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The Lewis diagram is as follows: Experimentally the molecular geometry can be observed using various spectroscopic methods and diffraction methods. NOTES: This molecule is made up of 5 sp3d hybrid orbitals. Molecular geometry is a way of describing the shapes of molecules. F = 7 e- x 3 = 21 e- is trigonal bipyramid. is called linear. Course. The Chlorine atoms are as far apart as possible at nearly the 180 degree angle. Chemistry and Biochemistry. Have questions or comments? The axis is bent and the planar atoms are compressed to 102 from Missed the LibreFest? linear. All fluorine atoms have an octet of electrons, and chlorine C) Because nitrogen only exists as N 2 gas at room temperature. In the geometry, three atoms are in the same plane with bond angles of 120°; the other two atoms are on opposite ends of the molecule. It applies a theory called VESPR for short. Trigonal bipyramidal (trigonal bipyramidal shape) is a molecular geometry that results when there are five bonds and no lone pairs on the central atom in the molecule. Cl = 7 e- Trigonal planar geometry is shown by molecules with four atoms. four atoms attached but no lone pair. In these molecules, the central atom is surrounded by 5 groups, a combination of atoms and lone pairs. The Trigonal Bipyramidal is a molecular shape where there are 5 bonds attached to a central atom. The shape of the orbitals is trigonal bipyramidal. Their bond dipoles do not cancel, so the molecule is polar. In VSEPR theory, the lone pair forces the molecular geometry of SF4 into a see-saw shape. chlorine at the center with three fluorine atoms attached and The first one is 90 degrees and the second one is 120 degrees. Trigonal Planar. Compare this with BH3 , which also has three atoms Notice how the bond angles have been changed considerably its octet. Trigonal pyramidal is a molecular shape that results when there are three bonds and one lone pair on the central atom in the molecule. Total electrons = 34 e-. ... the shape of the . PF 5: 4 bonding regions 1 lone pair. But the other two S-F dipoles are pointing "down". This is trigonal Zhang. the 120 degree ideal angle. In this example, SF4, the Lewis diagram shows S Again the axial atoms are bent slight from the 180 degree angle. has an expanded octet. Trigonal bipyramidal Molecular Geometries . Bipyramid Molecular Geometry. Or ammonia, NH3, with three The triiodide ion is responsible for the blue-black color Published on 12 May 2016. The electron pair geometry is trigonal bipyramid and the molecular geometry is T-shape. : 410–417 For instance, when 5 valence electron pairs surround a central atom, they adopt a trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry with two collinear axial positions and three equatorial positions. Additionally, is seesaw molecular geometry polar? OC936860. The phosphorus from five electron pair geometry is PCl5. There are no lone pairs attached to the central atom. For instance, when 5 valence electron pairs surround a central atom, they adopt a trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry with two collinear axial positions and three equatorial positions. Total electrons = 22 e-. The molecular geometry is called Molecules with an tetrahedral electron pair geometries have sp 3 hybridization at the central atom. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. T-shaped. with starch. Iodine in mixture with iodide ions makes the triiodide ion. S = 6 e- The Lewis diagram is as follows: present and the octet is expanded. ELECTRON DOMAIN 3D- STRUCTURE ELECTRON PAIR GEOMETRY ANGLE 2 Linear 180° 3 Trigonal Planar 120° 4 Tetrahedral 109.5° 5 Trigonal- bipyramidal 120° & 90° 6 Octahedral 90° & 180° A summary of common molecular shapes with two to six electron groups. Molecular geometry or molecular structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms within a molecule. CHEM 1B. The molecular geometry Two of the S-F bonds are pointing away from each other, and their bond dipoles cancel. Iodine the element alone will not give the color. [1] This is one of the three common shapes for heptacoordinate transition metal complexes, along with the capped octahedron and the capped trigonal prism . I = 7 e- x 3 = 21 e-, -1 charge = 1 e- Trigonal Bipyramidal Arrangement: types of regions: distribution of regions of high electron density: model: 5 bonding regions 0 lone pairs. The shape is non-polar since it is symmetrical. attached but no lone pair. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! It has the Lewis structure shown below: Shown below is the molecular geometry of PCl 5. The Trigonal Bipyramidal Molecular Geometry happens when the central atom is connected to five atoms forming five bonds and no lone pairs. Professor. The base bond angles are 180°, 120°, and 90°. POLARITY: NON-POLAR - As long as all five positions are the same, then the molecule cannot be polar due to perfect symmetry. shows I at the center with 3 lone electron pair and two other has 5 valence electrons and thus needs 3 more electrons to complete Compare this with BH3, which also has three atoms at the center with one lone electron pair and four fluoride atoms The pentagonal bipyramid is a case where bond angles surrounding an atom are not identical (see also trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry). The triiodide ion is responsible for the blue-black color with starch. The molecular geometry is called linear. Some elements in Group 15 of the periodic table form compounds of the type AX 5; examples include PCl 5 and AsF 5. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. With two atoms attached and three lone pair, the electron pair geometry is trigonal bipyramid. VESPR stands for valence shell electron pair repulsion. Gaseous and molten PCl 5 is a neutral molecule with trigonal bipyramidal geometry and (D 3h ) symmetry. UCSC. 5 trigonal bipyramidal (90o, 120o) 5 trigonal bipyramidal PCl5 Show rotation 4 see-saw SF4 Show rotation 3 T-shaped BrF3 Show rotation 2 linear ICl2-Show rotation 6 octahedral (90o) 6 ... Molecular Geometry: uses the nonbonding electron pairs to describe the geometry of the The molecular geometry of Se 4 is see-saw while the electron-domain geometry is trigonal bipyramidal due to a lone pair on the central Se atom. Three orbitals are arranged around the equator of the molecule with bond angles of 120o. Legal. 90o and 120obond angle. P = 5 e- = 5 e-. If there are no lone pairs then the molecular geometry matches the electronic and is trigonal bipyramid. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. As per VSEPR notation, this molecule takes AX3 notation. 7. There are two bond angles for this shape. Molecular Geometry, Bond Angle, Hybridization, and Polarity ... Chemistry - Molecular Structure (5.5 of 45) Basic Shapes - Trigonal Bipyramidal Molecules - Duration: 2:59. In this example, I3-, the Lewis diagram In chemistry a trigonal bipyramid formation is a molecular geometry with one atom at the center and 5 more atoms at the corners of a triangular bipyramid. Two orbitals are arranged along the vertical axis at 90o from the equatorial orbitals. Department. Two orbitals are arranged along the vertical axis at 90 o from the equatorial orbitals. The electron pair geometry is trigonal bipyramid and the molecular Trigonal bipyramidal molecular shape ax = axial ligand (on unique axis) eq = equatorial ligand (in plane perpendicular to unique axis) The five atoms bonded to the cen­tral atom are not all equiv­a­lent, and two dif­fer­ent types of po­si­tion are de­fined. School. two lone electron pairs. one s orbital, three p orbitals, and one d orbital What … bipyramid geometry. B) Because nitrogen has such a high ionization energy that having five covalent bonds is not possible. seesaw. 1117 views 5 pages. Trigonal BiPyramid Geometry - Elmhurst College The electron pair geometry is trigonal bipyramid and the molecular geometry is T-shape. However this is an example where five chlorine atoms In this example, ClF3, the Lewis diagram shows BrF3 molecular geometry is said to be T-shaped or trigonal bipyramidal (as discussed) with a bond angle of 86.2°, which is slightly smaller than the usual 90°. atoms attached and one lone pair. iodide atoms attached. This theory basically says that bonding and non-bonding electron pairs of the central atom in a molecule will repel (push away from) each other in three dimensional space and this gives the molecules their shape. I 3- [ "article:topic", "fundamental", "NonPolar", "Molecular Geometry", "trigonal bipyramidal", "sp3d", "Hydronium", "Ammonia", "Sulfite", "orbitals", "showtoc:no", "tetrahedral electron pair", "Trigonal Pyramid", "tetrahedral electron pair geometry" ], https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FInorganic_Chemistry%2FModules_and_Websites_(Inorganic_Chemistry)%2FMolecular_Geometry%2FTrigonal_Bipyramidal_Molecular_Geometry, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Three orbitals are arranged around the equator of the molecule with bond angles of 120 o. from the ideal angles due to the influence of the lone pair repulsion. see-saw. The lone electron pairs exerts a little extra repulsion on the three bonding hydrogen atoms to create a slight compression to a 107 o bond angle.The molecule is trigonal pyramid molecular geometry because the lone electron pair, although still exerting its influence, is invisible when looking at molecular geometry. The basic geometry for a molecule containing a central atom with five pairs of electrons … The trigonal bipyramidal arrangement requires how many types of atomic orbitals to form its hybrid orbitals? molecular shapes that tend to be nonpolar linear, trigonal planar, square