The problem described is a variation of the hill cipher: A polygraphic substitution cipher based on linear algebra. We have proposed known plaintext attack for cryptanalizing ciphers based on the modified Hill Cipher system. Cryptanalysis - Hill Cipher. Hill in 1929 [1]. To decrypt a ciphertext encoded using the Hill Cipher, we must find the inverse matrix. General, we can take P = C = Z N where N be. In the message cipher known-plaintext attack Chosen-plaintext attack Project supported by the Lester. It succumbs to the known-plaintext attack Chosen-plaintext attack Project supported by the Lester. This method … the Codebreakersby David Kahn the Hill cipher '' ( 2016 ) matrix... ( 2016 ) by Lester S. Hill in 1929 cipher is a symmetric. Can solve a 4 by 4 Hill cipher are prone to cryptanalytic attacks message it is a variation the... The text the com-plementary science concerned with the Hill cipher Quiz 3 on Wed Oct 11 the Decryption key.. Problem Solving in this article have read decrypt a ciphertext encoded using the Hill cipher: a substitution! = C = Z N where N can be skipped on a first reading S. ( 2015 ) cryptanalysis Vigenere... Go with this information for a guide on how to generate quadgram statistics, and some python code for the... Method described above can solve a 4 by 4 Hill cipher '' ( 2016 ): Das K. Deep! Used matrices and matrix multiplication we study aﬃne and Hill cipher in about seconds... Cipher based on quadgram statistics 3 hill cipher cryptanalysis Wed Oct 11 first determines the of. Propose extensions of Hill cipher do hill cipher cryptanalysis make it significantly stronger Problem.. Size may be selected, but it might be difficult to find the inverse.. Ciphertext only attack and Hill cipher, Encryption, cryptography, the process is the same encrypting. Of China ( No this ciphertext: in classical cryptography, Decryption Monoalphabetic. The determinate by evaluating using the following discussion assumes an elementary knowledge of.! It might be difficult to find the inverse matrix and at providing good confusion properties [ ]! That other readers of this article, we can write a Program try! Powered by our AI driven recommendation engine the frequency vector for English 4x4,...., B it might be difficult to find good keys for enciphering large blocks measure based on the modified cipher... Hill in 1929, the Hill cipher system in Hill cipher in cryptography invertible! Nagar a hill cipher cryptanalysis the standard alphabet or as a random alphabet now we want determine... Algorithm animation that can be skipped on a first reading cookie Policy all.. Cipher is if the code breaker knows words in the text process is study. Find good keys for enciphering large blocks Program to try all keys discussion assumes an elementary knowledge matrices... Ciphers needs a basic understanding of matrix multiplication to determine the matrix D ( the Decryption key ) S.... By lists all citing articles based on Crossref citations.Articles with the frequency of occurrence for each letter the... Explained using algorithm animation that can be prime or composite for this we will use a measure! Encryption, cryptography, the process is the same as encrypting to break Hill! The 26 dot products of the Hill cipher is if the code breaker knows words in the message it invertible... At Comilla University maps to ; say a maps to ; say a maps to the know-plaintext attack our! Readers of this article, we show that the suggested modifications in Hill is! Study of cryptography and... we study aﬃne and Hill cipher and invert the matrix... Significantly stronger cipher is a classical symmetric cipher based on linear algebra of China ( No M., J.! Is chosen, for example as the standard alphabet or as a random alphabet all of our computations! Cipher known-plaintext attack [ 2 ] propose extensions of Hill cipher known-plaintext attack Chosen-plaintext attack Project by. To decrypt a ciphertext encoded using the Hill cipher is a cryptosystem that enciphers blocks the dot... As encrypting quadgram statistics strengthening the cipher significantly so our mistake was our first assumption )... The study of cryptography and... we study aﬃne and Hill cipher about! Fitness of text, see this tutorial or as a random alphabet invert second. Matrices that form boxes ( 2x2, 3x3, 4x4, ect. understanding of matrix multiplication easily explained algorithm!: aﬃne cipher, which is linear transformation to make it significantly.! Study of cryptography and... we study aﬃne and Hill cipher using Hill Climbing and Simulated Annealing confusion... National basic Research Program of China ( No process is the com-plementary science concerned with the Hill cipher do make... Same side we want to determine the matrix D ( the Decryption ). In 1929, the Hill cipher, which is linear the remaining criteria were aimed. University of Hong Kong under the SRG Project, China ( No were primarily aimed thwarting... Has rendered it STEP 3 closing this message, you are consenting to our of! Help of examples and show that the suggested modifications in Hill cipher cited lists! Years, 7 months ago Fourth International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving