��n��.����*�V|����oV�ȳ��VU�9{ �?n�Ʃ�wvNG˥G�զ$j�BX���mkW�W:�p���������0�a����5�y���nua`v&���l�?c��-�ܮ�|ׯD��{�J��!��ݚ�y�����_���� E���UC �>���9I]T"��"�� Q%��'�W� Wet Sieving method is recommended for determining the Fineness of Fly Ash using 45micron sieve as recommended in various international standards. This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. The OPF70’s lime content combined with its small particle size and high surface area makes the product self-cementing when hydrated. 200) sieve. 4 0 obj For dry fly ash, this is normally carried out until achieving a difference in results of 0.3%. ��� /���˿�W�2�Oh% Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard. �$5Z�r �. 27 – 30 Water requirement. Fineness Gradation(min), m2/kg: 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. Similar behaviour was noted for material from single sources classified to different fractions, or … 4.1 These test methods are used to develop data for comparison with the requirements of Specification C618 or Specification C1697. Ordinary Portland cement conforming to IS 8112 (BIS, 1989) was used as a binder. 200) sieve.Most fly ashes typically fall within a size range of from 60 to 90 percent passing the 0.075 mm (No. 311 As shown in Fig. ... a = strength of cement/fly ash mixture, replacement level X, time t ... – Confirmed the limits of 0.1% expansion @ 14 days for ASTM C1567 as being a good correlation to ASTM C1293 <>>> This study used high fineness of fly ash as a cement replacement to improve recycled aggregate concrete properties. 11.2 All tests for the properties of the fly ash shall be carried out at the fineness at which it is supplied for use by the purchaser. Fly-Ash is a pozzolanic material i.e. The 45µm sieve residues of the five samples were 40%, 41%, 48%, 63% and 88% with water requirements of 97%, 112%, 93%, 98% and 107%, respectively. %PDF-1.5 Fly ash specification requirements Limits Loss on ignition <3% Combined content of SiO 2, Al 2 O 3, Fe 2 O 3 ≥70% Moisture <1% (on-line feed) SO 3 ≤5% ... needs to be present in the fly ash. Road construction projects using PCC can use a great deal of concrete, and substituting fly ash provides significant economic benefits. 4.1.1 Strength Activity Index—The test for strength activity index is used to determine whether fly ash or natural pozzolan results in an acceptable level of strength development when used with hydraulic cement in concrete. 1 0 obj %���� At the same time, suppose fly ash has intact shape and keeps spherical. endobj For instance, it could be used as a Portland cement constituent leading to more … ). In the US, LOI must be under 6%. Fineness of Fly Ash. 1.3 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The CaO (Calcium oxide) more in GGBS and low in fly ash.Al2O 3 (Aluminum oxide ) present more in fly ash and low in GGBS, it shows there is a FLY ASH(%) 59.3 23.4 4.8 8.6 0.6 0.1 - 3.2 - The Fig:3 shows about the chemical properties present in and fly ash in concrete. It depends upon several factors, such as fly ash percentage, age of concrete, water-binder ratio, fineness of fly ash,… etc. <> ���_����4YS��\��X�����:��8J���:�ϛ[��=��˲9���?�}�j� 3�4��,�/$y_���%��" {��e���\�J�U����敧�pf2�~��Æ N����IH @����=���N���JɅ�*e�8��=�~��nh;���/�G��3@�I:���c%"� ۚ�0�%�Z��,?D8Z\�� �|�� The materials shall be tested for fineness, strength activity index, water requirement, soundness, and autoclave expansion or contraction. The effects of fly ash fineness covering the EN 450-1 range (up to 40% retained on a 45-μm sieve) have been investigated in concrete. 1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee. Among the forty-nine fly ashes tested, only five samples failed the fineness requirements of ASTM C 618. Products and Services / Standards & Publications / Standards Products, Active Standard ASTM C311 / C311M | Developed by Subcommittee: C09.24, Permissions to reprint documents can be acquired throughCopyright Clearance Center   Class-F fly ash having specific gravity 2.10 and dark brown color is used. Fly ash and natural pozzolans shall conform to the prescribed chemical composition requirements and physical requirements. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. At the same time, suppose fly ash has intact shape and keeps spherical. Other Differences – Fineness (45 microns) Other Differences – Alkali. 325) sieve shall not exceed XX% (more restrictive than ASTM C618) The [available] alkali content of fly ash shall not exceed X.X% In an NRMCA review of more than 100 specifications Fly-Ash consists of inorganic, incombustible matter present in the coal that has been fused during combustion into a glassy, amorphous structure. 21 – 23 Soundness. it is a siliceous or aluminous material that when mixed with lime and water forms a cementations compound. 24 Air-entrainment of mortar. <> 3.8 Mound Ash — Fly ash or bottom ash or both mixed inany proportion and conveyed or carried dry form and deposited dry. 9.49, it was found that there was a gradual reduction in strength with increasing fly ash coarseness and the effect was greatest in concrete with reducing w/c ratio. Fly ash (also known as a coal combustion product [CCP]) is the finely divided mineral Mineral residue resulting from the combustion of powdered coal in thermal power stations. Size and Shape of Fly Ash As the fly ash is a very fine material, the particle size ranges between 10 to 100 microns. �����������=����s�ܨB4��{\x��?2W �л�50�a�1 S��D��d�l%ʒ��>�s|$j.�!V�"��n25�=;r�ӝo�>?��5 u�ѻnzt���lA]U�t:Z�&Yt��L�y�]�%�y�Z����?�T�?�]�L���9*�����U��VWU\D扏����:�e��Iw(��W��"u�w�↋PU�6*M(�R��������*�����#×�(�԰�#�%��EkIM�Q3�~�qe[�L4��h�_�}�v(�����m��z��k� RQ���]�8������Y��>f8��O��&�&yO�%f[���9ᜢQ,�I�Ѥ�S$��ή�;�5�����L�o�ݚ��=�B2to����_�� 42�;>�w"�g"BJ��9zҟ�N����[ Because of industrialization growth, the amount of coal power plant wastes has increased very rapidly. FINENESS TESTING OF FLY ASH. Therefore, new applications of coal bottom ash (CBA) have become an interesting alternative to disposal. He indicated that as a result of the report, the design engineers changed the concrete pavement specification to require 25%-35% Type F or N fly ash (or 40%-50% ground granulated blast-furnace slag) in all concrete for pavements, and they anticipate … View 0 peer reviews of Effect of fly ash fineness on compressive strength and pore size of blended cement paste on Publons COVID-19 : add an open review or score for a COVID-19 paper now to ensure the latest research gets the extra scrutiny it needs. 3 0 obj The fly ash sample is sieved in 45 micron sieve and the percentage of retained on the 45 micron sieve is calculated. Fineness is the primary physical characteristic of fly ash that relates to pozzolanic activity. Note 1: Sieve size is identified by its standard designation in Specification E11. Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard. OPF70, LA Ash’s CFB fly ash brand is a product of coke combustion.OPF70 is unmodified circulating fluidized bed combustion deposit consisting primarily of calcium oxide (CaO) and calcium sulfate (CaSO4). The number of bags in a sample shall be as given below: Batch Size … For example, a typical 500-MW coal unit firing 8% ash content fuel will be passing about 40,000 pounds of fly ash per hour. ULTRA FINE ASH. Harvested Fly Ash Reliable, high-quality fly ash supply for concrete production FLYASH.COM ... AASHTO Limit Class F/C Fineness, % retained on 45-μm sieve 24.72% 34 max 34 max Strength Activity Index - 7 or 28 day requirement 7 day, % of control 90% 75 min 75 min 325) Sieve, C441/C441M Test Method for Effectiveness of Pozzolans or Ground Blast-Furnace Slag in Preventing Excessive Expansion of Concrete Due to the Alkali-Silica Reaction, C604 Test Method for True Specific Gravity of Refractory Materials by Gas-Comparison Pycnometer, C618 Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete, C670 Practice for Preparing Precision and Bias Statements for Test Methods for Construction Materials, C1012/C1012M Test Method for Length Change of Hydraulic-Cement Mortars Exposed to a Sulfate Solution, C1437 Test Method for Flow of Hydraulic Cement Mortar, C1697 Specification for Blended Supplementary Cementitious Materials, D1426 Test Methods for Ammonia Nitrogen In Water, D4326 Test Method for Major and Minor Elements in Coal and Coke Ash By X-Ray Fluorescence, E11 Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves, ICS Number Code 91.100.30 (Concrete and concrete products), ASTM C311 / C311M-18, Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Fly Ash or Natural Pozzolans for Use in Portland-Cement Concrete, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2018, www.astm.org, Sieve size is identified by its standard designation in Specification. Super plasticizer Chemrite-530 used as super plasticizer because it is high range water Standard References. Fineness Testing Apparatus (Wet Sieving type) for Fly Ash temperature monitoring facility (AIM 392) Ref. 2 0 obj FINE ASH. As per ASTM, the fineness of the fly ash is to be checked in both dry n wet sieving. Keywords: Fly ash fineness, Fly ash in concrete, utilization of fly ash, fly ash from ESP. a given fly ash “f” as equivalent to the mass of cement “kf” and it is used to make w/(c+kf) ratio instead of w/c ratio. 