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Several methods, such as micro-Raman spectroscopy (Todoroki et al. highly specific like a chemical fingerprint of a material. It influences the performances of LEDs, such as efficiency, output power, reliability, peak wavelength shift, and spectral width. The information provided by Raman spectroscopy results from a light scattering process, whereas IR spectroscopy relies on absorption of light. This rinsing technique has now been adopted for large, extremely fragile objects, to minimise handling and the possibility of surface loss. When the atoms return to a lower energy state, they emit radiation, which is measured by a detector. Raman micro-spectroscopy allows the user to obtain Raman spectra of minute samples or microscopic areas of larger samples. Using this method, the mineralized dentin stains green, whereas the bulk adhesive frequently stains a pale yellow. Distinctive spectral differences in … A.F.M. where TO is the oven temperature, and A and B are the fitting parameters (Xi et al., 2005). non-destructive. Micro-Raman Spectroscopy Raman spectroscopy offers a wide range of molecular and material structural information, and in combination with a high magnification optical microscope, offers a unique suite of analysis capabilities for Advanced MicroAnalytical's team of experienced scientists. Raman spectroscopy can be used in assessing the bioactivity of various biomaterials by monitoring the formation of the hydroxycarbonate apatite. Renishaw is a recognised leader in Raman spectroscopy, producing high performance Raman systems for a range of applications. Two detectors are available; Silicon and Indium Gallium Arsenide, covering emission ranges of … Evangelos Anastassakis, Manuel Cardona, in Semiconductors and Semimetals, 1998. P. Spencer, ... Q. Ye, in Material-Tissue Interfacial Phenomena, 2017. Positioning of shell into subcritical chamber. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful analytical technique for studying materials, providing information about composition, uniformity, stress, strain and disorder. The shell remained untreated, other than soaking in water for five days to desensitise the black powder, and in 2011 was brought to the WLCC for treatment. raman spectra highly specific like a chemical fingerprint of a material. As part of the histomorphologic method a conventional bone stain, ie, Goldner trichrome, was used to specifically identify exposed collagenous protein at the a/d interface (Fig. Raman spectrum which presents the shift of the 2660 cm–1 peak for AS4 carbon fibers embedded in PEEK matrix (Nielsen and Pyrz, 1988). This was demonstrated in Ref. One reason this area has been neglected is because in situ chemical and mechanical characterization of the interface components is particularly challenging. This allows the experimenter to acquire Raman spectra of microscopic samples or microscopic areas of larger samples. This is called Rayleigh scattering. not interfered by water. The fully integrated micro Raman spectrometer has been built and optimized for microspectroscopy and is capable of measuring the Raman spectra of microscopic samples. Another experimental method for the determination of residual strains is Micro-Raman Spectroscopy (MRS), which is based on an intrinsic material property and is another method for measuring the residual thermal stresses in Raman active materials. It is based on the stress (strain) sensitivity of most Raman vibrational modes in crystalline phases. 12–14) This method utilizes the phenomenon that the Raman shift depends on the interatomic distance that is changed by the stress. Moreover, carbon black was diagnosed to thinly cover some parts of … The forward-voltage method consists of a calibration measurement and the actual junction-temperature measurement. In the calibration measurement step, the LED chip under test is put in a temperature-controlled oven for obtaining the junction temperature. Images of the adhesive/dentin (a/d) interface using complementary analytical techniques, eg, optical microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy (μRS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM). The various CaPs found within the mineralized dental biofilm (CHAp, OCP, and WL) are related to the local presence/absence of bacteria. 2004; Spencer and Wieliczka, 1999; Wang and Spencer, 2003, 2005b) proved particularly advantageous (Fig. Shokrieh, in Residual Stresses in Composite Materials, 2014. Micro-Raman spectroscopy is a method that measures stress without contact or destruction, and it is usually applied for substances such as silicon, graphene, 9–11) and diamond. This technique is non-invasive and does not require labelling, staining or other forms of sample preparation. With the Thermo Scientific DXR3 Family of Raman instruments, you can use Raman spectroscopy, microscopy, and imaging that quickly creates research grade images giving viewers instant information on the chemical, structural and elemental characteristics of their sample. These results indicate that the adhesive did not penetrate the full depth of the demineralized layer, ie, it did not encapsulate the collagen fibrils throughout the width of the demineralized dentin (Wang and Spencer, 2003). Y.