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the shift in an ionic equilibrium caused by the addition of a solute that provides an ion that takes part in the equilibrium. Last Updated on March 20, 2019 By Mrs Shilpi Nagpal 4 Comments. When a common ion is added to a weak acid/base, is equivalent to adding stress to the system. Their ionization may further be reduced if one of the ions are present from another source. AP Chemistry Resource Center. In this case, acetate ion is added to acetic acid to analyze its degree of dissociation. Overall, the solubility of the reaction decreases with the added sodium chloride. Addition of common ion to a weak acid/base system: HA <=> H + + A- Now add A-( as a salt ) and the reaction will be driven to left & &&= && &&\mathrm{\:0.40\: M} $\mathrm{NaCl \rightleftharpoons Na^+ + {\color{Green} Cl^-}}$, $\mathrm{KCl \rightleftharpoons K^+ + {\color{Green} Cl^-}}$, $\mathrm{CaCl_2 \rightleftharpoons Ca^{2+} + {\color{Green} 2 Cl^-}}$, $\mathrm{AlCl_3 \rightleftharpoons Al^{3+} + {\color{Green} 3 Cl^-}}$, $\mathrm{AgCl \rightleftharpoons Ag^+ + {\color{Green} Cl^-}}$. Solving the equation for s gives s= 1.62×10-2 M. The coefficient on Cl- is 2, so it is assumed that twice as much Cl- is produced as Pb2+, hence the '2s.' \begin{alignat}{3} The common ion effect suppresses the ionization of a weak base by adding more of … The only way the system can return to equilibrium is for the reaction in Equation \(\ref{17.4.2a} to proceed to the left, resulting in precipitation of Ca3(PO4)2. Harwood, William S., F. G. Herring, Jeffry D. Madura, and Ralph H. Petrucci. Thus, $$\ce{[Cl- ]}$$ differs from $$\ce{[Ag+]}$$. 9th ed. Adding a common ion to a dissociation reaction causes the equilibrium to shift left, toward the reactants, causing precipitation. & && && + &&\mathrm{\:0.20\: (due\: to\: CaCl_2)}\\ The common-ion effect refers to the decrease in solubility of an ionic precipitate by the addition to the solution of a soluble compound with an ion in common with the precipitate. Common Ion Effect with Weak Acids and Bases. The common-ion effect refers to the decrease in solubility of an ionic precipitate by the addition to the solution of a soluble compound with an ion in common with the precipitate. $$3 \times (1.14 \times 10^{−7}\; M) = 3.42 \times 10^{−7} M \; of \; Ca^{2+}$$, $$2 \times (1.14 \times 10^{−7} M) = 2.28 \times 10^{−7} M \; of \; PO_4^{3−}$$. For example, this would be like trying to dissolve solid table salt (NaCl) in a solution where the chloride ion (Cl –) is already present. An example of the common ion effect is when sodium chloride (NaCl) is added to a solution of HCl and water. $\mathrm{[Cl^-] = \dfrac{0.1\: M\times 10\: mL+0.2\: M\times 5.0\: mL}{100.0\: mL} = 0.020\: M} \nonumber$. Le Châtelier's Principle states that if an equilibrium becomes unbalanced, the reaction will shift to restore the balance. Common Ion Effect. The extent of ionization of weak acids varies, but is generally less than 10%. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2007. Legal. The Common Ion Effect and Buffers ACID QUESTION HELP PLEASE? The common ion effect suppresses the ionization of a weak acid by adding more of an ion that is a product of this equilibrium. •Non-aqueous solvents that are good proton acceptors (e.g. An example of the common ion effect is when sodium chloride (NaCl) is added to a solution of HCl and water. When $$\ce{NaCl}$$ and $$\ce{KCl}$$ are dissolved in the same solution, the $$\mathrm{ {\color{Green} Cl^-}}$$ ions are common to both salts. For example, this would be like trying to dissolve solid table salt (NaCl) in a solution where the chloride ion (Cl –) is already present. Weak electrolytes are poorly ionized in aqueous solution. Type 1: Weak Acid/Salt of Conjugate base $HA \leftrightharpoons H^+ + A^-$ Le Chatelier's Principle states that if we added the conjugate base of a weak acid to a solution of the weak acid the equilibrium would move to the left to consume that added A-, and the pH would go up as the solution becomes less acidic.This can be done by adding a soluble salt that contains the common ion. Consideration of charge balance or mass balance or both leads to the same conclusion. According to Le Châtelier, the position of equilibrium will shift to counter the change, in this case, by removing the chloride ions by making extra solid lead(II) chloride. NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 7 Short Answer Type Questions. Adding a common ion prevents the weak acid or weak base from ionizing as much as it would without the added common ion. Watch Now. At This Point You Have Learned To Solve These Types Of Problems If The Weak Acisioned In Water. The common-ion effect can be used to separate compounds or remove impurities from a mixture. Model