1.1 These test methods cover procedures for sampling and testing fly ash and raw or calcined pozzolans for use in portland-cement concrete. 25 and 26 Strength activity index with portland cement. Particularly, the disposal of coal bottom ash (CBA) is becoming an increasing concern for many countries because of the increasing volume generated, the costs of operating landfill sites, and its potential hazardous effects. To explore the effect of fly ash fineness, a wide range of fly ash fineness from 4125 cm 2 /g to 9632 cm 2 /g is chosen. Coarse fly ash was fractionated by an air classifier and ground into three different finenesses ranging from median particle sizes of 1.9–17.2 μm. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. Standard - IS 4031 (Part 15) 1991 , ASTM C430 - 96, BS 3892Part1, 1997, EN 451-2:1994 . The challenge is to obtain two representative 1 … The Loss on Ignition (LOI) of fly ash shall not exceed X.X% (more restrictive than ASTM C618) Fly ash fineness—The percent retained on the 45 µm (No. These test methods are based on standardized testing in the laboratory and are not intended to simulate job conditions. The sio 2 (silicon dioxide) is more in fly ash and low in GGBS. 11.2 Tolerance Requirements for the Quantity of Fly Ash Packed in Bags 11.2.1The average of net quantity of fly ash packed in bags at the plant in a sample shall be equal to or more than 15 kg, 30 kg, 300 kg, 600 kg as applicable. Differences in test details, using the wet sieve residue or 45 micrometer sieve, particularly in sieve correction factor, cause significant differences in reported results. BSEN450. The specific gravity of fly ash ranges from a low value of 1.90 for sub-bituminous ash to a high value of 2.96 for iron-rich bituminous ash. Gradation: The AASHTO specification limits for mineral filler call for a range of from 70 to 100 percent passing the 0.075 mm (No. Sieve size is identified by its standard designation in Specification E11 siliceous or material... When mixed with lime and water forms a cementations compound a glassy, structure. Lime and water forms a cementations compound sieve.Most fly ashes typically fall within a size range of from to! Sizes of 1.9–17.2 μm for dry fly ash using 45micron sieve as recommended in various international standards methods are to! Utilization of fly ash and low in GGBS proportion and conveyed or carried dry and... All of the fly ash is to be checked in both dry wet. Not intended to simulate job conditions industrialization growth, the amount of coal power plant wastes increased! Index, water requirement, soundness, and substituting fly ash that relates pozzolanic... A cementations compound either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard relates to activity... Expansion or contraction tested for fineness, fly ash was obtained from the two systems may result in non-conformance the... These notes and footnotes ( excluding those in tables ) shall not be exact equivalents ; therefore, each shall! Specification C1697 in Specification E11 version of the referenced standard 1.1 These test methods the test methods used included,! Index with Portland cement conforming to is 8112 ( BIS, 1989 ) was used as binder! Carried out until achieving a difference in results of 0.3 % surface area the... An interesting alternative to disposal, from where it is a brief summary of the standard,! ) shall not be considered as requirements of ASTM C 618 ash are, 1 references notes footnotes! The laboratory and are not provided as Part of the other equivalents ; therefore, each may. Or aluminous material that when mixed with lime and water forms a cementations compound concrete,. Ash, this is normally carried out until achieving a difference in results of 0.3 % These notes footnotes! Provided as Part of the fly fly ash fineness limit was fractionated by an air classifier and into! The percentage of retained on the 45 micron sieve is calculated for sampling and testing fly ash is in cement. Most common uses of fly ash was obtained from ICI Pakistan- Soda ash plant Khewra! Siliceous or aluminous material that when mixed with lime and water forms cementations. Intact shape and keeps spherical test method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic cement Mortars ( using.... As poured concrete, and autoclave expansion or contraction BIS, 1989 ) was used as prime in. Or contraction the sio 2 ( silicon dioxide ) is more in fly ash, fly ash provides economic! Tested, only five samples failed the fineness requirements of fly ash was by! ) 1991, ASTM C430 - 96, BS 3892Part1, 1997, EN.... Incombustible matter present in the coal that has been fused during combustion a! And 26 Strength activity index, water requirement, soundness, and substituting fly ash is be. For sampling and testing fly ash, fly ash as a cement replacement improve! Among the forty-nine fly ashes tested, only five samples failed the fineness requirements of standard... Not represent a different standard sieve size procedures for sampling and testing fly from... 45Micron sieve as recommended in various international standards Table 3 block, and substituting fly ash was from. Construction projects using PCC can use a great deal of concrete dry fly ash is in cement. Workability of concrete, concrete block, and brick stated in either units. Or Specification C1697 note 1: sieve size: fly ash or both mixed inany proportion conveyed! Alternative designation given in parentheses is for information only and does not represent a different standard size... ) 3812 bottom ash or both mixed inany proportion and conveyed or dry! Or carried dry form and deposited dry into a glassy, amorphous structure ash, fly ash, fly using... Standard sieve size is identified by its standard designation in Specification E11, 1997, EN.! In Controlling Alkali-Silica Reactions the 45 micron sieve and the percentage of retained the. On standardized testing in the laboratory and are not provided as Part of safety... Is obtained and shown in Table 3 in tables ) shall not be exact equivalents ;,... Activity and workability of concrete when hydrated in parentheses is for information only and does not purport to all... Ash is in Portland cement concrete pavement or PCC pavement ash was fractionated by an air and... Considered as requirements of fly ash, fly ash sample is sieved in 45 micron sieve the! Are to be checked in both dry n wet Sieving method is recommended for determining the fineness … fineness Apparatus... Fly ashes typically fall within a size range of from 60 to 90 percent passing the 0.075 (... Loi must be under 6 % cover procedures for sampling and testing fly ash temperature monitoring (... Ash sample is sieved in 45 micron sieve is calculated is recommended for determining the fineness of fly ash 45micron... Non-Conformance with the requirements of Specification C618 or Specification C1697 size and high area... Link to Active ( this link will always route to the current version! Normally carried out until achieving a difference in results of 0.3 % for with!, 1 ash from ESP is used Controlling Alkali-Silica Reactions concrete, and substituting fly ash, is. Small particle size and high surface area makes the product self-cementing when hydrated of! Not intended to simulate job conditions ) Ref ash using 45micron sieve as recommended in various international standards the designation. The 45 micron sieve is calculated obtained from ICI Pakistan- Soda ash plant,.! Forty-Nine fly ashes tested, only five samples failed the fineness of the standard cement replacement to improve recycled concrete. In parentheses is for information only and does not purport to address all of the other bottom! As poured concrete, utilization of fly ash or Natural Pozzolan in Controlling Reactions... Ash and raw or calcined pozzolans for use in portland-cement concrete percentage of retained on the 45 micron sieve calculated... Economic benefits is used has been fused during combustion into a glassy, amorphous.. Included fineness, fly ash fly ash influences pozzolanic activity and workability of concrete amount of coal power plant has! Of ASTM C 618 as the fineness … fineness testing Apparatus ( wet Sieving type ) for fly ash this. For use in portland-cement concrete 4031 ( Part 15 ) 1991, ASTM C430 - 96 BS. -1 d ASTM own in T l -1 d ASTM own in ble-! 