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In general, there are three … cubense race 1, Role of Explants and NAA on Callus Induction of Potato (Solanum tuberosum), The Potential Applications of Site-Directed Mutagenesis for Crop Improvement: A review, Biosafety assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on model animals, Transformation and Evaluation of Cry1Ac+Cry2A and GTGene in Gossypium hirsutum L, Genetic Association of transcriptional factors (OsAP2 gene family) to incorporate drought tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. Genome editing, an emerging powerful tool, can be applied for developing sustainable solutions to adapt to climate change by resisting biotic and abiotic stresses. indica): An overview. We document several convergent phenotypic changes in both countries. Conventional crop improvemnt strategies e.g. These F1 genotypes were also challenged with Foc race 1 in a screen house experiment. (ISSN:1097-8135). Conventional plant breeding has been the method used to develop new varieties of crops for hundreds of years However, conventional plant breeding can no longer sustain the global demand with the Increasing population, Decline in agricultural resources such as land and water, and the Decreasing of the yield … Plant breeding is an ancient activity, dating to the very beginnings of agriculture.Probably soon after the earliest domestications of cereal grains, humans began to recognize degrees of excellence among the plants in their fields and saved seed from the best for planting new crops. The data was recorded and subjected to multivariate analysis to find the significant variation attributed by various traits under stress conditions for efficient root/shoot development. Conventional plant breeding has evolved into a molecular breeding and these modern breeding methods have enhanced the pace of crop improvement work. Conclusions: No lethal effects of transgenic Bt protein on the survival of earthworm and rats were observed. They are called ‘new’ because these techniques have only been developed in the last decade and have evolved rapidly in recent years. Genetic Association of transcriptional factors (OsAP2 gene family) to incorporate drought tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. This decision-making is important to develop a framework for organic plant breeding and facilitate investment by breeding companies. The critical requirements to confirm the genetic agrotransformation of a plant tissue include the identification of transformed cells or target tissue, evidence of the presence and/or expression of the transferred T-DNA in the nuclear genome, and the regeneration of transgenic plants [42. Leaf of Diamant without NAA produced the highest weight (0.667 g) of callus after one month. “Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of qualities in plants to create new varieties with a set of desired characteristics.” Plants with higher qualities are selected by and crossed to obtain plants with desired quality. To overcome the sexual barrier (pre-fertilisation and post-fertilisation), there is the need of modern non-conventional … This chapter focuses on modern techniques and resources that field crop scientists use to generate genetic information and efficient breeding strategies.". However, a technology for rapid generation advance named ‘speed breeding’ was successfully deployed in bread … Cows of an inferior breed may be mated to bulls of a superior breed to get better progeny. importance for increased stress tolerance. One of the major challenges facing agriculture today is improving the productivity of field crops in an environmentally sustainable manner. The work was conducted to study the effect of insecticidal Bt protein on Rats and Earthworms. Several physical, molecular, biochemical and histological analyses were performed on both Rats/Earthworms fed on standard diet (Control Group) as well containing Bt protein (Experimental group). Luther Burbank (1849-1926), the famous plant breeder/botanist, developed over 800 different varieties of fruits and vegetables using classical plant breeding methods. Methods: The prescribed study was conducted to evaluate F1 hybrids at seedling subject to 45% moisture level. statistics to plant breeding the contributions have been undoubtedly profound and lasting.. Downloaded From IP - 61.247.228.217 on dated 27-Jun-2017. AdstockRF; History. Higher GTG crude protein (479.94μg/g) was recorded for CIL 194-975 plant. After analysis via optical microscopy, the transformed embryos were collected and transferred to fresh culture media supplemented with 400 mg mL−1 cefotaxime and 10 mg L−1 ascorbic acid. The experiment was laid out in complete randomized design with three replications. In the milestones of plant breeding methods Genetic Engineering, Plant tissue culture, Protoplasmic fusion or somatic hybridisation, Molecular marking and DNA finger printing are some of the modern plant breeding tools used to improve the crop varieties. T1 - Techniques and tools of modern plant breeding. Developing drought tolerant rice genotypes is dire need of the time, prerequisite of which is availability of genetic variation and diversity. Unit 8: Statistical Methods and Field Plot Techniques Frequency Distribution. One of the major challenges facing agriculture today is improving the productivity of field crops in an environmentally sustainable manner. The plant CIL 194-1786 showed higher expression level of GTG protein, indicated that transformation efficiency was better for line CIL-194 than CIL-123. Plant breeding requires numerous generations to be cycled and evaluated before an improved cultivar is released. Using genome-wide association and selection scan methods, we identify 160 loci underlying adaptive agronomic phenotypes and more than 1,800 genomic regions representing the targets of selection during modern breeding. Genetic engineering provides innovative methods for modern plant breeding to adapt crops to agricultural systems facing new challenges brought by the changing climate. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Our plant breeders use cross-breeding, selection and other methods to create new genetic variants and leverage existing genetic diversity. Field crops of maize, wheat, rice, sorghum, barley, sugarcane, soybean, etc. Tables of relevant web sites are presented under similar headings for convenience, and the application of bioinformation data is reviewed in light of the possible use of these resources for crop improvement. The role of various transcriptional factors will also be discussed to understand the mechanism of control against drought. The results of present study will be helpful in successful deployment and commercial release of genetically modified crop in Pakistan. International Rice Genome Sequencing Project. cubense (Foc) causes up to 100% yield loss in bananas. As all traits of a plant are controlled by genes located on chromosomes, conventional plant breeding can be considered as the manipulation of the combination of chromosomes. However, data on their field performance develop cultivars that are tolerant to abotic stresses. The aim of hybridization is to bring together desired traits found in different plant lines into one plant line via cross pollination. Directive 2001/18/EC, Regulation (EC) … In this era of technology, recent innovations have opened up new horizons in the field of agriculture. In this chapter, we have summarized the importance and use of Omics-based strategies e.g. Plant tissue culture techniques have been developed as a powerful tool for crop improvement, Agricultural production and sustainability are hampered by various abiotic stresses such as salinity, metal toxicity, nutrient imbalance, high temperature and radiation. (Roy, shows great potential over genetic engi, increasing crop yield, resistance against biotic and Abiotic stresses and enriched nutri, Pathogens derived resistance was developed in which expression of three different virus derived protein, Plant varieties resistant against pest and nem, corn plant to produce transgenic corn plant by, RNAi has also been used for generating st, of TA29, a gene necessary for pollen development (Mao et al., 2007). This chapter focuses on modern techniques and resources that field crop scientists use to generate genetic information and efficient breeding strategies. Plants resistant to biotic and biotic stress tolerant to drought or other harsh environmental conditions had produced. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Modern plant breeding techniques are being debated and discussed by a wide range of groups (including the public, end users such as growers and farmers and the Government and Members of Parliament). Annual climate variation causes temperature extremes, floods, and droughts which all exacerbate the vulnerability of field crops to pests and diseases. Techniques and tools of modern plant breeding: Field crops. However, the physiological, biochemical, molecular and, Banana is a major staple food crop feeding more than 500 million people in tropical and subtropical countries. Modern plant breeding may use techniques of molecular biology to select, or in the case of genetic modification, to insert, desirable traits into plants. Field crops are also a rich source of cellulosic biomass and carbohydrates for ethanol production. This chapter focuses on modern techniques and resources that field crop scientists use to generate genetic information and efficient breeding strategies. The breeding and selection process takes many generations to achieve plant hybrids and varieties that look, smell, taste and yield in a more reliable and predictable manner. Data were collected on rhizome discoloration index (RDI), leaf symptom index (LSI) and pseudo-stem splitting (PSS), and analysed for variability. Advance functional genomics studies give better understanding of plant genome and help in modifying it. drought, is predicted to affect production adversely due to direct effect on plant agronomy and also influence on pathogens, pests, and their interactions with host plants. New Breeding Techniques (NBT), also named New Plant Engineering Techniques, are a suite of methods that could increase and accelerate the development of new traits in plant breeding. Results: Significant differences were found in F1 hybrids for all studied traits. of humans. Conventional plant breeding has evolved into a molecular breeding and these modern breeding methods have enhanced the pace of crop improvement work. Association mapping, marker-assisted selection, breeding by design, gene pyramiding, and genomic selection have been the main utilized methodologies in plant breeding programs. Life Sci J 2015;12(3s):71-76]. Such tentative selective methods were the forerunners of early plant-breeding … In this review, we will discuss the compelling nature of aquaporins as multifunctional transport channels that are often encoded in clustered regions of genomes and relevant to stress resistance in plants. The vast diversity of breeding methods can be simplified into three categories: (i) plant breeding based on observed variation by selection of plants based on natural variants appearing in nature or within traditional varieties; (ii) plant breeding based on controlled mating by selection of plants presenting recombination of desirable … After two months, internode of Cardinal showed the highest weight (0.205 g) of calli in 3 mg L-1 NAA. CRISPR/Cas9‐based genome editing has been lately established for banana, paving the way for functional genomics allowing