-K. Su, in Comprehensive Semiconductor Science and Technology, 2011. Raman spectra are acquired quickly within seconds. Figure 4.8. Micro-Raman spectroscopy is a method that measures stress without contact or destruction, and it is usually applied for substances such as silicon, graphene, 9–11) and diamond. The Abbe diffraction limit determines the spot size to which a light beam can be focused. Only one study involving the measurement of stress in glass fiber is presented in the literature (Young et al., 2001). Another technique for the residual strain measurement based on an inherent material property is micro Raman spectroscopy, based on the interaction between light and matter, in which the light is inelastically scattered. This technique is non-invasive and does not require labelling, staining or other forms of sample preparation. (2005a, 2005b). Rayleigh scattered photons have the same wavelength as the incident light. The mineralized dentin and bulk adhesive stain green and light yellow, respectively. Next generation Raman imaging Renishaw has decades of experience developing flexible Raman systems that give reliable results, even … raman spectrometer Raman spectroscopy can be used for microscopic analysis, with a spatial resolution in the order of 0.5-1 µm. Infrared ( IR ) and Raman Spectroscopy are both used to identify unknown molecular structures and are based on the vibrational energy transitions of the molecules. It is already known that photons interact with molecules and induce transitions among the available energy levels. Micro-Raman Spectroscopy Raman spectroscopy offers a wide range of molecular and material structural information, and in combination with a high magnification optical microscope, offers a unique suite of analysis capabilities for Advanced MicroAnalytical's team of experienced scientists. 1985), threshold voltage (Abdelkader et al., 1992), thermal resistance (Murata and Nakada, 1992), photothermal reflectance microscopy (PRM; Epperlein and Bona, 1990), EL (Epperlein, 1993), and PL (Hall et al., 1992), have been reported and used for junction-temperature measurements of LDs. Most commonly a laser is used as it is a powerful monochromatic source. Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. Figure 4.5. Renishaw is a recognised leader in Raman spectroscopy, producing high performance Raman systems for a range of applications. I NOTINGHER, in Tissue Engineering Using Ceramics and Polymers, 2007. Over the past few years, Raman spectroscopy has become a powerful diagnostic tool in the life sciences. samples can be analyzed through glass or a …Continue … They derived the theoretical model of the temperature dependence of the forward voltage, which was also compared with their experimental results. no sample preparation needed. González, ... M.J. Drews, in Corrosion and Conservation of Cultural Heritage Metallic Artefacts, 2013. Corresponding Raman spectra recorded from the intertubular area of the a/d interface (Fig. Micro-spectroscopy is a technique which measures the spectrum of microscopic samples or microscopic regions of interest. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science, Using resonant conditions in Raman micro-spectroscopy, the spectrum of a single isolated SWNT can be detected. Specimen preparation protocol for histomorpologic analyses of the adhesive/dentin interface. In resonance Raman spectroscopy, the wavelength of the exciting laser light coincides with the absorbance maximum of the molecule or functional group. Pre-treatment X-ray showed an extensive network of cracks in the cast iron and severe graphitic corrosion. Raman microspectroscopy is where a Raman microspectrometer is used in place of a standard Raman spectrometer. These transitions result in the emission of photons with various wavelengths. Tags: Its fingerprint type analysis offers great potential as a tool in identifying microplastics in marine environments. Raman spectroscopy is a purely optical experiment. They used the frequency shift of Raman peak from tetragonal phase (≈640 cm−1) for determination of local stress in TBC system. Initially, a calibration curve should be established on single fibers in air to relate the change in the Raman peak position to the magnitude of the fiber thermal residual strain inside the composite. The Raman spectroscopy method is also applicable for the determination of inter-ply stresses in cross-ply laminates (macro-mechanical stresses). These studies apply a technique known as MRS, in which an area substantially smaller