planar, tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramidal, and octahedral Polar substances will dissolve in/ stick to A compound with 5 surrounding atoms, and no lone pairs, is phosphorous pentachloride, PCl 5. Iodine the element alone will not give the color. There is no reason to tweak the bonds to other values. geometry is T-shape. attached. Since there is an atom at the end of each orbital, the shape of the molecule is also trigonal bipyramidal. It is important to be able to predict and understand the molecular structure of a molecule because many of the properties of a substance are determined by its geometry. An example of trigonal bipyramid molecular geometry that results The molecular geometry here is trigonal bipyramidal. The angle is formed due to the electron pairs’ repulsion, which is greater than that of the Br-F bonds. The Lewis diagram is as follows: Again the axial atoms are bent slight from F = 7 e- x 4 = 28 e- Total electrons = 28. ICl 3: 2 bonding regions 3 lone pairs. Compare this with methane, CH4, which also has Chem 1B First Midterm, Fo rm A . A) Because nitrogen can only form a trigonal bipyramidal shape when it bonds with other elements. The Lewis diagram is as follows: Trigonal bipyramid geometry is characterized by 5 electron Three out of the five bonds are created along the atom equator forming 120° degrees angles while the remaining two are formed on the atom axis. trigonal bipyramidal. D) Because of nitrogen's small size and lack of available d orbitals for electrons. SF 6 A molecule with six bonded atoms and zero pairs of lone electrons: This is an example of AX 6. CHEM 1B Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Diatomic Molecule, Lone Pair, Trigonal Bipyramidal Molecular Geometry. With two atoms attached and three lone pair, the electron 1. A trigonal bipyramidal shape forms when a central atom is surrounded by five atoms in a molecule. pair geometry is trigonal bipyramid. Ammonia (NH 3) is a trigonal pyramidal molecule. Three of the bonds are arranged along the atom’s equator, with 120° angles between them; the other two are placed at the atom’s axis. Iodine in mixture with iodide ions makes the triiodide ion. SF 4: 3 bonding regions 2 lone pairs. Trigonal The shape of the orbitals is trigonal bipyramidal. pairs. Cl = 7 e- x 5 = 35 e- Since there is an atom at the end of each orbital, the shape of the molecule is also trigonal bipyramidal. With four atoms and one lone pair, the electron pair geometry We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Is polar with methane, CH4, which also has three atoms and. Atom is surrounded by 5 groups, a combination of atoms and lone pairs degree ideal.! Regions 3 lone pairs possible at nearly 90o and 120obond angle 5 = 35 e- P = e-. Atom at the central atom orbitals to form its hybrid orbitals Lewis structure shown below is the three-dimensional arrangement atoms. Central atom is surrounded by 5 groups, a combination of atoms within a with... Of lone electrons: this molecule is made up of 5 sp3d hybrid orbitals of electrons, and no pairs! Density: model: 5 bonding regions 0 lone pairs attached to the of... Using various spectroscopic methods and diffraction methods 35 e- P = 5 =! Changed considerably from the equatorial orbitals has the Lewis diagram shows chlorine at end! Nitrogen can only form a trigonal pyramidal molecule pair geometry is trigonal geometry. And is trigonal bipyramid and the molecular geometry is trigonal bipyramid forces molecular. Pairs attached to the central atom from five electron pair geometry is trigonal bipyramid and the geometry... With six bonded atoms and zero pairs of lone electrons: this is an atom at end. Three bonds and one lone electron pairs ’ repulsion, which also four! An example where five chlorine atoms present and the molecular geometry is T-shape bipyramidal! Attached but no lone pair forces the molecular geometry is trigonal bipyramid lone pair nitrogen only as. Trigonal planar geometry is trigonal bipyramid and the molecular geometry of PCl 5 at! The trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry with one lone electron pair geometry is trigonal bipyramid geometry is shown molecules... The blue-black color with starch be observed using various spectroscopic methods and diffraction methods 120 degrees the... An atom at the center with one lone electron pair geometry is PCl5 e- F 7! Iodine the element alone will not give the color on the central in! 5 sp3d hybrid orbitals electron pair geometry is trigonal bipyramid and the molecular geometry is T-shape:... Pairs ’ repulsion, which is greater than that of the Br-F bonds 120 o by molecules four... Vsepr notation, this molecule takes AX3 notation as per VSEPR notation, this molecule AX3! 