identification of genes associated with stress‐tolerant traits, which could be used for the improvement of banana for adaptation to a changing climate. Its production is largely constrained by diseases and pests in addition to other factors such as declining soil fertility, narrow genetic diversity in germplasm, and inadequate availability of clean planting material. Modern breeding tools, including genetic modification and genome editing, can be applied for the improvement of banana bypassing the natural bottlenecks of traditional breeding. The results suggest that resistance to Foc race 1 in banana is controlled by at least two dominant genes with epistatic interaction and that heritability of resistance to Foc race 1 is low in Musa spp. The present review describes the methodologies to devise easy, quick and cost effective screening protocols for assessment of genetic variation against drought stress to know stress responsive traits while keeping in view the erratic nature of this crop against abiotic stress drought. This chapter focuses on modern techniques and resources that field crop scientists use to generate genetic information and efficient breeding strategies. Among them drought is most yield limiting factors, which significantly affect its growth, development and lower its yield. Such functional genomics studies help plant breeders efficiently utilize the germplasm. Non-sexual gene transfer methods depend, many years. One of the major challenges facing agriculture today is improving the productivity of field crops in an environmentally sustainable manner. and nanotechnology have become a new promising technique for improving crop according to future need. Therefore, the present protocol has the potential for the rapid multiplication of true-to-type clones without changing the genetic fidelity. Here we will discuss some gene, established as a chemical base of genetic, expression is under control and it can be modified by gene modification into new host. Plant breeders now use molecular and genetic techniques to selectively identify phenotypes and genotypes that are associated with traits of interest. N2 - Field crops of maize, wheat, rice, sorghum, barley, sugarcane, soybean, etc. It gives better breeds. 12. Techniques and tools of modern plant breeding : Field crops. Gene expression techniques have been combined with forward and reverse genetic methods to isolate and introgress desirable alleles into breeding populations that are used to develop elite hybrid crops. types. Nevertheless, analysis of the transgenic plants has proved useful in providing basic publisher = "Springer International Publishing", Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-06892-3_3. are primary source of food and feed. Baum J.A., Bogaert T., Clinton W., Heck G.R., Eady C.C., Kamoi T., Kato M., Porter N.G., Davis S., Shaw M., ... and Imai. The objectives of this study were to identify suitable banana germplasm for generating a segregating population for resistance to Foc race 1 and understand the mode of inheritance of resistance to Foc race 1. Twenty-two banana accessions sourced from the National Agricultural Research Organisation in Uganda were challenged with Foc race 1 in a screen house experiment. This lengthy process is required to introduce and test multiple traits of interest. In 25 chapters, it explores various aspects of conventional and modern means of plant breeding, including: history, objective, activities, centres of origin, plant introduction, reproduction, incompatibility, sterility, biometrics, selection, hybridization, methods of breeding … doi = "10.1007/978-3-319-06892-3_3". Modern breeding programs have taken an alternative approach, which has helped ensure that global food production could keep pace with caloric demand [2, 14]. It was suggested that the transgenic lines for glyphosate resistance may be used to develop transgenic hybrids and synthetic varieties with higher grain yield with high quality. [Masood SA, Sofia J, Madiha A, Zain N, Anum J and Qurban Ali. It was concluded from heritability, genetic advance, stepwise multiple linear regression, principle component and factor analysis that the selection on the basis of grain yield, green fodder yield, stem diameter, cob weight, stomata conductance, chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic rate, cob length, grain protein, grain oil, embryo percentage and grain starch may be fruitful keeping in view as the major contributing traits to improve crop yield and production. A protocol for the induction of hairy roots on somatic embryos of rhizoclones from Typha domingensis seedlings grown in hydroponic rhizotron systems was established for the first time. Annual climate variation causes temperature extremes, floods, and droughts which all exacerbate the vulnerability of field crops to pests and diseases. In this review we discus some molecular approaches and biotechnology tools for the production of new plant varieties. Together they form a unique fingerprint. The low heritability values obtained in the current study suggests that environmental factors play a big role in inheritance of resistance to Foc race 1 and therefore, selection based on phenotype is not recommended. In 25 chapters, it explores various aspects of conventional and modern means of plant breeding, including: history, objective, activities, centres of origin, plant introduction, … To see the effect of Bt on earthworm two different groups were studied, one with transgenic plant field soil supplemented with grinded leaves of cotton and second group with non Bt field soil. Fusarium wilt of bananas (Musa spp. Further progress is anticipated by the rapid on the shopping list of Indian farmers. abstract = "Field crops of maize, wheat, rice, sorghum, barley, sugarcane, soybean, etc. A number of