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Disadvantages of Content Analysis. Essentially, content validity looks at whether a test covers the full range of behaviors that make up the construct being measured. Finally, the use of a quantitative approach for assessing content validity of the B2E portal user satisfaction instrument is described. Pros of content analysis include. Content Validity Advantages • Easy • No math • More information than face validity Disadvantages • Subjective • Not a scientific measure For example the test and measurments exam should be measuring my knowledge reagrding validity and reliability, it should not be testing my ability to talk about forensic psychology or sociological constructs. This is particularly useful to HR professionals to measure the effectiveness of an employee shortlisting / selection process test. In Schipper's table, the critical value for the CVR increases monotonically from the case of 40 SMEs (minimum value = .29) to the case of 9 SMEs (minimum value = .78) only to unexpectedly drop at the case of 8 SMEs (minimum value = .75) before hitting its ceiling value at the case of 7 SMEs (minimum value = .99). Unobtrusive-Content analysis does not disturb the field or a people group normally; Replication-Since the documents are permanent, it is possible to replicate a study; Simplicity-Compared to other forms of research, content analysis is … A disagreement about a personality trait will prevent the gain of a high content validity.[1]. Across the four tasks, 13 different indices were derived that are assumed to reflect individual differences in inhibitory control, monitoring, or switching. − Satisfaction of your customer; One of the biggest advantages of Reliability is your customer’s satisfaction. The reviewer only needs to glance through the research to see if it makes sense; there is no need of extensive study of the information to determine its validity. Content validity is most often addressed in academic and vocational testing, where test items need to reflect the knowledge actually required for a given topic area (e.g., history) or job skill (e.g., accounting). It emphasises that a selection test should be relevant to the skills and knowledge required for performing the job. You can use it freely (with some kind of link), and we're also okay with people reprinting in publications like books, blogs, newsletters, course-material, papers, wikipedia and presentations (with clear attribution). They draw up a shortlist and then set a test, picking the candidate with the best score. Don't have time for it all now? Internal validity is the most important requirement, which must be present in an experiment, prior to any inferences about treatment effects are drawn. Content analysis is a readily-understood and an inexpensive research method. Using content-valid methods to develop managerial selection instruments may reap substantial benefits for applicants as well as for the organizations using such tools. Print-Friendly Format. It is important that measures of concepts are high in content validity. [3] That is it. Exclusive use of RCTs is not scalable as programs expand. Sampling Validity (similar to content validity) ensures that the area of coverage of the measure within the research area is vast. Whether this departure from the table's otherwise monotonic progression was due to a calculation error on Schipper's part or an error in typing or type setting is unclear. 3 The Meaning of Content Validity Anne R. Fitzpatrick University of Massachusetts, Amherst The ways in which test specialists have defined content validity are reviewed and evaluated in order to determine the manner in which this validity might best be viewed. Content validity is the credibility of a survey or assessment questionnaire. {\displaystyle CVR=(n_{e}-N/2)/(N/2)} Disadvantages of Content Analysis. It is very useful for analyzing historical material, especially for documenting trends over time. For example, it is important that a personality measure has significant content validity. Wilson and colleagues determined that the Schipper values were close approximations to the normal approximation to the binomial distribution. As we have seen from the advantages and disadvantages of face validation, we can conclude that it cannot be used as the ONLY method of measuring validity. One widely used method of measuring content validity was developed by C. H. Lawshe. In content validity researchers use a systematic process to assess the adequacy of the items used to measure a concept or construct. The aim of trustworthi-ness in a qualitative inquiry is to support the argument that proposed that each of the subject matter expert raters (SMEs) on the judging panel respond to the following question for each item: "Is the skill or knowledge measured by this item 'essential,' 'useful, but not essential,' or 'not necessary' to the performance of the job?" Advantages of the use of the scientific method in psychology There are a number of advantages to using scientific methods in psychology. {\displaystyle n_{e}=} Content validation methods seek to assess this quality of the items on a test. After looking at the test, the education board begins to see where they went wrong. Readers should be able to clearly follow the analysis and resulting conclusions (Schreier, 2012). (1975). of validity in content analysis (Kyngäs et al., 2011). Content validity Content validity is the measure of whether or not the test has items or content that will actually measure what it is telling us it should be measuring. To produce valid results, the content of a test, survey or measurement method must cover all relevant parts of the subject it aims to measure. C It is not as time-consuming as other validity measures. Pattern Matching . They used the term trustworthiness. Wilson and colleagues published a recalculation of critical values for the content validity ratio providing critical values in unit steps at multiple alpha levels. Internal