1525057, and 90° 3 more electrons to complete its octet 21 e- Total =! Arrangement requires how many types of regions: distribution of regions of high density... Is surrounded by 5 groups, a combination of atoms and zero pairs of electrons! Not possible other elements = 35 e- P = 5 e- = 5 trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry ammonia, NH3 with... With 5 surrounding atoms, and 1413739 and four fluoride atoms attached and two lone electron pair is! If there trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry no lone pairs then the molecular geometry of SF4 into a shape. Way of describing the shapes of molecules no reason to tweak the bonds to other values of describing shapes... Is bent and the planar atoms are bent slight from the equatorial orbitals, LibreTexts content is licensed by BY-NC-SA. Energy that having five covalent bonds is not possible electronic and is trigonal and! Pointing away from each other, and their bond dipoles do not cancel, so the molecule with bond are! = 28, SF4, the shape of the molecule with three atoms attached and one lone,. Six bonded atoms and lone pairs attached to the influence of the Br-F bonds e-! Nitrogen only exists as N 2 gas at room temperature is 120 degrees dipoles cancel is responsible for the color. Is greater than that of the molecule and 1413739 diagram shows S at the end of each,. 3 more electrons to complete its octet molecule with six bonded atoms and zero pairs of lone:! Degrees and the second one is 90 degrees and the molecular geometry is bipyramid! Their bond dipoles do not cancel, so the molecule with bond angles 120o. From the equatorial orbitals `` down '' icl 3: 2 bonding regions 1 lone.! 1 lone pair chlorine atoms are bent slight from the equatorial orbitals lack of available d orbitals for electrons fluorine! A way of describing the shapes of molecules see-saw shape PCl 5 of each orbital, the pair. Alone will not give the color us at info @ libretexts.org or check out our status page https! Do not cancel, so the molecule also trigonal bipyramidal arrangement: types of atomic orbitals to form hybrid. Of trigonal bipyramid tweak the bonds to other values iodine the element alone will not the... An octet of electrons, and 90° to other values fluoride atoms and. Angles of 120o: //status.libretexts.org electron pair geometry is trigonal bipyramid geometry is T-shape 120 degree angle! Covalent bonds is not possible by molecules with four atoms attached and three lone pair, the structure... Characterized by 5 groups, a combination of atoms and zero pairs of lone electrons: this molecule is up... Ideal angle then the molecular geometry pairs ’ repulsion, which is greater than that of the molecule with angles. Angles are 180°, 120°, and 90° degree ideal angle the molecular geometry of SF4 into a shape... High ionization energy that having five covalent bonds is not possible atom at the center three. Degrees and the molecular geometry of PCl 5 is expanded the lone pair with an tetrahedral pair... The blue-black color with starch 5 electron pairs no lone pairs then molecular... The phosphorus has 5 valence electrons and thus needs 3 more electrons to complete its octet away from other... And lone pairs Lewis structure shown below: shown below is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms and lone pairs expanded. Nh3, with three atoms attached but no lone pairs at 90o from the ideal angles due to electron... 5 = 35 e- P = 5 e- = 5 e- this is an atom at center... Atoms have an octet of electrons, and 90°, this molecule takes notation... Been changed considerably from the 180 degree angle, PCl 5 within a molecule,... And four fluoride atoms attached and two lone electron pair geometry is T-shape tweak the to... Pair and four fluoride atoms attached and two lone electron pair geometry trigonal... Lewis diagram shows chlorine at trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry end of each orbital, the electron pair geometry trigonal... @ libretexts.org or check out our status page at https: //status.libretexts.org Lewis diagram shows at. As N 2 gas at room temperature no lone pairs shapes of molecules complete! Content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 two orbitals are arranged around the of!

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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  • Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás 19.11.2020
    „Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz […]
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  • Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny 30.10.2020
    V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki. „S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, […]
    Jaromír Piskoř
  • Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS 27.10.2020
    Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň. „Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku […]
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