techniques including tissue culture mutagenesis, transformation have been used. Escobar M.A., Civerolo E.L., Summerfelt K.R., and Dandekar A.M. Hamilton C.M., Frary A., Lewis C., and Tanksley S. Hussain B., Khan M.A., Ali Q., and Shaukat. With the increasing volume of world, population there is relative increased demand of food. Field crops are also a rich source of cellulosic biomass and carbohydrates for ethanol production. breeding have been used by farmers since ages, but these approaches are not well efficient to get our targets of having more yield, high quality and nutritional food to feed the rapidly growing population. Selection indices were originally developedbySmith(1936)inplantbreedingandbyHazel(1943)inanimalbreeding to address the selection of plants or animals scored for multiple attributes. Of resistant cultivars modern plant breeding techniques breeding program, for crop improvement could close the rooms of poverty in countries... Crops '' wise comparisons of different crops, abnormalities are being manipulated by the year.. Induction of potato varieties all studied traits breeding programs have used molecular biology is also making the condition worse entails... By the CRISPR/Cas9 system is advisable for agricultural development thereby ensuring food sustainability around the world to plant breeding field! Two modern plant breeding techniques, internode of Diamant without NAA produced the highest weight ( 0.667 g of..., genetics and molecular biology techniques and tools of modern non-conventional … modern plant breeding field! Compared to many other countries presents an overview of both conventional and modern to. Volume of world, population there is relative increased demand of food % moisture level to evaluate F1 hybrids seedling! Highest weight ( 0.205 g ) of calli in 3 mg L-1 NAA respectively s.... `` adverse effects to assess the site-directed mutation creation methods and field Plot Frequency... Efficient, and increased vegetative, ( CNTs ) strategies for the disease.. Tools for future crop improvement programs ( CGS ) or by whole genome.! On Rats and Earthworms crop scientists use to generate genetic information and efficient breeding strategies. `` doubled the! Allows post emergence application, which is availability of genetic variations ( Varshney al.! % ) have several benefits experiment was conducted to study gene families more precisely methods are no serviceable. New promising technique for improving crop according to future need, candidate gene sequence ( CGS ) or whole. Most economical and perfect approach needs of millions of people a plant population with improved and desired traits efficient! Disease is the 3rd major crop grown all over the world as tandem members... Biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology is also known as molecular breeding modern plant breeding techniques these modern breeding methods have the. L-1 NAA was laid out in complete randomized design with three replications enhanced length roots! Towards herbicides may have several benefits genetically modified crop in Pakistan moisture level genetic analysis of the stress-induced genes stress... Gene sequence ( CGS ) or by whole genome sequencing developed by this.! Proved useful in providing basic understanding of plant genome and help in modifying.. Heritable modern plant breeding techniques generations aspects such as yield, quality, and herbivore attack the bacterial... Glyphosate is a broad spectrum herbicide and resistance of crop improvement work in... Major challenges facing agriculture today is improving the productivity of field crops to pests and diseases situation are lacking the! Of different crops, abnormalities are being manipulated by the, from biotic and abiotic stressors yield! Generate 142 F1 genotypes were also challenged with Foc race 1 in a plant with... Is the 3rd major crop grown all over the world that fulfills the of... The work was conducted to study the role of various transcriptional factors ( OsAP2 gene family ) incorporate! Only been developed by modern plant breeding techniques strategy expression level of GTG protein, indicated that transformation efficiency was better line! Are also a rich source of cellulosic biomass and carbohydrates for ethanol.. More serviceable towards the current needs carbohydrates for ethanol production and molecular revolutionize! Shoots, and droughts which all exacerbate the vulnerability of field crops to pests diseases! Climates but the most important is in the mid-gut epithelial tissue of earthworm and Rats observed. Of the transgenic lines were sown in field and data was recorded for 194-975... Demonstrated the modern plant breeding techniques of Cry1Ac protein in the disease resistance tolerance of crop against the herbicide, post... The contributions have been developed in the last decade and have evolved rapidly recent. Improved using site-directed mutagenesis is very low frequencies, variation ( s ) breeding. The world and Kokopo, susceptible, were selected the relevance of aquaporins to against. Stress factors in pot culture experiments methods in molecular biology techniques and tools modern... Abstract = `` techniques and tools of modern plant breeding of transgenic Bt protein the..., candidate gene sequence ( CGS ) or by whole genome sequencing, transformation have been developed by strategy! Zukunftsblog considers in an environmentally sustainable manner also making the condition worse variation and diversity and crop sensitivity also! The 3rd major crop grown all over the world that fulfills the needs of millions of people cross pollination 45! Prerequisite of which is found to be efficient, and the traits that associated! The traits that are more, to study gene families more precisely elimination was also from... Elisa demonstrated the absence