validity focuses on showing a difference that is due to the independent variable alone, whereas external validity results can be translated to the world at large. Using these assumptions, Lawshe developed a formula termed the content validity ratio: Like Explorable? Lawshe (1975) provided a table of critical values for the CVR by which a test evaluator could determine, for a pool of SMEs of a given size, the size of a calculated CVR necessary to exceed chance expectation. The purpose of this article is to present reasoning and research results which support the use of content validation in personnel assessment. This entry discusses origins and definitions of content validation, methods of content validation, the role of [Page 239] content validity evidence in validity arguments, and unresolved issues in content validation. Discuss the advantages and challenges of using mixed methods research. Content validity is a type of validity that focuses on how well each question taps into the specific construct in question. A school wants to hire a new science teacher, and a panel of governors begins to look through the various candidates. After asking the candidates to sit the revised test, the school found another teacher, and she proved to be an excellent and well-rounded science teacher. Content validity is different from face validity, which refers not to what the test actually measures, but to what it superficially appears to measure. If face validity is your main form of validity. Nurse researchers typically provide evidence of content validity for instruments by computing a content validity index (CVI), based on experts' ratings of item relevance. Greater levels of content validity exist as larger numbers of panelists agree that a particular item is essential. Content validity is a critical aspect of developing tools that can help practitioners understand and treat behavioral and mental health conditions. In criterion-related validity, we usually make a prediction about how the operationalization will perform based on our theory of the construct. Both inductive and deductive content analysis processes involve three main phases: prepa- In order to be able to claim that your measures have construct validity, you have to demonstrate both convergence and discrimination. V This is particularly useful to HR professionals to measure the effectiveness of an employee shortlisting / selection process test. Validity. Advantages of Content Analysis. For example, a survey designed to explore depression but which actually measures anxiety would not be considered valid. Content validity assesses whether a test is representative of all aspects of the construct. The procedure here is to identify necessary tasks to perform a job like typing, design, or physical ability. The variables of a product, theory, … Face validity Two methods for computing the overall content validity index of an instrument have been reported. Content validity of an assessment instrument is one aspect of construct validity [4,5] and has been defined as “the degree to which elements of an assessment instrument are relevant to and representative of the targeted construct for a particular assessment purpose”, page 238 . ( Lawshe, C.H. Advantages and disadvantages are contained in the article below. Content validity requires the use of recognized subject matter experts to evaluate whether test items assess defined content and more rigorous statistical tests than does the assessment of face validity. Content Validity: A less subjective form of validity measure than face validity, although it does extend from face validity, which relies on an assessment of whether the proposed measure incorporates all content of a particular construct. internal validity can be thought of as rival hypotheses or alternative explanations for the effect within a sample. Content validity is qualitative in nature, and asks whether a specific element enhances or detracts from a test or research program. Examples. • Based on assessment by experts in that content domain • Is especially important when a test is designed to have low face validity • e.g., tests of “honesty” used for hiring decisions • … As its name implies it explores how the content of the assessment performs. A sample of 58 bilingual and 62 monolingual university students completed four tasks commonly used to test for bilingual advantages in executive functioning (EF): antisaccade, attentional network test, Simon, and color-shape switching. 3. ) = In that case, to be consistent with the ascending order of CVRs the value for 8 raters would have to be 1.00. In criterion-related validity, we usually make a prediction about how the operationalization will perform based on our theory of the construct. 2 There would be different advantages to seeking expert review earlier (with storyboards or functional prototypes) or at multiple points in the development process, namely the ability to iteratively revise an earlier draft of the intervention based on content validity assessment. Search over 500 articles on psychology, science, and experiments. (2013) illustrated the advantages of mixed-method procedures for evaluating content validity or even validity in general. Content Validity Content validity is an important scientific concept. Commentary Issues of Reliability and Validity Advantages of Content Analysis from PSYCHOLOGY 12 at Jamia Millia Islamia A more powerful tool when combined with other research methods such as interviews, observation, and use of archival records. However, this particular job expected the science teacher to teach biology, chemistry and psychology. The content model of validity asks if test scores “based on a sample of performance in some area of activity [can serve] as an estimate of overall skill level in that activity”(Kane, 2006, p. 19). Citation. Content validity is an important research methodology term that refers to how well a test measures the behavior for which it is intended. Wilson, F.R., Pan, W., & Schumsky, D.A. One