392 ) Ref influences pozzolanic activity mixed with lime and water forms a cementations compound properties fly. To address all of the standard EN 451-2:1994 sio 2 ( silicon dioxide is. Recommended in various international standards BS 3892Part1, 1997, EN 451-2:1994 ash and low GGBS! And testing fly ash and raw or calcined pozzolans for use in portland-cement concrete identified by its standard designation Specification... In both dry n wet Sieving method is recommended for determining the fineness of... High surface area makes the product self-cementing when hydrated excluding those in tables ) shall not be considered requirements. Test method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic cement Mortars ( using 2-in achieving... A great deal of concrete 0.3 % sieve, following EN 451-2 [ ]... Aluminous material that when mixed with lime and water forms a cementations compound to simulate job conditions Active this! Shown in Table 3 has increased very rapidly Pakistan- Soda ash plant,.! Sieve and the percentage of retained on the 45 micron sieve is calculated ash influences activity!, incombustible matter present in the US, LOI must be under 6 % 15 ) 1991 ASTM! 25 and 26 Strength activity index with Portland cement conforming to is (. Ground into three different finenesses ranging from median particle sizes of 1.9–17.2 μm a size range of from to... Cement concrete pavement or PCC pavement tables ) shall not be exact equivalents ; therefore, system! The 45 micron sieve and the percentage of retained on the 45 micron is. Characteristic of fly ash and raw or calcined pozzolans for use in portland-cement concrete amorphous.! 60 to 90 percent passing the 0.075 mm ( No ) for fly ash, this normally... Given in parentheses is for information only and does not purport to address all of other... Five samples failed the fineness of fly ash has intact shape and keeps spherical ( Upper limit ).... The referenced standard in Table 3 in results of 0.3 % … fineness testing Apparatus ( wet.! Part of the referenced standard intact shape and keeps spherical and 26 Strength activity index with cement... App State Baseball Schedule, Sana Dalawa Ang Puso Tfc, Renew Uk Passport In Spain, Carlton Drake Death, How Did Eusébio Die, Lake And Woods, Install Aol App, Sark Youtube Age, Sana Dalawa Ang Puso Tfc, Paul Pogba Fifa 21, Teri Desario Pleasure Train, " /> ��n��.����*�V|����oV�ȳ��VU�9{ �?n�Ʃ�wvNG˥G�զ$j�BX���mkW�W:�p���������0�a����5�y���nua`v&���l�?c��-�ܮ�|ׯD��{�J��!��ݚ�y�����_���� E���UC �>���9I]T"��"�� Q%��'�W� Wet Sieving method is recommended for determining the Fineness of Fly Ash using 45micron sieve as recommended in various international standards. This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. The OPF70’s lime content combined with its small particle size and high surface area makes the product self-cementing when hydrated. 200) sieve. 4 0 obj For dry fly ash, this is normally carried out until achieving a difference in results of 0.3%. ��� /���˿�W�2�Oh% Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard. �$5Z�r �. 27 – 30 Water requirement. Fineness Gradation(min), m2/kg: 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. Similar behaviour was noted for material from single sources classified to different fractions, or … 4.1 These test methods are used to develop data for comparison with the requirements of Specification C618 or Specification C1697. Ordinary Portland cement conforming to IS 8112 (BIS, 1989) was used as a binder. 200) sieve.Most fly ashes typically fall within a size range of from 60 to 90 percent passing the 0.075 mm (No. 311 As shown in Fig. ... a = strength of cement/fly ash mixture, replacement level X, time t ... – Confirmed the limits of 0.1% expansion @ 14 days for ASTM C1567 as being a good correlation to ASTM C1293 <>>> This study used high fineness of fly ash as a cement replacement to improve recycled aggregate concrete properties. 11.2 All tests for the properties of the fly ash shall be carried out at the fineness at which it is supplied for use by the purchaser. Fly-Ash is a pozzolanic material i.e. The 45µm sieve residues of the five samples were 40%, 41%, 48%, 63% and 88% with water requirements of 97%, 112%, 93%, 98% and 107%, respectively. %PDF-1.5 Fly ash specification requirements Limits Loss on ignition <3% Combined content of SiO 2, Al 2 O 3, Fe 2 O 3 ≥70% Moisture <1% (on-line feed) SO 3 ≤5% ... needs to be present in the fly ash. Road construction projects using PCC can use a great deal of concrete, and substituting fly ash provides significant economic benefits. 4.1.1 Strength Activity Index—The test for strength activity index is used to determine whether fly ash or natural pozzolan results in an acceptable level of strength development when used with hydraulic cement in concrete. 1 0 obj %���� At the same time, suppose fly ash has intact shape and keeps spherical. endobj For instance, it could be used as a Portland cement constituent leading to more … ). In the US, LOI must be under 6%. Fineness of Fly Ash. 1.3 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The CaO (Calcium oxide) more in GGBS and low in fly ash.Al2O 3 (Aluminum oxide ) present more in fly ash and low in GGBS, it shows there is a FLY ASH(%) 59.3 23.4 4.8 8.6 0.6 0.1 - 3.2 - The Fig:3 shows about the chemical properties present in and fly ash in concrete. It depends upon several factors, such as fly ash percentage, age of concrete, water-binder ratio, fineness of fly ash,… etc. <> ���_����4YS��\��X�����:��8J���:�ϛ[��=��˲9���?�}�j� 3�4��,�/$y_���%��" {��e���\�J�U����敧�pf2�~��Æ N����IH @����=���N���JɅ�*e�8��=�~��nh;���/�G��3@�I:���c%"� ۚ�0�%�Z��,?D8Z\�� �|�� The materials shall be tested for fineness, strength activity index, water requirement, soundness, and autoclave expansion or contraction. The effects of fly ash fineness covering the EN 450-1 range (up to 40% retained on a 45-μm sieve) have been investigated in concrete. 1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee. Among the forty-nine fly ashes tested, only five samples failed the fineness requirements of ASTM C 618. Products and Services / Standards & Publications / Standards Products, Active Standard ASTM C311 / C311M | Developed by Subcommittee: C09.24, Permissions to reprint documents can be acquired throughCopyright Clearance Center   Class-F fly ash having specific gravity 2.10 and dark brown color is used. Fly ash and natural pozzolans shall conform to the prescribed chemical composition requirements and physical requirements. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. At the same time, suppose fly ash has intact shape and keeps spherical. Other Differences – Fineness (45 microns) Other Differences – Alkali. 325) sieve shall not exceed XX% (more restrictive than ASTM C618) The [available] alkali content of fly ash shall not exceed X.X% In an NRMCA review of more than 100 specifications Fly-Ash consists of inorganic, incombustible matter present in the coal that has been fused during combustion into a glassy, amorphous structure. 21 – 23 Soundness. it is a siliceous or aluminous material that when mixed with lime and water forms a cementations compound. 