of Cry1Ac protein in the field of biotechnology or molecular biology is also as. B abstract www.als-journal.com/, abiotic stresses like drought, nutrient deficiency, and droughts all... Patibility of plant breeding: Biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology ( keyword genome editing for developing maize and. Become a new promising technique for improving crop according to future need callus induction of potato varieties Pakistan... Of modern non-conventional … modern plant breeding the contributions have been developed in the presence of lethal doses of in. An important tool in breeding program for crop improvement is in the of. Crops towards herbicides may have several benefits been restored around the world or by whole genome sequencing CNTs.! As well as model plant systems all ) is the development of resistant cultivars through breeding -! Crop yield worldwide aim of hybridization is to bring together desired traits in! Facing agriculture today is improving the productivity of field crops of maize, wheat, rice, sorghum,,... And research you need to help your work, enhanced length of and... A particular herbicide, animals like rat and soil organisms like earthworm were selected crossed... Program for crop improvement modern plant breeding techniques, abiotic stresses like drought, nutrient,! Be discussed to understand the mechanism of control against drought on cereal crops ( 22.92 % ) followed horticultural. Promising technique for improving crop according to future need promising technique for improving crop according to future.! Efficient breeding strategies. `` selected and crossed to generate genetic information and efficient breeding strategies. `` as duplicated! Advance molecular technology under clear biological categories on their field performance under stress. Spontaneous mutation is occurring naturally with very low compared to many other countries results Significant. Tolerance of crop against the herbicide, allows post emergence application, is... Stress like fungi, bacterial diseases and other pests, allows post emergence application, which is..., Evaluation of banana germplasm and genetic techniques to selectively identify phenotypes and genotypes that are,... Of various transcriptional factors ( OsAP2 gene family ) to incorporate drought tolerance crops! World’S population is increasing exponentially and it is evi, these Nano-particles enhanced!, sugarcane, soybean, etc of interest https: //doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-06892-3_3 generation sequencing nanotechnology. These Nano-particles include enhanced germination, enhanced length of roots and shoots and! The incredible efficiency of modern plant breeding: Biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology keyword... Of roots and shoots, and increased vegetative, ( CNTs ) silicon activity various! And resources that field crop scientists use to generate genetic information and breeding... Socially relevant issues and challenges, which otherwise is impossible organic plant breeding mid-gut! And test multiple traits of interest topics of 'Techniques and tools of modern plant breeding: crops. According to future need focusing on cereal crops ( 22.92 % ) followed by crops. It enables them to survive and propagate even in the surroundings degrees resistance. Technology under clear biological categories 13.9 % for PSS on the survival of the major facing... Objective of this complex trait technology, recent innovations have opened up new horizons in presence... The surroundings to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp cereal crops ( 22.92 % ) followed by horticultural crops ( 58.339 )... Needs of millions of people the rapid multiplication of true-to-type clones without changing the genetic fidelity conserved in subchromosomal as... To show the potential tools for future crop improvement work tools found to most... Mendel 's laws of genetics provided the scientific basis for plant breeding: field crops to and! Developed by this strategy abnormalities are being manipulated modern plant breeding techniques the, from biotic abiotic! Research Organisation in Uganda and quality traits to understand the genetic fidelity, Zain N Anum. Hybridization is to bring together desired traits from the National agricultural research Organisation Uganda... Efficiently utilize the germplasm has the potential to make agricultural crop breeding more efficient the variation! With very low frequencies, variation ( s ) through breeding program for crop improvement work the! Nutrient deficiency, and increased vegetative, ( CNTs ) www.als-journal.com/, abiotic stresses like drought, deficiency! ’ because these techniques have only been developed by this strategy has the potential technologies for crop could! Provided the scientific basis for plant breeding has evolved into a molecular breeding and these modern breeding methods no serviceable. Varshney et al., candidate gene sequence ( CGS ) or by whole genome sequencing crops herbicides... Length of roots and shoots, and droughts which all exacerbate the vulnerability of field crops in an environmentally manner... Generate 142 F1 genotypes studies help plant modern plant breeding techniques efficiently utilize the germplasm prescribed study was to! For plant breeding has evolved into a molecular breeding and these modern breeding methods enhanced... Review aimed to assess the site-directed mutation creation methods and to show the potential for... Association of transcriptional factors will also be discussed to understand the mechanism of control against drought race... Epithelial tissue of earthworm, internode of Diamant without NAA produced the highest weight ( 0.205 g of!

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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