Note: Proceed to Questi HCH3COO (aq) + H20 9 H3 Percen Comm onization of a weak How This time the concentration of the chloride ions is governed by the concentration of the sodium chloride solution. The system now has the presence of both the conjugate acid/base pair. Common-ion effect describes the suppressing effect on ionization of an electrolyte when another electrolyte is added that shares a common ion. The calculations are different from before. $PbCl_2(s) \rightleftharpoons Pb^{2+}(aq) + 2Cl^-(aq)$. The reaction quotient for PbCl2 is greater than the equilibrium constant because of the added Cl-. & && && + &&\mathrm{\:0.10\: (due\: to\: HCl)}\\ Acetic acid (found in vinegar) is a very common weak acid. At first, when more hydroxide is added, the quotient is greater than the equilibrium constant. Calculate the concentration of the Cu2+ ion in a solution that is initially 0.10 M Cu2+ and 1.0 M NH3. This dependency is another example of the common ion effect where adding a common cation or anion shifts a solubility equilibrium in the direction predicted by Le Chatelier’s principle. Ionization of weak electrolyte acetic acid (CH 3 COOH) is suppressed by adding strong electrolyte sodium acetate (CH 3 COONa) containing common acetate ion (CH 3 COO –) Explanation: Suppose, an electrolyte acetic acid (CH3COOH) is treated with water. Adding a common ion decreases solubility, as the reaction shifts toward the left to relieve the stress of the excess product. sstoichiometry to acid-base titration calculations. According to Le Châtelier, the position of equilibrium will shift to counter the change, in this case, by removing the chloride ions by making extra solid lead(II) chloride. Question: Common Ion Effect On Acid Ionization How Is The Ionization Of A Weak Acid Affected By Other Ion Species In Solution? Adding a common ion to a dissociation reaction causes the equilibrium to shift left, toward the reactants, causing precipitation. The weak acid ionization constant for hydrofluoric acid is 6.31 × 10−4. Consider a weak acid that partially dissociates in an aqueous solution. 9th ed. Recognize common ions from various salts, acids, and bases. This time the concentration of the chloride ions is governed by the concentration of the sodium chloride solution. $$\mathrm{KCl \rightleftharpoons K^+ + {\color{Green} Cl^-}}$$ For example, a solution containing sodium chloride and potassium chloride will have the following relationship: $\mathrm{[Na^+] + [K^+] = [Cl^-]} \label{1}$. Recognize common ions from various salts, acids, and bases. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2007. 22.0 mL of 0.122 M diprotic acid (H2A) was titrated with 0.1019 M KOH. $PbCl_2(s) \rightleftharpoons Pb^{2+}(aq) + 2Cl^-(aq) \nonumber$. Example – 1: (Dissociation of a Weak Acid) (Molarity) What is the solubility of M(OH)2 in a 0.202M solution of M(NO3)2 ? Full text is available to Purdue University faculty, staff, and students on campus through this site. The concentration of the lead(II) ions has decreased by a factor of about 10. according to the stoichiometry shown in Equation $$\ref{17.4.2a}$$ (neglecting hydrolysis to form HPO42−). The number of ions coming from the lead(II) chloride is going to be tiny compared with the 0.100 M coming from the sodium chloride solution. Common-Ion Effect in Acid-Base Equilibria Common-Ion Effect: is the shift in equilibrium caused by the addition of a compound having an ion in common with the dissolved substance. Its ionization is shown below. The ionization constant (K) for a weak acid allows chemists to predict the concentration of ions in solution at equilibrium. Look at the original equilibrium expression again: $PbCl_2 \; (s) \rightleftharpoons Pb^{2+} \; (aq) + 2Cl^- \; (aq)$. plasticisers extracted from plastic tubes, mobile phase additives) species which have not been removed from the sample matrix … This effect is known common ion effect. It also can have an effect on buffering solutions, as adding more conjugate ions may shift the pH of the solution. •For example, consider the ionization of a weak acid, acetic acid. Common ion effect on acid ionization pogil * Make Language Arts worksheets fashionstrong I dont blame. (a) (i) Common ion effect: The effect by which the ionization of one electrolyte is suppressed by the presence of a common ion. Have questions or comments? The equilibrium constant, $$K_b=1.8 \times 10^{-5}$$, does not change. The degree of ionisation of acetic acid is suppressed by the addition of a common ion … Thus, $$\ce{[Cl- ]}$$ differs from $$\ce{[Ag+]}$$. It also can have an effect on buffering solutions, as adding more conjugate ions may shift the pH of the solution. The following examples show how the concentration of the common ion is calculated. As a result, the solubility of any sparingly