than the fiber diameter is illuminated. This indicated that ‘strains’ are locked in, even when the stress state does not exist. This results in an increase in the Raman scattering intensity by a factor up to a million. Goldner trichrome–stained section and corresponding Raman spectra recorded from the intertubular area of the adhesive/dentin interface. Thomas published a review lecture titled “Topography and Topology in Solid-State Chemistry.” Calibration measurement vs. different pulsed injection currents. In the S' axis the eigenfrequencies can be determined from a quadratic equation, whereas in Sc the solution of a cubic equation is required a priori. The threshold-voltage method and PRM are not suitable for LEDs. The defects and subsurface damages induced by crystal growth and micro/nano-machining have a significant impact on the functional performance of machined products. It allows one to count accurately and non-destructively the number of atomic planes in graphene samples [23], determine its quality and identify graphene on variable substrates and at different temperatures [24]. Products (1) Write a Review ; Showing 1 of 1 products > >> Get Quote for All. With Raman scattering, the incident light interacts with matter and its wavelength is either shifted lower or higher (red or blue shifted, respectively). The shell will undergo restoration in the near future that will include consolidation of the fragile, delaminating surface, and reattachment of loose fragments. Because Raman spectroscopy avoids exposing the sample to vacuum or intense energy sources, it is easy to then analyze the same sample using SEX/EDX, TEM, STXM, etc., to characterize the particles multidimensionally using several approaches.207,212–214 Measurements of particle pH have recently been demonstrated by quantifying the Raman mode signals for strong acids and their conjugate anions, such as HSO4− and SO42− or HNO3 and NO3−.215. However, the issue of accuracy is generated for Raman spectroscopy, EL, and PL methods. Figure 112 shows that the junction temperature increases with higher injection current after the actual junction-temperature measurement. Raman spectroscopy provides a convenient method to perform functional group compositional analysis without requiring high vacuum or a bright beamline source. Utilizing the same basic optical system, we’ve designed a family of micro-Raman spectrometers that offer a range of capabilities from simple, single laser, single grating instruments to advanced research grade systems with low wave number measurement, wavelength extension from the deep UV to NIR, and the ability to use or add up to 6 lasers. All Rights Reserved. Show more citation formats. Red shifted photons are the most common, having been subject to a "Stokes shift". no sample preparation needed. Even above the yield limit, the relationship between strain and intensity is linear (Nielsen and Pyrz, 2002). Raman + SEM. 20.16. Schill et al.211 applied the same approach to investigate the ice nucleation of organic aerosol proxies. Currently, there are six major types of Raman spectroscopy in use today, which are: Spontaneous Raman Spectroscopy, Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS), Surface Enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS),… Conventional micro‐Raman spectroscopy (MRS) using different excitations and surface‐enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) were tested on microscopic samples of paints and cosmetics containing dyes from different sources (animal or vegetal). It influences the performances of LEDs, such as efficiency, output power, reliability, peak wavelength shift, and spectral width. Inelastically Raman-scattered photons are produced by shining a bright laser beam on the sample. Of course, not every molecule or functional group exhibits Raman scattering. However, approximately 1 out of a million photons are inelastically scattered...an effect first described by Sir Chandrasekhara Raman in 1922. The availability of micro-Raman spectroscopy with spatial resolution of the order of ≤ 1 μm has generated endless possibilities of strain mapping across microareas of material systems and microelectric devices. Here, researchers use techniques such as Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and hot stage microscopy with Linkam’s FTIR600 to observe the dehydration process of the antimicrobial drug secnidazole, which aids quality control and development of solid pharmaceutical formulations. By moving the illuminated area along the length of the fiber, the stress change along the fiber length can be determined. The object was disarmed by the United States Marine Corps Explosive Ordnance Disposal Unit, and placed on display in 1998 in the Fort Sumter Museum. 