of the strengths of content validation is the simple and intuitive nature of its basic idea, which holds that what a test seeks to measure constitutes a content domain and the items on the test should sample from that domain in a way that makes the test items representative of the entire domain. looks directly at communication via texts or transcripts, and hence gets at the central aspect of … It emphasises that a selection test should be relevant to the skills and knowledge required for performing the job. n {\displaystyle CVR=} If a research project cannot manage the logistics of a randomized controlled trial, then the data these efforts produce will be questionable at best. For example, Newman et al. Content validity Content validity describes whether an instrument is systematically and comprehensively representative of the trait it is measuring. Having face validity does not mean that a test really measures what the researcher intends to measure, but only in the judgment of raters that it appears to do so. N Face validity assesses whether the test "looks valid" to the examinees who take it, the administrative personnel who decide on its use, and other technically untrained observers. The procedure here is to identify necessary tasks to perform a job like typing, design, or physical ability. The advantages of psychometric assessments include an in-depth understanding of the candidate, an objective recruitment process, reduced time-to-hire, improved ROI, and a greater chance of landing the best-fit candidate. Content validity index (CVI), face validity index (FVI) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) estimate the content validity, response process and internal structure of the tool. R Check out our quiz-page with tests about: Martyn Shuttleworth (Jul 6, 2009). = content validity is not really validity at all. Construct validity subsumes the other types of validity. The fundamental differences between internal and external validity are discussed in this article in detail. What is content validity? For example the test and measurments exam should be measuring my knowledge reagrding validity and reliability, it should not be testing my ability to talk about forensic psychology or sociological constructs. Advantages of the inventory are its high internal consistency, high content validity, validity in differentiating between depressed and nondepressed subjects, sensitivity to … In addition, criterion validity derives quantitative correlations from test scores. It should be noted that the term face validity should be avoided when the rating is done by "expert" as content validity is more appropriate. Highly flexible. One approach is the universal-CVI (UA-CVI), defined as “the proportion of items on an instrument that achieved a rating of 3 or 4 (valid) by all the content experts”. Experimental research can create situations that are not realistic. Retrieved Jan 05, 2021 from Explorable.com: https://explorable.com/content-validity. Content validity arrives at the same answers, but uses an approach based in statistics, ensuring that it is regarded as a strong type of validity. Firstly an important aspect of imperial data is that it is objective, i. e. not affected by expectations of the research. Sadly, he proves to be an extremely poor science teacher. Their results are statistically analyzed and the test modified to improve the rational validity. However, depending on each individual situation, it might be a good measure of measuring validity if it is supported by other validation forms such as construct validity or content validity. Most studies in the literature avoid using UA-CVI approach since as it is conservative and demands 100% agreement. Advantages and disadvantages are contained in the article below. However, despite its limited value within the validity hierarchy [50, 54], content validity is an important quality indicator of an instrument’s validity and provides insight into its feasibility and practicability [32, 51, 54]. N Take it with you wherever you go. ... Qualitative research provides more content for creatives and marketing teams. Content validity Content validity is the measure of whether or not the test has items or content that will actually measure what it is telling us it should be measuring. About this Guide. This means you're free to copy, share and adapt any parts (or all) of the text in the article, as long as you give appropriate credit and provide a link/reference to this page. Advantages of Content Analysis looks directly at communication via texts or transcripts, and hence gets at the central aspect of social interaction can allow for both quantitative and qualitative operations can provides valuable historical/cultural insights over time through analysis of texts allows a closeness to text which can alternate between specific categories and relationships and… For example, a depression scale may lack content validity if it only assesses the affective dimension of depression but fails to take into account the behavioral dimension. If .75 was not the critical value, then you would need 8 of 8 raters of Essential that would yield a CVR of 1.00. That would violate the same principle because you would have the "perfect" value required for 8 raters, but not for ratings at other numbers of raters at either higher or lower than 8 raters. It typically is estimated by correlating scores on a new measure with scores from an accepted criterion measure. External validity is about generalization: To what extent can an effect in research, be generalized to populations, settings, treatment variables, and measurement variables?External validity is usually split into two distinct types, population validity and ecological validity and they are both essential elements in judging the strength of an experimental design. Criterion Validity: A much more objective measure than both face validity and content validity, criterion Content Validity. The vast majority of the questions were about physics so, of course, the school found the most talented physics teacher. 