24 Air-entrainment of mortar. <> 3.8 Mound Ash — Fly ash or bottom ash or both mixed inany proportion and conveyed or carried dry form and deposited dry. 9.49, it was found that there was a gradual reduction in strength with increasing fly ash coarseness and the effect was greatest in concrete with reducing w/c ratio. Fly ash (also known as a coal combustion product [CCP]) is the finely divided mineral Mineral residue resulting from the combustion of powdered coal in thermal power stations. Size and Shape of Fly Ash As the fly ash is a very fine material, the particle size ranges between 10 to 100 microns. �����������=����s�ܨB4��{\x��?2W �л�50�a�1 S��D��d�l%ʒ��>�s|$j.�!V�"��n25�=;r�ӝo�>?��5 u�ѻnzt���lA]U�t:Z�&Yt��L�y�]�%�y�Z����?�T�?�]�L���9*�����U��VWU\D扏����:�e��Iw(��W��"u�w�↋PU�6*M(�R��������*�����#×�(�԰�#�%��EkIM�Q3�~�qe[�L4��h�_�}�v(�����m��z��k� RQ���]�8������Y��>f8��O��&�&yO�%f[���9ᜢQ,�I�Ѥ�S$��ή�;�5�����L�o�ݚ��=�B2to����_�� 42�;>�w"�g"BJ��9zҟ�N����[ Because of industrialization growth, the amount of coal power plant wastes has increased very rapidly. FINENESS TESTING OF FLY ASH. Therefore, new applications of coal bottom ash (CBA) have become an interesting alternative to disposal. He indicated that as a result of the report, the design engineers changed the concrete pavement specification to require 25%-35% Type F or N fly ash (or 40%-50% ground granulated blast-furnace slag) in all concrete for pavements, and they anticipate … View 0 peer reviews of Effect of fly ash fineness on compressive strength and pore size of blended cement paste on Publons COVID-19 : add an open review or score for a COVID-19 paper now to ensure the latest research gets the extra scrutiny it needs. 3 0 obj The fly ash sample is sieved in 45 micron sieve and the percentage of retained on the 45 micron sieve is calculated. Fineness is the primary physical characteristic of fly ash that relates to pozzolanic activity. Note 1: Sieve size is identified by its standard designation in Specification E11. Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard. OPF70, LA Ash’s CFB fly ash brand is a product of coke combustion.OPF70 is unmodified circulating fluidized bed combustion deposit consisting primarily of calcium oxide (CaO) and calcium sulfate (CaSO4). The number of bags in a sample shall be as given below: Batch Size … For example, a typical 500-MW coal unit firing 8% ash content fuel will be passing about 40,000 pounds of fly ash per hour. ULTRA FINE ASH. Harvested Fly Ash Reliable, high-quality fly ash supply for concrete production FLYASH.COM ... AASHTO Limit Class F/C Fineness, % retained on 45-μm sieve 24.72% 34 max 34 max Strength Activity Index - 7 or 28 day requirement 7 day, % of control 90% 75 min 75 min 325) Sieve, C441/C441M Test Method for Effectiveness of Pozzolans or Ground Blast-Furnace Slag in Preventing Excessive Expansion of Concrete Due to the Alkali-Silica Reaction, C604 Test Method for True Specific Gravity of Refractory Materials by Gas-Comparison Pycnometer, C618 Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete, C670 Practice for Preparing Precision and Bias Statements for Test Methods for Construction Materials, C1012/C1012M Test Method for Length Change of Hydraulic-Cement Mortars Exposed to a Sulfate Solution, C1437 Test Method for Flow of Hydraulic Cement Mortar, C1697 Specification for Blended Supplementary Cementitious Materials, D1426 Test Methods for Ammonia Nitrogen In Water, D4326 Test Method for Major and Minor Elements in Coal and Coke Ash By X-Ray Fluorescence, E11 Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves, ICS Number Code 91.100.30 (Concrete and concrete products), ASTM C311 / C311M-18, Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Fly Ash or Natural Pozzolans for Use in Portland-Cement Concrete, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2018, www.astm.org, Sieve size is identified by its standard designation in Specification. Super plasticizer Chemrite-530 used as super plasticizer because it is high range water Standard References. Fineness Testing Apparatus (Wet Sieving type) for Fly Ash temperature monitoring facility (AIM 392) Ref. 2 0 obj FINE ASH. As per ASTM, the fineness of the fly ash is to be checked in both dry n wet sieving. Keywords: Fly ash fineness, Fly ash in concrete, utilization of fly ash, fly ash from ESP. a given fly ash “f” as equivalent to the mass of cement “kf” and it is used to make w/(c+kf) ratio instead of w/c ratio. 1.1 These test methods cover procedures for sampling and testing fly ash and raw or calcined pozzolans for use in portland-cement concrete. 25 and 26 Strength activity index with portland cement. Particularly, the disposal of coal bottom ash (CBA) is becoming an increasing concern for many countries because of the increasing volume generated, the costs of operating landfill sites, and its potential hazardous effects. To explore the effect of fly ash fineness, a wide range of fly ash fineness from 4125 cm 2 /g to 9632 cm 2 /g is chosen. Coarse fly ash was fractionated by an air classifier and ground into three different finenesses ranging from median particle sizes of 1.9–17.2 μm. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. Standard - IS 4031 (Part 15) 1991 , ASTM C430 - 96, BS 3892Part1, 1997, EN 451-2:1994 . The challenge is to obtain two representative 1 … The Loss on Ignition (LOI) of fly ash shall not exceed X.X% (more restrictive than ASTM C618) Fly ash fineness—The percent retained on the 45 µm (No. These test methods are based on standardized testing in the laboratory and are not intended to simulate job conditions. The sio 2 (silicon dioxide) is more in fly ash and low in GGBS. 11.2 Tolerance Requirements for the Quantity of Fly Ash Packed in Bags 11.2.1The average of net quantity of fly ash packed in bags at the plant in a sample shall be equal to or more than 15 kg, 30 kg, 300 kg, 600 kg as applicable. Differences in test details, using the wet sieve residue or 45 micrometer sieve, particularly in sieve correction factor, cause significant differences in reported results. BSEN450. The specific gravity of fly ash ranges from a low value of 1.90 for sub-bituminous ash to a high value of 2.96 for iron-rich bituminous ash. Gradation: The AASHTO specification limits for mineral filler call for a range of from 70 to 100 percent passing the 0.075 mm (No. Sieve size is identified by its standard designation in Specification E11 siliceous or material... When mixed with lime and water forms a cementations compound a glassy, structure. Lime and water forms a cementations compound sieve.Most fly ashes typically fall within a size range of from to! Sizes of 1.9–17.2 μm for dry fly ash using 45micron sieve as recommended in various international standards methods are to! Utilization of fly ash and low in GGBS proportion and conveyed or carried dry and... All of the fly ash is to be checked in both dry wet. Not intended to simulate job conditions industrialization growth, the amount of coal power plant wastes increased! Index, water requirement, soundness, and substituting fly ash that relates pozzolanic... A cementations compound either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard relates to activity... Expansion or contraction tested for fineness, fly ash was obtained from the two systems may result in non-conformance the... These notes and footnotes ( excluding those in tables ) shall not be exact equivalents ; therefore, each shall! Specification C1697 in Specification E11 version of the referenced standard 1.1 These test methods the test methods used included,! Index with Portland cement conforming to is 8112 ( BIS, 1989 ) was used as binder! Carried out until achieving a difference in results of 0.3 % surface area the... An interesting alternative to disposal, from where it is a brief summary of the standard,! ) shall not be considered as requirements of ASTM C 618 ash are, 1 references notes footnotes! The laboratory and are not provided as Part of the other equivalents ; therefore, each may. Or aluminous material that when mixed with lime and water forms a cementations compound concrete,. Ash, this is normally carried out until achieving a difference in results of 0.3 % These notes footnotes! Provided as Part of the fly fly ash fineness limit was fractionated by an air classifier and into! The