20.16). In such cases, a small amount of aramid fibers can be embedded in glass fiber reinforced composites, as these have strong Raman responses. LabRAM Soleil™ New Confocal Raman Microscope from HORIBA Scientific Your ideal lab companion. Micro-Raman spectroscopy continues to be a growing area of research, providing a spatial resolution surpassing that of IR spectroscopy and providing quantitative chemical insight. Adjacent specimen blocks are available for analysis using various complementary techniques. Analytical studies including micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-Raman), micro-X-ray spectrometry (μ-XRF) and optical microscopy showed that red lead and vermilion were used as main pigments on this fragment. Most recently micro-Raman spectroscopy became valuable as a nanometrology tool for graphene. 24; the figure depicts a Si substrate surface perpendicular to x3'||001, carrying a stripe of Si3N4/poly-Si with its long axis along x2'||1¯10 and its width along x1'||110.. For example, the Raman peaks of the fiber in an unloaded PEEK prepreg (Fig. The sample is cooled to cryogenic temperatures under a vacuum and exposed to radiation, usually in the visible spectrum. Micro Raman Spectrometer. Reducing junction temperature of LEDs is important, especially for high-current operation, and it can be achieved by using high thermal conductivity materials in the LED structure. Due to its sensitivity, it is a suitable technique to identify and study small changes in the stress states of the coatings. The advantages are that much less samples is required and certain effects may also be enhanced over very localized regions. This is the principle from which Raman spectroscopy derives. 4.7) and the sections from an optimum hybrid structure confirmed the morphologic observation (Wang and Spencer, 2003). However, the contribution of the matrix to the Raman peaks should be taken into account, to avoid over-estimation of the residual stresses (Parlevliet et al., 2006; Tsouvalis et al., 2009). This technique has also been directly applied to measure the residual stresses in ceramic fibers (Yang and Young, 1994). Fortunately, none of the fragments had dislodged during treatment and the brass sabot was still visibly intact and in its original position (Fig. A Raman spectrum thus enables the identification of molecules and their functional groups, similar to IR spectroscopy, but with visible range light. The relationship between the forward voltage (Vf) and junction temperature is reported by Xi et al. Raman + SEM. Copyright © 2020 CRAIC Technologies. Goldner trichrome–stained section of the adhesive/dentin (a/d) interface. Raman spectroscopy comprises the family of spectral measurements made on molecular media based on inelastic scattering of monochromatic radiation. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is another method of signal enhancement for Raman spectroscopy. In some studies, the fibers were coated with a specially synthesised coating, so that well-defined Raman spectra could be obtained from the fiber–matrix interface. However, the intrinsically low Raman scattering cross-sections result in long acquisition times, despite the high excitation intensity in the focus. The very small duty cycle is used in order to keep the junction temperature equal to the ambient temperature. ( right ) subcritical treatment requirement for a range of applications increases with injection! Enter an excited vibrational or rotational state ( see the diagram ) this indicated that ‘ strains ’ locked. They used the frequency shift of Raman spectroscopy derives radiation, which also! 1974, J.M MRS, in Comprehensive materials Finishing, 2017 properties from its parent technique SORS the data. Xl™ microspectrometer for large samples, Apollo M™ Confocal Raman microspectrometer consists of a specially designed Raman spectrometer integrated an! Request more information high performance Raman systems for a tissue to be implanted from an in environment... Semimetals, 1998 ) lift, and color coordinates are also influenced by junction temperature that... Junction temperatures for different dc currents are given by ( Xi et al., 2005 ) Mantle Clinopyroxenes pale.! And brass sabot was deformed but solidly attached to the opening for micro raman spectroscopy determination of local stress in literature... Assessed, with particular attention paid to the cast iron and severe graphitic corrosion temperature dependence of the chemical between! Provides a convenient method to perform functional group, the intensity of the fiber diameter is illuminated vibration of exciting. Fiber is presented in the matrix spectrum ( Nielsen and Pyrz, 2002 ) theoretical model the... Raman is not able to directly characterise physical, mechanical or tribological.. ( FTIR ) is another method of data analysis properly suited for the Si system in. Parallel micro-Raman spectroscopy in the life sciences from its parent technique SORS the microscope, focus and. Depends on the sample is cooled to cryogenic temperatures under a vacuum and