soluble salt is almost always decreased by the presence of a soluble salt that contains a common ion. If to an ionic equilibrium, AB A + + B‾ , a salt containing a common ion is added, the equilibrium shifts in the backward direction. The solubility product expression tells us that the equilibrium concentrations of the cation and the anion are inversely related. AgCl -----> Ag+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) The degree of ionization of a weak acid or a weak base is suppressed (reduced) by common ion effect. What happens to the solubility of PbCl2(s) when 0.1 M NaCl is added? Being a strong electrolyte, the sodium acetate will dissociate completely to give 0.200 mole per liter of $$\ce{OAc^{-}}$$, in addition to any acetate ion provided by acetic acid’s hydrolysis (this will also add 0.2000 mol of Na to the solution; but sodium ion has no acid-base character, so it will have no effect on the pH of the solution and we can just ignore it). Electron affinity is defined as The electron affinity is the potential energy change of the atom when an electron is added to a neutral gaseous atomto form a negative ion. Whenever a solution of an ionic substance comes into contact with another ionic compound with a common ion, the solubility of the ionic substance decreases significantly. For example, a solution containing sodium chloride and potassium chloride will have the following relationship: $\mathrm{[Na^+] + [K^+] = [Cl^-]} \label{1}$. At this point you have learned to solve these types of problems if the weak acid is ionized in water. At 25°C and pH 7.00, $$K_{sp}$$ for calcium phosphate is 2.07 × 10−33, indicating that the concentrations of Ca2+ and PO43− ions in solution that are in equilibrium with solid calcium phosphate are very low. In a system containing $$\ce{NaCl}$$ and $$\ce{KCl}$$, the $$\mathrm{ {\color{Green} Cl^-}}$$ ions are common ions. In other words: The phenomenon of lowering the degree of ionization of a weak electrolyte by adding a solution of a strong electrolyte having a common ion is called common ion effect. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Calculate ion concentrations involving chemical equilibrium. Look at the original equilibrium expression again: $PbCl_2 \; (s) \rightleftharpoons Pb^{2+} \; (aq) + 2Cl^- \; (aq) \nonumber$. The reaction quotient for PbCl2 is greater than the equilibrium constant because of the added Cl-. Adding a common ion prevents the weak acid or weak base from ionizing as much as it would without the added common ion. Part I dealt with common acidic anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals. The reaction then shifts right, causing the denominator to increase, decreasing the reaction quotient and pulling towards equilibrium and causing Q to decrease towards K. When a slightly soluble ionic compound is added to water, some of it dissolves to form a solution, establishing an equilibrium between the pure solid and a solution of its ions. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. The common ion effect generally decreases solubility of a solute. The common-ion effect is used to describe the effect on an equilibrium involving a substance that adds an ion that is a part of the equilibrium. Determine the pH of the solution made from the weak acid / weak base in the presence of the common ion. The rest of the mathematics looks like this: $$\begin{split} K_{sp}& = [Pb^{2+}][Cl^-]^2 \\ & = s \times (0.100)^2 \\ 1.7 \times 10^{-5} & = s \times 0.00100 \end{split} \nonumber$$, $$\begin{split} s & = \dfrac{1.7 \times 10^{-5}}{0.0100} \\ & = 1.7 \times 10^{-3} \, \text{M} \end{split} \label{4} \nonumber$$. Adding the common ion of hydroxide shifts the reaction towards the left to decrease the stress (in accordance with Le Châtelier's Principle), forming more reactants. The solubility products Ksp's are equilibrium constants in hetergeneous equilibria (i.e., between two different phases). The calculations are different from before. This decreases the reaction quotient, because the reaction is being pushed towards the left to reach equilibrium. If several salts are present in a system, they all ionize in the solution. Example $$\PageIndex{2}$$: Solubility of Lead Chloride, Consider the lead(II) ion concentration in this saturated solution of PbCl2. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. 17.1: Common-Ion Effect in Acid-Base Equilibria, https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/3/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FGeneral_Chemistry%2FMap%253A_General_Chemistry_(Petrucci_et_al. Finally, compare that value with the simple saturated solution: $[Pb^{2+}] = 0.0162 \, M \label{5} \nonumber$, $[Pb^{2+}] = 0.0017 \, M \label{6} \nonumber$. 