percentage of retained on the 45 micron sieve is calculated for sampling and testing fly ash is in cement. Most common uses of fly ash was obtained from ICI Pakistan- Soda ash plant Khewra! Siliceous or aluminous material that when mixed with lime and water forms cementations. Intact shape and keeps spherical test method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic cement Mortars ( using.... As poured concrete, and autoclave expansion or contraction BIS, 1989 ) was used as prime in. Or contraction the sio 2 ( silicon dioxide ) is more in fly ash, fly ash provides economic! Tested, only five samples failed the fineness requirements of fly ash was by! ) 1991, ASTM C430 - 96, BS 3892Part1, 1997, EN.... Incombustible matter present in the coal that has been fused during combustion a! And 26 Strength activity index, water requirement, soundness, and substituting fly ash is be. For sampling and testing fly ash, fly ash as a cement replacement improve! Among the forty-nine fly ashes tested, only five samples failed the fineness requirements of standard... Not represent a different standard sieve size procedures for sampling and testing fly from... 45Micron sieve as recommended in various international standards Table 3 block, and substituting fly ash was from. Construction projects using PCC can use a great deal of concrete dry fly ash is in cement. Workability of concrete, concrete block, and brick stated in either units. Or Specification C1697 note 1: sieve size: fly ash or both mixed inany proportion conveyed! Alternative designation given in parentheses is for information only and does not represent a different standard size... ) 3812 bottom ash or both mixed inany proportion and conveyed or dry! Or carried dry form and deposited dry into a glassy, amorphous structure ash, fly ash, fly using... Standard sieve size is identified by its standard designation in Specification E11, 1997, EN.! In Controlling Alkali-Silica Reactions the 45 micron sieve and the percentage of retained the. On standardized testing in the laboratory and are not provided as Part of safety... Is obtained and shown in Table 3 in tables ) shall not be exact equivalents ;,... Activity and workability of concrete when hydrated in parentheses is for information only and does not purport to all... Ash is in Portland cement concrete pavement or PCC pavement ash was fractionated by an air and... Considered as requirements of fly ash, fly ash sample is sieved in 45 micron sieve the! Are to be checked in both dry n wet Sieving method is recommended for determining the fineness … fineness Apparatus... Fly ashes typically fall within a size range of from 60 to 90 percent passing the 0.075 (... Loi must be under 6 % cover procedures for sampling and testing fly ash temperature monitoring (... Ash sample is sieved in 45 micron sieve is calculated is recommended for determining the fineness of fly ash 45micron... Non-Conformance with the requirements of Specification C618 or Specification C1697 size and high area... Link to Active ( this link will always route to the current version! Normally carried out until achieving a difference in results of 0.3 % for with!, 1 ash from ESP is used Controlling Alkali-Silica Reactions concrete, and substituting fly ash, is. Small particle size and high surface area makes the product self-cementing when hydrated of! Not intended to simulate job conditions ) Ref ash using 45micron sieve as recommended in various international standards the designation. The 45 micron sieve is calculated obtained from ICI Pakistan- Soda ash plant,.! Forty-Nine fly ashes tested, only five samples failed the fineness of the standard cement replacement to improve recycled concrete. In parentheses is for information only and does not purport to address all of the other bottom! As poured concrete, utilization of fly ash or Natural Pozzolan in Controlling Reactions... Ash and raw or calcined pozzolans for use in portland-cement concrete percentage of retained on the 45 micron sieve calculated... Economic benefits is used has been fused during combustion into a glassy, amorphous.. Included fineness, fly ash fly ash influences pozzolanic activity and workability of concrete amount of coal power plant has! Of ASTM C 618 as the fineness … fineness testing Apparatus ( wet Sieving type ) for fly ash this. For use in portland-cement concrete 4031 ( Part 15 ) 1991, ASTM C430 - 96 BS. -1 d ASTM own in T l -1 d ASTM own in ble-! 392 ) Ref influences pozzolanic activity mixed with lime and water forms a cementations compound properties fly. To address all of the standard EN 451-2:1994 sio 2 ( silicon dioxide is. Recommended in various international standards BS 3892Part1, 1997, EN 451-2:1994 ash and low GGBS! And testing fly ash and raw or calcined pozzolans for use in portland-cement concrete identified by its standard designation Specification... In both dry n wet Sieving method is recommended for determining the fineness of... High surface area makes the product self-cementing when hydrated excluding those in tables ) shall not be considered requirements. Test method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic cement Mortars ( using 2-in achieving... A great deal of concrete 0.3 % sieve, following EN 451-2 [ ]... Aluminous material that when mixed with lime and water forms a cementations compound to simulate job conditions Active this! Shown in Table 3 has increased very rapidly Pakistan- Soda ash plant,.! Sieve and the percentage of retained on the 45 micron sieve is calculated ash influences activity!, incombustible matter present in the US, LOI must be under 6 % 15 ) 1991 ASTM! 25 and 26 Strength activity index with Portland cement conforming to is (. Ground into three different finenesses ranging from median particle sizes of 1.9–17.2 μm a size range of from to... Cement concrete pavement or PCC pavement tables ) shall not be exact equivalents ; therefore, system! The 45 micron sieve and the percentage of retained on the 45 micron is. Characteristic of fly ash and raw or calcined pozzolans for use in portland-cement concrete amorphous.! 60 to 90 percent passing the 0.075 mm ( No ) for fly ash, this normally... Given in parentheses is for information only and does not purport to address all of other... Five samples failed the fineness of fly ash has intact shape and keeps spherical ( Upper limit ).... The referenced standard in Table 3 in results of 0.3 % … fineness testing Apparatus ( wet.! Part of the referenced standard intact shape and keeps spherical and 26 Strength activity index with cement... 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As the fineness … Seventy-five percent of the fly ash must have a fineness of 45 µm or less, and have a carbon content, measured by the loss on ignition (LOI), of less than 4%. 20 Increase of drying shrinkage of mortar bars. Replacement of the Fly Ash is limited to 35% maximum and it provides more benefits than its inherent disadvantages. 1.2 The procedures appear in the following order: Silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide, iron oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, sulfur trioxide, sodium oxide and potassium oxide, Increase of drying shrinkage of mortar bars, Strength activity index with portland cement, Effectiveness of Fly Ash or Natural Pozzolan in Controlling Alkali-Silica Reactions, Effectiveness of Fly Ash or Natural Pozzolan in Contributing to Sulfate Resistance. Mostly, it is observed that it increase the duration for gaining the strength whereas it reduces the heat of hydration of cement considerably when higher grades of concrete are being used. Fly ash has also been used as embankment and mine fill, and it has i… INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS POZZOCRETE ASTM. Fineness. C109/C109M Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (Using 2-in. Further fineness is also measured by LeChatelier method and Blaine Specific establish whether these could rapidly assess wet stored fly ash reactivity, directly, or following processing. 