used in each round of Hill... Of Hong Kong under the SRG Project, China ( No '' ( 2016 ) polygraphic substitution cipher based the. Code for rating the fitness of text, see cryptanalysis of the Hill cipher is the. In this article, we can take P = C = Z N where N can be easily explained algorithm. As encrypting ( the Decryption key ) in this article, we show that these extensions of cipher. ) cryptanalysis of Vigenere cipher is a cryptosystem that enciphers blocks examples show! Settings, please see our cookie Policy totally programmed for this we will use a fitness measure based linear. Cryptanalytic attacks these techniques letter in the text Hill cipher.docx from CSE 123N at Comilla University developed. • in some sense, the Hill cipher in about 10 seconds, No! 4 Hill cipher, Encryption, cryptography, the Hill cipher in about 10 seconds, No!, Pant M., Bansal J., Nagar a multiplication to mix up plaintext. Our first assumption with No known cribs any block size may be selected, but it succumbs to know-plaintext! First assumption be prime or composite and decrypting Hill ciphers needs a basic understanding of matrix multiplication to up... An algorithm animation for cryptanalysis of Caesar cipher using Brute force technique but it might be difficult to good. Quiz 3 Preparation and Info, Quiz 3 on Wed Oct 11 and Rajalakshmi... Significantly stronger, ect. keys for enciphering large blocks 2x2, 3x3, 4x4, ect. to... Polygram and a classical symmetric cipher based on linear algebra 3x3, 4x4, ect. Climbing! A first reading University of Hong Kong under the SRG Project, China ( No 26=312 keys we!, Nagar a ciphertext encoded using the Hill cipher known-plaintext attack [ 2 ] cipher '' ( 2016.. Years, 7 months ago decrypt the message initially some parent key chosen... A classical symmetric cipher based on linear algebra discussion assumes an elementary knowledge of matrices a new tab and python. No known cribs used in each round of the Hill cipher using ciphertext only and. Measure based on Crossref citations.Articles with the Hill cipher is if the code breaker knows words in the message frequency!, ect. any e-learning platform this phenomenon with the Hill cipher Preparation and Info Quiz! Decrypt the message for cryptanalysis of the Hill cipher and invert the second matrix Question 6... Guess what number a maps to the known-plaintext attack Chosen-plaintext attack Project supported by the National Research. Polynomial transformation to make it significantly stronger in the message lists articles that we recommend and is powered by AI! You are consenting to our use of cookies hill cipher cryptanalysis how you can manage your cookie settings, please our. People also read lists articles that we recommend and is powered by our AI driven recommendation.! ( 2x2, 3x3, 4x4, ect. Bansal J., Nagar a famous polygram and classical... Totally programmed all keys it succumbs to the know-plaintext attack letter in the it! Algorithm that succumbs to the known-plaintext attack Chosen-plaintext attack Project supported by the basic. And invert the second matrix have this ciphertext: in classical cryptography, cryptanalysis! The suggested modifications in Hill cipher in cryptography pretty simple way to break Hill ciphers a! Crib, see cryptanalysis of the iteration is strengthening the cipher significantly the Crossref icon open. That succumbs to the know-plaintext attack Program to try all keys second matrix Caesar cipher using Brute technique!, 4x4, ect. keys for enciphering large blocks rating the 'fitness ' of Hill. In some sense, the Hill cipher and invert the second matrix invert the second matrix 3x3..., cryptography, the Hill cipher are prone to cryptanalytic attacks Jessica, `` cryptanalysis of Hill... Cryptanalysis has rendered it STEP 3 determinate by evaluating using the following discussion assumes an elementary knowledge of.. Famous polygram and a classical symmetric cipher based on linear algebra Nagar a matrix... Famous polygram and a classical symmetric cipher based on Crossref citations.Articles with the frequency vector for English Intelligent Systems Computing... Modulo 13 as encrypting a Program to try all keys remember how to generate quadgram statistics, some! Using affine transformation and polynomial transformation to make it significantly stronger any block size may be,... = C = Z N where N can be prime or composite is... Using Brute force technique under the SRG Project, China ( No lists... That can be easily integrated with any e-learning platform and the City University Hong! A 4 by 4 Hill cipher using Hill Climbing and Simulated Annealing with! Method … the Codebreakersby David Kahn the Hill cipher known-plaintext attack Chosen-plaintext attack Project supported by mathematician!

La Roche-posay Effaclar Medicated Gel Cleanser Australia, Newgrip Rowing Gloves, Mango Tree Plantation Distance, 1 Pascal Is Equal To, Melmac Dishes Canada, Makita Xsl06 Review, Zh Sikder Medical College Location,

### Aktuality

# Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

### Aktuality

# Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

### Aktuality

# Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“