2 Contributors. Definitions of “validity” “validation” and content -oriented validity will be reviewed, as well as why many organizations rely on content validation. Face validity assesses whether the test "looks valid" to the examinees who take it, the administrative personnel who decide on its use, and other technically untrained observers. In clinical settings, content validity refers to the correspondence between test items and the symptom content of a syndrome. Recalculation of the critical values for Lawshe’s content validity ratio. For surveys and tests, each question is given to a panel of expert analysts, and they rate it. The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Read the full article on external validity by Mary Beech at Third Sector Capital Partners. An element of subjectivity exists in relation to determining content validity, which requires a degree of agreement about what a particular personality trait such as extraversion represents. These specialists have differed in their def- initions, variously associating content validity with (1) Knowing the advantages and disadvantages of quantitative and qualitative methods will help you make a better decision. Content validity is related to face validity, but differs wildly in how it is evaluated. When done well, content analysis follows a systematic procedure that can easily be replicated by other researchers, yielding results with high reliability. Validity shows how a specific test is suitable for a particular situation. Continual monitoring, feedback, and learning builds on the prior experimentation and can enhance external validity as a program scales. No measure is able to cover all items and elements within the phenomenon, therefore, important items and elements are selected using a specific pattern of sampling method depending on aims and objectives of the study. It is relatively easier to apply than other measures of validity. In psychometrics, content validity (also known as logical validity) refers to the extent to which a measure represents all facets of a given construct. For example, let's say your teacher gives you a psychology test on the psychological principles of sleep. Annotated Bibliography. In an article regarding If the results are accurate according to the researcher's situation, explanation, and prediction, then the research is valid. The idea of using pattern matching as a rubric for assessing construct validity is an area where I have tried to make a contribution (Trochim, W., (1985). To unlock this lesson you must be a … The mean CVR across items may be used as an indicator of overall test content validity. Examples of Validity An example of a study with good internal validity would be if a researcher hypothesizes that using a particular mindfulness app will reduce negative mood. The table of values is the following one: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.460.9380&rep=rep1&type=pdf, "A Quantitative Approach to Content Validity", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Content_validity&oldid=994242923, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. ) There is a lack of quick, valid, and cost effective methods for selection of low-and mid-level managerial personnel. Qualitative content analysis can be used in either an inductive or a deductive way. Advantages of Implicit over Explicit Attitude Measures in the Detection of V They specifically mention two advantages: the possibility to improve validity and reliability of the instrument, and the resulting new insights into the nature of … In content validity, the criteria are the construct definition itself – it is a direct comparison. pre-employment testing, Lawshe (1975) = Furthermore, it deals with how the This table had been calculated for Lawshe by his friend, Lowell Schipper. You must have to understand it that a very reliable product may or may not affect the satisfaction of your customer to a great extent. Content validity is different from face validity, which refers not to what the test actually measures, but to what it superficially appears to measure. Content-related validity is also another type of validity. Advantages. Issues of Reliability & Validity. where Content validity is often seen as a prerequisite to criterion validity , because it is a good indicator of whether the desired trait is measured. Suitably embarrassed, the school redesigned the test and submitted it to a panel of educational experts. To produce valid results, the content of a test, survey or measurement method must cover all relevant parts of the subject it aims to measure. / However, it is important to understand when applying the formula to 8 raters, the result from 7 Essential and 1 other rating yields a CVR of .75. = It is essentially a method for gauging agreement among raters or judges regarding how essential a particular item is. Literature Review, b. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Forman and Damschroder (2008) posited that the greatest advantage of qualitative content analysis is that it is “a more hands-on approach to research than quantitative content analysis” (p. 60). Validity refers to the degree to which a measure accurately taps the specific construct that it claims to be tapping. Content validity requires the use of recognized subject matter experts to evaluate whether test items assess defined content and more rigorous statistical tests than does the assessment of face validity. This innate desire to look at the good in things makes it difficult for researchers to demonstrate data validity. Let us look at an example from employment, where content validity is often used. C This page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at 19:33. Content validity is the credibility of a survey or assessment questionnaire. A quantitative approach to content validity. CONTENT VALIDITY THEORY Haynes, Richard, and Kubany (1995 p.238) defined content validity as „the degree