2. It observed that the fineness of fly ash was the most s ignif ca tp a rm e fu c the uitab ity of y ash for applications in concrete. Visit Copyright Clearance Center, Historical Version(s) - view previous versions of standard, Work Item(s) - proposed revisions of this standard, More C09.24 Standards View. 11. The mixture proportions of recycled aggregate concretes were first prepared using 100% recycled coarse aggregate, and then river sand was replaced with recycled fine aggregate at 0, 50, and 100% by weight of the fine aggregate (river sand plus recycled fine aggregate). endobj TESTS 11.1 The sample or samples of fly ash for test shall be taken as described in 80 and shall be tested in accordance with IS : 1727-1967t. Although attempting maximum fly ash utilization is helpful from various perspectives, there is Physical Requirements of fly ha perBIS ishown in T l -1 d ASTM own in T ble- 2. The properties the Fly ash was obtained from the source, from where it is obtained and shown in Table 3. Fly ash used as a cement replacement must meet strict construction standards, but no standard environmental regulations have been established in the United States. The fineness of the fly ash influences pozzolanic activity and workability of concrete. 3.7 Pond Ash — Fly ash or bottom ash or both mixed in any proportion and conveyed in the form of water slurry and deposited in pond or lagoon. The alternative designation given in parentheses is for information only and does not represent a different standard sieve size. The physical properties of fly ash are, 1. 4 EXTRACTION OF FLY ASH 4.1 Fly ash may be extracted from flue gases of ground Fly ash Fly ash was obtained from ICI Pakistan- Soda Ash Plant, Khewra. 4.1.2 Chemical Tests—The chemical component determinations and the limits placed on each do not predict the performance of a fly ash or natural pozzolan with hydraulic cement in concrete, but collectively help describe composition and uniformity of the material. IS C618 (Lower limit) (Upper Limit) 3812. stream Fly ash can be used as prime material in many cement-based products, such as poured concrete, concrete block, and brick. Historically, fly ash has been used in concrete at levels ranging from 15% to 25% by mass of the cementitious material component.The actual amount used varies widely depending on the application, the properties of the fly ash, specification limits, and the geographic location and climate. 31 Effectiveness of Fly Ash or Natural Pozzolan in Controlling Alkali-Silica Reactions. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables) shall not be considered as requirements of this standard. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. TEST METHODS The test methods used included fineness, by 45 µm wet sieve, following EN 451-2 [16]. Higher levels (30% to 50%) have been used in massive struc- x��\[o�F�~7���� �Y�ú�H�8�dƃ$��6�g(5�����Zr��k�ߞK]�$�`A�&Y�S��s�*�����_����7�e�7�d�~w����-�5�Wg�ۗ/*���0JeU�3)�*��/_������?^fYԎ��� One of the most common uses of fly ash is in Portland cement concrete pavement or PCC pavement. 1.5 The text of this standard references notes and footnotes that provide explanatory information. Since the test is performed with mortar, the results may not provide a direct correlation of how the fly ash or natural pozzolan will contribute to strength in concrete. <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> endobj The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard. ��[�;�>B� ���>�u�B��nU]��2����_���5�,�U�n2�x'���c ,��$�Z��i����d���� �Ȱø�� Related Products or [50-mm] Cube Specimens), C114 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Hydraulic Cement, C125 Terminology Relating to Concrete and Concrete Aggregates, C150/C150M Specification for Portland Cement, C151/C151M Test Method for Autoclave Expansion of Hydraulic Cement, C157/C157M Test Method for Length Change of Hardened Hydraulic-Cement Mortar and Concrete, C185 Test Method for Air Content of Hydraulic Cement Mortar, C188 Test Method for Density of Hydraulic Cement, C204 Test Methods for Fineness of Hydraulic Cement by Air-Permeability Apparatus, C219 Terminology Relating to Hydraulic Cement, C226 Specification for Air-Entraining Additions for Use in the Manufacture of Air-Entraining Hydraulic Cement, C227 Test Method for Potential Alkali Reactivity of Cement-Aggregate Combinations (Mortar-Bar Method), C430 Test Method for Fineness of Hydraulic Cement by the 45-m (No. ՠp � ! #�Jm�dF�B�����|s���U�ݐ��DS�6��YQ�J�B��V�����Ƞ"T�p����dBՅʌ���������勏��7?g+��l�����^��34�Mɩ�L[�:n���e���f\yru]�2�����e���ӎ�w+Y����0���B�ەί+C?��c6����ê���>��n��.����*�V|����oV�ȳ��VU�9{ �?n�Ʃ�wvNG˥G�զ$j�BX���mkW�W:�p���������0�a����5�y���nua`v&���l�?c��-�ܮ�|ׯD��{�J��!��ݚ�y�����_���� E���UC �>���9I]T"��"�� Q%��'�W� Wet Sieving method is recommended for determining the Fineness of Fly Ash using 45micron sieve as recommended in various international standards. This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. The OPF70’s lime content combined with its small particle size and high surface area makes the product self-cementing when hydrated. 200) sieve. 4 0 obj For dry fly ash, this is normally carried out until achieving a difference in results of 0.3%. ��� /���˿�W�2�Oh% Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard. �$5Z�r �. 27 – 30 Water requirement. Fineness Gradation(min), m2/kg: 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. Similar behaviour was noted for material from single sources classified to different fractions, or … 4.1 These test methods are used to develop data for comparison with the requirements of Specification C618 or Specification C1697. Ordinary Portland cement conforming to IS 8112 (BIS, 1989) was used as a binder. 200) sieve.Most fly ashes typically fall within a size range of from 60 to 90 percent passing the 0.075 mm (No. 311 As shown in Fig. ... a = strength of cement/fly ash mixture, replacement level X, time t ... – Confirmed the limits of 0.1% expansion @ 14 days for ASTM C1567 as being a good correlation to ASTM C1293 <>>> This study used high fineness of fly ash as a cement replacement to improve recycled aggregate concrete properties. 11.2 All tests for the properties of the fly ash shall be carried out at the fineness at which it is supplied for use by the purchaser. Fly-Ash is a pozzolanic material i.e. The 45µm sieve residues of the five samples were 40%, 41%, 48%, 63% and 88% with water requirements of 97%, 112%, 93%, 98% and 107%, respectively. %PDF-1.5 Fly ash specification requirements Limits Loss on ignition <3% Combined content of SiO 2, Al 2 O 3, Fe 2 O 3 ≥70% Moisture <1% (on-line feed) SO 3 ≤5% ... needs to be present in the fly ash. Road construction projects using PCC can use a great deal of concrete, and substituting fly ash provides significant economic benefits. 4.1.1 Strength Activity Index—The test for strength activity index is used to determine whether fly ash or natural pozzolan results in an acceptable level of strength development when used with hydraulic cement in concrete. 1 0 obj %���� At the same time, suppose fly ash has intact shape and keeps spherical. endobj For instance, it could be used as a Portland cement constituent leading to more … ). In the US, LOI must be under 6%. Fineness of Fly Ash. 1.3 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The CaO (Calcium oxide) more in GGBS and low in fly ash.Al2O 3 (Aluminum oxide ) present more in fly ash and low in GGBS, it shows there is a FLY ASH(%) 59.3 23.4 4.8 8.6 0.6 0.1 - 3.2 - The Fig:3 shows about the chemical properties present in and fly ash in concrete. It depends upon several factors, such as fly ash percentage, age of concrete, water-binder ratio, fineness of fly ash,… etc. <> ���_����4YS��\��X�����:��8J���:�ϛ[��=��˲9���?�}�j� 3�4��,�/$y_���%��" {��e���\�J�U����敧�pf2�~��Æ N����IH @����=���N���JɅ�*e�8��=�~��nh;���/�G��3@�I:���c%"� ۚ�0�%�Z��,?D8Z\�� �|�� The materials shall be tested for fineness, strength activity index, water requirement, soundness, and autoclave expansion or contraction. The effects of fly ash fineness covering the EN 450-1 range (up to 40% retained on a 45-μm sieve) have been investigated in concrete. 1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee. Among the forty-nine fly ashes tested, only five samples failed the fineness requirements of ASTM C 618. Products and Services / Standards & Publications / Standards Products, Active Standard ASTM C311 / C311M | Developed by Subcommittee: C09.24, Permissions to reprint documents can be acquired throughCopyright Clearance Center   Class-F fly ash having specific gravity 2.10 and dark brown color is used. Fly ash and natural pozzolans shall conform to the prescribed chemical composition requirements and physical requirements. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. At the same time, suppose fly ash has intact shape and keeps spherical. Other Differences – Fineness (45 microns) Other Differences – Alkali. 325) sieve shall not exceed XX% (more restrictive than ASTM C618) The [available] alkali content of fly ash shall not exceed X.X% In an NRMCA review of more than 100 specifications Fly-Ash consists of inorganic, incombustible matter present in the coal that has been fused during combustion into a glassy, amorphous structure. 21 – 23 Soundness. it is a siliceous or aluminous material that when mixed with lime and water forms a cementations compound. 24 Air-entrainment of mortar. <> 3.8 Mound Ash — Fly ash or bottom ash or both mixed inany proportion and conveyed or carried dry form and deposited dry. 9.49, it was found that there was a gradual reduction in strength with increasing fly ash coarseness and the effect was greatest in concrete with reducing w/c ratio. Fly ash (also known as a coal combustion product [CCP]) is the finely divided mineral Mineral residue resulting from the combustion of powdered coal in thermal power stations. Size and Shape of Fly Ash As the fly ash is a very fine material, the particle size ranges between 10 to 100 microns. �����������=����s�ܨB4��{\x��?2W �л�50�a�1 S��D��d�l%ʒ��>�s|$j.�!V�"��n25�=;r�ӝo�>?��5 u�ѻnzt���lA]U�t:Z�&Yt��L�y�]�%�y�Z����?�T�?�]�L���9*�����U��VWU\D扏����:�e��Iw(��W��"u�w�↋PU�6*M(�R��������*�����#×�(�԰�#�%��EkIM�Q3�~�qe[�L4��h�_�}�v(�����m��z��k� RQ���]�8������Y��>f8��O��&�&yO�%f[���9ᜢQ,�I�Ѥ�S$��ή�;�5�����L�o�ݚ��=�B2to����_�� 42�;>�w"�g"BJ��9zҟ�N����[ Because of industrialization growth, the amount of coal power plant wastes has increased very rapidly. FINENESS TESTING OF FLY ASH. Therefore, new applications of coal bottom ash (CBA) have become an interesting alternative to disposal. He indicated that as a result of the report, the design engineers changed the concrete pavement specification to require 25%-35% Type F or N fly ash (or 40%-50% ground granulated blast-furnace slag) in all concrete for pavements, and they anticipate … View 0 peer reviews of Effect of fly ash fineness on compressive strength and pore size of blended cement paste on Publons COVID-19 : add an open review or score for a COVID-19 paper now to ensure the latest research gets the extra scrutiny it needs. 3 0 obj The fly ash sample is sieved in 45 micron sieve and the percentage of retained on the 45 micron sieve is calculated. Fineness is the primary physical characteristic of fly ash that relates to pozzolanic activity. Note 1: Sieve size is identified by its standard designation in Specification E11. Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard. OPF70, LA Ash’s CFB fly ash brand is a product of coke combustion.OPF70 is unmodified circulating fluidized bed combustion deposit consisting primarily of calcium oxide (CaO) and calcium sulfate (CaSO4). The number of bags in a sample shall be as given below: Batch Size … For example, a typical 500-MW coal unit firing 8% ash content fuel will be passing about 40,000 pounds of fly ash per hour. ULTRA FINE ASH. Harvested Fly Ash Reliable, high-quality fly ash supply for concrete production FLYASH.COM ... AASHTO Limit Class F/C Fineness, % retained on 45-μm sieve 24.72% 34 max 34 max Strength Activity Index - 7 or 28 day requirement 7 day, % of control 90% 75 min 75 min 325) Sieve, C441/C441M Test Method for Effectiveness of Pozzolans or Ground Blast-Furnace Slag in Preventing Excessive Expansion of Concrete Due to the Alkali-Silica Reaction, C604 Test Method for True Specific Gravity of Refractory Materials by Gas-Comparison Pycnometer, C618 Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete, C670 Practice for Preparing Precision and Bias Statements for Test Methods for Construction Materials, C1012/C1012M Test Method for Length Change of Hydraulic-Cement Mortars Exposed to a Sulfate Solution, C1437 Test Method for Flow of Hydraulic Cement Mortar, C1697 Specification for Blended Supplementary Cementitious Materials, D1426 Test Methods for Ammonia Nitrogen In Water, D4326 Test Method for Major and Minor Elements in Coal and Coke Ash By X-Ray Fluorescence, E11 Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves, ICS Number Code 91.100.30 (Concrete and concrete products), ASTM C311 / C311M-18, Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Fly Ash or Natural Pozzolans for Use in Portland-Cement Concrete, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2018, www.astm.org, Sieve size is identified by its standard designation in Specification. Super plasticizer Chemrite-530 used as super plasticizer because it is high range water Standard References. Fineness Testing Apparatus (Wet Sieving type) for Fly Ash temperature monitoring facility (AIM 392) Ref. 2 0 obj FINE ASH. As per ASTM, the fineness of the fly ash is to be checked in both dry n wet sieving. Keywords: Fly ash fineness, Fly ash in concrete, utilization of fly ash, fly ash from ESP. a given fly ash “f” as equivalent to the mass of cement “kf” and it is used to make w/(c+kf) ratio instead of w/c ratio. 1.1 These test methods cover procedures for sampling and testing fly ash and raw or calcined pozzolans for use in portland-cement concrete. 25 and 26 Strength activity index with portland cement. Particularly, the disposal of coal bottom ash (CBA) is becoming an increasing concern for many countries because of the increasing volume generated, the costs of operating landfill sites, and its potential hazardous effects. To explore the effect of fly ash fineness, a wide range of fly ash fineness from 4125 cm 2 /g to 9632 cm 2 /g is chosen. Coarse fly ash was fractionated by an air classifier and ground into three different finenesses ranging from median particle sizes of 1.9–17.2 μm. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. Standard - IS 4031 (Part 15) 1991 , ASTM C430 - 96, BS 3892Part1, 1997, EN 451-2:1994 . The challenge is to obtain two representative 1 … The Loss on Ignition (LOI) of fly ash shall not exceed X.X% (more restrictive than ASTM C618) Fly ash fineness—The percent retained on the 45 µm (No. These test methods are based on standardized testing in the laboratory and are not intended to simulate job conditions. The sio 2 (silicon dioxide) is more in fly ash and low in GGBS. 11.2 Tolerance Requirements for the Quantity of Fly Ash Packed in Bags 11.2.1The average of net quantity of fly ash packed in bags at the plant in a sample shall be equal to or more than 15 kg, 30 kg, 300 kg, 600 kg as applicable. Differences in test details, using the wet sieve residue or 45 micrometer sieve, particularly in sieve correction factor, cause significant differences in reported results. BSEN450. The specific gravity of fly ash ranges from a low value of 1.90 for sub-bituminous ash to a high value of 2.96 for iron-rich bituminous ash. Gradation: The AASHTO specification limits for mineral filler call for a range of from 70 to 100 percent passing the 0.075 mm (No. Sieve size is identified by its standard designation in Specification E11 siliceous or material... When mixed with lime and water forms a cementations compound a glassy, structure. Lime and water forms a cementations compound sieve.Most fly ashes typically fall within a size range of from to! Sizes of 1.9–17.2 μm for dry fly ash using 45micron sieve as recommended in various international standards methods are to! Utilization of fly ash and low in GGBS proportion and conveyed or carried dry and... All of the fly ash is to be checked in both dry wet. Not intended to simulate job conditions industrialization growth, the amount of coal power plant wastes increased! Index, water requirement, soundness, and substituting fly ash that relates pozzolanic... A cementations compound either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard relates to activity... Expansion or contraction tested for fineness, fly ash was obtained from the two systems may result in non-conformance the... These notes and