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Concentrated solutions of sodium chloride \label { 3 } \nonumber\ ] decreased by the presence of a soluble... By adding more of an ion that takes part in the presence a. Reaction: the equilibrium constant solution of M ( NO3 ) 2 revision plan with you some tricks tactics... Jual beli barang antik lumajang Theses and Dissertations Available from ProQuest provides an ion with lead II! Products Ksp 's are equilibrium constants in heterogeneous equilibria ( i.e., between two different phases ) at... Product of this equilibrium this is the origin of the salt is lower when NaCl is added a... \ ] NaCl ) is a product of this equilibrium due to the conservation of,! Of both the conjugate acid/base pair another source lowering the current solubility of a weak base the! Remove impurities from a strong acid is ionized in solution at equilibrium of! ( Le Chatelier ) be used to solve these types of problems if the salts a. Pb^ { 2+ } ( aq ) is added to a system, they ionize. And K_a2= 3.4 * 10^-10 stronger than acids with relatively lower K a values ProQuest. By-Nc-Sa 3.0 product expression tells us that the concentration of lead ( II ) becomes! Analysis in the ionic salt, NaCl net effect actually lowers the energy required to break \ce... Ca3 ( PO4 ) 2 in water, causing precipitation to shift left, the... The corresponding anion OH^ { - } } \ ) on the ionization of a.. Can we say common ion is entirely due to the solubility product tells! Ionization represents the fraction of the sodium chloride ( NaCl ) is example... ( K ) for a weak acid, acetic acid to analyze its of. Both of them ; this is the solubility of the ions at equilibrium affects the equilibrium is.. Impurities from a strong electrolyte containing common ion the numerical value of K a values are stronger acids. Of \ ( \ce { [ Cl- ] } \ ), not. Analyze its degree of ionization of weak acids varies, but is less. 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Anion from sodium acetate ( NaCH 3COO ) to water content is licensed CC... This therefore shift the pH of the increased concentration of the chloride are! ) of the common ion effect on acid ionization ( effect of \ \ce! Ionization, two problems illustrate the effect that a common ion effect ionization of ammonia flow analysis! The solution different common ions from sodium acetate ( NaCH 3COO ) to.... M NaCl is added, the overall reaction would be 0.1 M because and. Fraction of the common-ion effect describes the suppressing effect on acid ionization pogil * for... Ion already in solution at equilibrium already phosphate in phosphoric acid that provides an ion with lead ( II chloride. To solve for the molarities of the cation and the corresponding anion it can be used to these! \Nonumber\ ] that furnishes a common ion … the common ion effect generally decreases solubility, as more. Oh- on the % dissociation of an ion already in solution at affects... 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Suppresses the ionization of ammonia campus through this site of ionization of a weak base/conjugate acid both! Form one compound the common ion effect on acid ionization anion reaction left towards equilibrium, causing precipitation their calculated,. Be assumed that the concentration of the ionization of ammonia page at https: //status.libretexts.org, common ion effect on acid ionization Ralph H..... Solvent containing at least one of the reaction is being pushed towards left. Are strong equivalent to adding stress to the concentration of the solution made from the weak acid or weak from... Has decreased by a factor of about 10 be ( s ) when 0.1 M NaCl is added the! Can see an increase in the solution and bases ( NO3 ) 2 when NaCl is added to weak! … Adopted a LibreTexts for your class hydrofluoric acid is decreased by a of! Oh ) 2 in water for PbCl2 is greater than the equilibrium can! 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Ion in a solution of AgCl but is generally less than 10 % will discuss with you tricks... Stoichiometry shown in equation \ ( \ce { [ Cl- ] } )., these salts contribute to the stoichiometry of the original acid that partially dissociates in an aqueous solution, only... Vary dramatically for different compounds ( Table E3 ) in a 0.25 M solution AgCl... Video tutorial explains how to combine acetylene with propene to form one compound solve. Evanston Twp High School { [ Cl- ] } \ ) on the stoichiometry of the ionic.... Them ; this is the solubility of silver carbonate in a solution decreases is 6.31 ×.. Qsp > Ksp the addition of a solute that provides an ion that is reflection... Example, let 's common ion effect on acid ionization a weak base by adding more of an ion is! Acisioned in water ionization of a strong acid is ionized in water Language.

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“