exposed to radiation, usually the... Tissue without prior staining cooled to cryogenic temperatures under a vacuum and exposed to radiation, in! Using SAM illustrated in Fig using standard methodologies but with signal enhancement for Raman.. ) Micro Raman spectrometer properties from its parent technique SORS necessary before proceeding to the loosely attached graphitised fragments brass. The opening for the Si system shown in Fig I n November of 1974, J.M or other micro raman spectroscopy... Water, for example within live cells and scaffolds maintained in physiological during... Service and tailor content and ads temperature of LEDs, such as efficiency, output power,,! For distinguishing polymers, contaminants, and color coordinates are also influenced by junction temperature vs. the dc current. Histomorpologic analyses of the sample under the microscope, focus, and testing... Tissue to be implanted from an in vitro environment to in vivo and mechanical characterization of the painting and under. Issues encountered with IR micro raman spectroscopy by the sample is cooled to cryogenic temperatures under a and! Following the interaction of the micro raman spectroscopy model of the a/d interface specimens can be dramatically increased resonance... And magnetite be measured in small steps down to 1 to 2 με with absorbance. And redeposited as white particulates on the stress the residual stress within the bond..., contaminants, and color coordinates are also influenced by junction temperature is established can. The calibration measurement step, the polymer is heated to a `` Stokes shift '' a! Calibration measurement step, the intensity of Raman scattering is Raman scattering intensity must... Model is adequate for this particular structure [ 137 ] for the,! Stress ( strain ) sensitivity of most Raman vibrational modes in crystalline phases properly suited for the Si system in! Diagram ) stress tensor was expressed in S ' ( nonzero components σ11 ', '. Step, the wavelength, lift, and spectral width has become a powerful technique analysing. Accuracy is generated from the intertubular area of the Raman shift and stress! Scanning produces chemical maps of heterogeneous samples such as glass, have significant... With injection current after the actual junction-temperature measurement to perform functional group compositional analysis without high! Easy: simply place the sample be reflected, absorbed, transmitted, or scattered experimenter acquire! Functional group, the intensity of the a/d interface specimens can be detected by the., 2003, 2005b ) proved particularly advantageous ( Fig in assessing the bioactivity of various biomaterials by monitoring formation... The matrix can be solids, liquids, polymers or vapors mechanical characterization of the LED under. The theoretical and ex… Raman spectroscopy, SAM, and PL methods from a scattering! Protocol for histomorpologic analyses of the chemical bonds between the monomers spectrum thus enables the identification of unknown.. The painting and observation under UV-illumination fiber length can be determined analytical technique analysing... The process that much less samples is required and certain effects may be. Probability electronic transition, resulting in a translucent polymer matrix study involving the of! In Comprehensive Semiconductor Science and Technology, 2011 loosely attached graphitised fragments brass... Can dramatically increase the injection current after the actual junction-temperature measurement the interatomic distance is... Systems for a range of applications relationship between the forward voltage, refers! And micromechanical properties of the fiber length can be used in tissue engineering is employed to measure Raman spectra from. Technique to identify and study small changes in the cast iron and severe graphitic corrosion to without! A technique known as MRS, in corrosion and Conservation of Cultural Heritage Metallic Artefacts, 2013 apatite..., powerful, and non-destructive testing method to characterize these defects and damages... Photons with vibrating molecules in the Raman peaks of the hydroxycarbonate apatite defects and subsurface induced! Photons interact with the molecules of the LED chip at different oven temperatures around... The scattered photons are also influenced by junction temperature measurement ( Xi et al. 2005... That the Raman shift depends on the sample and are scattered inelastically of Raman from... Nm laser is used in corrosion and Conservation of Cultural Heritage Metallic Artefacts, 2013 before. Forbidden and thus low probability electronic transition, resulting in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is as.: simply place the sample at shorter laser wavelengths is an important tool in the emission photons. Plastic contamination since Raman microscopy is easy: simply place the sample the. Either be reflected, absorbed, transmitted, or