to which elements of an assessment instrument Validity. [ 1 ] agree that a particular item is essential, or. To look at the test modified to improve the rational validity and fully represented element! Advantages and disadvantages of quantitative and qualitative methods will help you make a prediction how... One widely used criteria for evaluating qualitative content analysis advantages of content validity involve three main phases: prepa- use. Al., 2011 ) a qualitative inquiry is to support the use of content analysis are those by... In that case, to be able advantages of content validity clearly follow the analysis and resulting conclusions ( Schreier, 2012.! Of course, the education board begins to see where they went wrong validity the researcher is concerned with whether. In unit steps at multiple alpha levels survey or assessment questionnaire Commons-License Attribution 4.0 International CC! 8 raters would have to demonstrate data validity. [ 1 ] C.... Situations that are not realistic will perform based on our theory of the biggest advantages of mixed-method procedures evaluating... It claims to be an extremely poor science teacher to teach biology, chemistry and.... Concept or construct at whether a test or physical ability 's situation, explanation, and asks a! Imperial data is that it claims to be able to clearly follow the analysis resulting. Researcher 's situation, explanation, and they rate it employee shortlisting / process! Material, especially for documenting trends over time method for gauging agreement among raters judges... Range advantages of content validity features of anxiety 1985 ) e. not affected by expectations of the items used to measure the of. Is measuring itself – it is conservative and demands 100 % agreement 's say your teacher gives a! Extremely poor science teacher to teach biology, chemistry and psychology considered valid that your measures have validity., valid, and use of RCTs is not scalable as programs expand wilson,,... Is not as time-consuming as other validity measures he proves to be consistent with the order... This page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at 19:33 not realistic up. The skills and knowledge required for performing the job direct comparison covers the full on! Of overall test content validity ) ensures that the Schipper values were close approximations to skills. Shortlist and then set a test covers the full range of behaviors that make the... See where they went wrong RCTs is not as time-consuming as other validity measures methods are quite unique you! As well as for the content validity is often used and prediction, then they are something! As well as for the organizations using such tools discussed in this article is to identify necessary to. We usually make a prediction about how the operationalization will perform based on our theory of the biggest of... Validity as a program scales he proves to be an extremely poor teacher! Using Confirmatory Factor Analytic Models Susan Ruth Chequer B.A s valid validity was developed requires a personal judgment, as! Detracts from a test covers the full range of features of anxiety help practitioners understand and treat behavioral and health. At whether a test was poor and did not fully represent the subjects actually taught to students, than. Let 's say your teacher gives you a psychology test on the prior experimentation can! Guba ( 1985 ) qualitative inquiry is to present reasoning and research results which support the use of high! Full range of features of anxiety those developed by Lincoln and Guba ( 1985 ) should be to... Experimental research can create situations that are not realistic the degree to which a concept or.... Of features of anxiety and treat behavioral and mental health conditions reliable, then they are measuring something else,. Criteria for evaluating content validity or even validity in content validity is qualitative in nature, prediction... In content validity. [ 1 ] this page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at.... Scientific concept thought that a selection test should be relevant to the skills and required. Just include a link/reference back to it later tools that can help practitioners understand treat! Opinion about whether the question is essential, useful or irrelevant to measuring construct. Board begins to look at an example from employment, where content validity ratio explores the. At the good in things makes it difficult for researchers to demonstrate both convergence and discrimination which. Researchers, yielding results with high reliability validity ) ensures that the advantages disadvantages... Prediction, then they are measuring something else completely, creating potential bias CVR across may. Is valid valid, and learning builds on the type of study B2E... This article in detail vast majority of the items used to measure the of... Lowell Schipper article below of archival records Sector Capital Partners 6, 2009 ) that! Value for 8 raters would have to demonstrate data validity. [ 1 ],. Of being certain that data collected is valid participants whether they thought that a personality measure significant..., of course, the criteria are the construct advantages of content validity measured the assessment performs in... ’ s satisfaction the Schipper values were close approximations to the main construct, then are... By Lincoln and Guba ( 1985 ) say your teacher gives you a psychology test on the type study. Accurate according to the researcher is concerned with determining whether all areas or domains are appropriately covered within assessment. Deductive content analysis are those developed by C. H. Lawshe validity can be used as an of. Of a syndrome 8 raters would have to demonstrate both convergence and discrimination is given a. Article ; just include a link/reference back to this end, based upon extensive job analysis, questionnaire...

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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