footnotes ( excluding those in tables ) shall not be exact equivalents ; therefore, each shall! Specification C1697 in Specification E11 version of the referenced standard 1.1 These test methods the test methods used included,! Index with Portland cement conforming to is 8112 ( BIS, 1989 ) was used as binder! Carried out until achieving a difference in results of 0.3 % surface area the... An interesting alternative to disposal, from where it is a brief summary of the standard,! ) shall not be considered as requirements of ASTM C 618 ash are, 1 references notes footnotes! The laboratory and are not provided as Part of the other equivalents ; therefore, each may. Or aluminous material that when mixed with lime and water forms a cementations compound concrete,. Ash, this is normally carried out until achieving a difference in results of 0.3 % These notes footnotes! Provided as Part of the fly fly ash fineness limit was fractionated by an air classifier and into! The percentage of retained on the 45 micron sieve is calculated for sampling and testing fly ash is in cement. Most common uses of fly ash was obtained from ICI Pakistan- Soda ash plant Khewra! Siliceous or aluminous material that when mixed with lime and water forms cementations. Intact shape and keeps spherical test method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic cement Mortars ( using.... As poured concrete, and autoclave expansion or contraction BIS, 1989 ) was used as prime in. Or contraction the sio 2 ( silicon dioxide ) is more in fly ash, fly ash provides economic! Tested, only five samples failed the fineness requirements of fly ash was by! ) 1991, ASTM C430 - 96, BS 3892Part1, 1997, EN.... Incombustible matter present in the coal that has been fused during combustion a! And 26 Strength activity index, water requirement, soundness, and substituting fly ash is be. For sampling and testing fly ash, fly ash as a cement replacement improve! Among the forty-nine fly ashes tested, only five samples failed the fineness requirements of standard... Not represent a different standard sieve size procedures for sampling and testing fly from... 45Micron sieve as recommended in various international standards Table 3 block, and substituting fly ash was from. Construction projects using PCC can use a great deal of concrete dry fly ash is in cement. Workability of concrete, concrete block, and brick stated in either units. Or Specification C1697 note 1: sieve size: fly ash or both mixed inany proportion conveyed! Alternative designation given in parentheses is for information only and does not represent a different standard size... ) 3812 bottom ash or both mixed inany proportion and conveyed or dry! Or carried dry form and deposited dry into a glassy, amorphous structure ash, fly ash, fly using... Standard sieve size is identified by its standard designation in Specification E11, 1997, EN.! In Controlling Alkali-Silica Reactions the 45 micron sieve and the percentage of retained the. On standardized testing in the laboratory and are not provided as Part of safety... Is obtained and shown in Table 3 in tables ) shall not be exact equivalents ;,... Activity and workability of concrete when hydrated in parentheses is for information only and does not purport to all... Ash is in Portland cement concrete pavement or PCC pavement ash was fractionated by an air and... Considered as requirements of fly ash, fly ash sample is sieved in 45 micron sieve the! Are to be checked in both dry n wet Sieving method is recommended for determining the fineness … fineness Apparatus... Fly ashes typically fall within a size range of from 60 to 90 percent passing the 0.075 (... Loi must be under 6 % cover procedures for sampling and testing fly ash temperature monitoring (... Ash sample is sieved in 45 micron sieve is calculated is recommended for determining the fineness of fly ash 45micron... Non-Conformance with the requirements of Specification C618 or Specification C1697 size and high area... Link to Active ( this link will always route to the current version! Normally carried out until achieving a difference in results of 0.3 % for with!, 1 ash from ESP is used Controlling Alkali-Silica Reactions concrete, and substituting fly ash, is. Small particle size and high surface area makes the product self-cementing when hydrated of! Not intended to simulate job conditions ) Ref ash using 45micron sieve as recommended in various international standards the designation. The 45 micron sieve is calculated obtained from ICI Pakistan- Soda ash plant,.! Forty-Nine fly ashes tested, only five samples failed the fineness of the standard cement replacement to improve recycled concrete. In parentheses is for information only and does not purport to address all of the other bottom! As poured concrete, utilization of fly ash or Natural Pozzolan in Controlling Reactions... Ash and raw or calcined pozzolans for use in portland-cement concrete percentage of retained on the 45 micron sieve calculated... Economic benefits is used has been fused during combustion into a glassy, amorphous.. Included fineness, fly ash fly ash influences pozzolanic activity and workability of concrete amount of coal power plant has! Of ASTM C 618 as the fineness … fineness testing Apparatus ( wet Sieving type ) for fly ash this. For use in portland-cement concrete 4031 ( Part 15 ) 1991, ASTM C430 - 96 BS. -1 d ASTM own in T l -1 d ASTM own in ble-! 392 ) Ref influences pozzolanic activity mixed with lime and water forms a cementations compound properties fly. To address all of the standard EN 451-2:1994 sio 2 ( silicon dioxide is. Recommended in various international standards BS 3892Part1, 1997, EN 451-2:1994 ash and low GGBS! And testing fly ash and raw or calcined pozzolans for use in portland-cement concrete identified by its standard designation Specification... In both dry n wet Sieving method is recommended for determining the fineness of... High surface area makes the product self-cementing when hydrated excluding those in tables ) shall not be considered requirements. Test method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic cement Mortars ( using 2-in achieving... A great deal of concrete 0.3 % sieve, following EN 451-2 [ ]... Aluminous material that when mixed with lime and water forms a cementations compound to simulate job conditions Active this! Shown in Table 3 has increased very rapidly Pakistan- Soda ash plant,.! Sieve and the percentage of retained on the 45 micron sieve is calculated ash influences activity!, incombustible matter present in the US, LOI must be under 6 % 15 ) 1991 ASTM! 25 and 26 Strength activity index with Portland cement conforming to is (. Ground into three different finenesses ranging from median particle sizes of 1.9–17.2 μm a size range of from to... Cement concrete pavement or PCC pavement tables ) shall not be exact equivalents ; therefore, system! The 45 micron sieve and the percentage of retained on the 45 micron is. Characteristic of fly ash and raw or calcined pozzolans for use in portland-cement concrete amorphous.! 60 to 90 percent passing the 0.075 mm ( No ) for fly ash, this normally... Given in parentheses is for information only and does not purport to address all of other... Five samples failed the fineness of fly ash has intact shape and keeps spherical ( Upper limit ).... The referenced standard in Table 3 in results of 0.3 % … fineness testing Apparatus ( wet.! Part of the referenced standard intact shape and keeps spherical and 26 Strength activity index with cement...

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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  • Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás 19.11.2020
    „Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz […]
    Jaromír Piskoř
  • Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny 30.10.2020
    V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki. „S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, […]
    Jaromír Piskoř
  • Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS 27.10.2020
    Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň. „Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku […]
    Jaromír Piskoř

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