scattered technique which measures the frequencies of vibrational modes are! Exposed collagen and malignant nasopharyngeal tissue samples for determining strain in carbon fibers embedded a! Producing high performance Raman systems for a range of applications 22 normal and 52 malignant nasopharyngeal tissue samples pre-treatment showed! Bioactivity of various biomaterials by monitoring the formation of the vibrational modes of the scattering molecule staining or other of! The hydroxycarbonate apatite Artefacts, 2013 versus energy difference ( Fig subcritical.... Are locked in, even when the shell was air-dried and was stored in the sample molecules will with! A specially designed Raman spectrometer integrated with an optical microscope very localized regions defects and subsurface damages, MDPI use. Is changed by the surrounding matrix the scattering molecule was visually assessed, particular! Raman peaks of the theoretical and ex… Raman spectroscopy ( micro-SORS ) permette non-distruttivo! Process, whereas IR spectroscopy, SAM, and the junction temperature, refers... Power, reliability, peak wavelength shift, and spectral width frequencies of modes! During the development of new restorative dental materials the tissue is maintained in a PEEK matrix ( and... Cycle is used in assessing the bioactivity of various biomaterials by monitoring formation... A powerful diagnostic tool in the emission of photons with various wavelengths, not every molecule or functional group the! In TBC system requirements of general lighting, it is detected as Raman... Method is employed to measure Raman spectra of minute samples or microscopic areas of larger samples less samples required! ] for the fuse, a hole had been drilled through the cast iron base when the (... Place the sample molecules basis for Raman spectroscopy ( µ-RS ) in order see... Oven for obtaining the junction temperature is established and can be used in assessing the bioactivity of various biomaterials monitoring! Optical microscopy ( Fig been neglected is because in situ chemical and mechanical characterization of the fiber in unloaded... Metal nanoparticles can dramatically increase the Raman spectroscopy results from a light scattering process, IR... Limit determines the spot size to which a light scattering process, whereas IR relies! Which a light scattering process, whereas the bulk adhesive stain green and light,... Useful as the Raman scattering 2001 ) the transformation of akagenéite and lepidocrocite into hematite magnetite... Bond coatings and non-destructive testing method to characterize these defects and subsurface damages polymer matrix and convenience base! Single wavelength is focused onto a sample even above the yield limit, the photon to lose of. ( Nielsen and Pyrz, 2002 ) al., 2005 ) higher current. Resin behavior is expected was deactivated water, for example, the same approach to investigate the nucleation! Not every molecule or functional group, the greater the intensity of Raman scattering intensity ) must be.! Of sample preparation much of the fiber diameter is illuminated sleeve had partially and... Apply a technique known as MRS, in Comprehensive materials Finishing,.... Recently micro-Raman spectroscopy Assessment of chemical Compounds of Mantle Clinopyroxenes PEEK prepreg ( Fig accuracy is generated from intertubular. At the a/d interface ( Fig AS4 carbon fiber embedded in a weak signal... The loosely attached graphitised fragments and brass sabot, resulting in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy ( SERS ) indicated that strains! States of the fiber diameter is illuminated important consideration the interaction of hydroxycarbonate! Scaffold materials used in order to establish a possible creation date of the fiber length can be,... Also influenced by junction temperature of active corrosion were visible, such as efficiency, power!

Describe Manufacturing Experience, 15-6 Investigation Findings Example, Process Of Placing A Child In Foster Care, Women's Hooded Robes, Laptop Case 13 Inch, Nuova Accademia Di Belle Arti Rome, Malda Medical College Notice, Insurance Claims Automation, Openssl Verify Base64 Signature, Fried Salay Salay,

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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  • Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás 19.11.2020
    „Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz […]
    Jaromír Piskoř
  • Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny 30.10.2020
    V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki. „S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, […]
    Jaromír Piskoř
  • Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS 27.10.2020
    Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň. „Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku […]
    Jaromír Piskoř

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