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is relation represented by following matrix an equivalence relation

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(4) To get the connection matrix of the symmetric closure of a relation R from the connection matrix M of R, take the Boolean sum M ∨Mt. Equivalence relations play an important role in the construction of complex mathematical structures from simpler ones. Hence it does not represent an equivalence relation. The transformation of into is called similarity transformation. Remark 3.6.1. The identity matrix is the matrix equivalent … Statement II For any two invertible 3 x 3. matrices M and N, (MN)-1 = N-1 M-1 (a) Statement I is false, Statement II is true It provides a formal way for specifying whether or not two quantities are the same with respect to a given setting or an attribute. Use matrix multiplication to decide if the relation is transitive. Prove that R is an equivalence relation. 2.4. 4 points a) 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 The given matrix is reflexive, but it is not symmetric. Reflexive in a Zero-One Matrix Let R be a binary relation on a set and let M be its zero-one matrix. https://goo.gl/JQ8NysEquivalence Relations Definition and Examples. 123. (c) aRb and bRc )aRc (transitive). Write a … (b) Show the matrix of this relation. • Equivalence Relation? Let be a finite-dimensional vector space and a basis for . A relation follows join property i.e. Let us look at an example in Equivalence relation to reach the equivalence relation proof. The number of vertices in the graph is equal to the number of elements in the set from which the relation has been defined. Relation to change of basis. Exercise 35 asks for a proof of this formula. R={(A, B) : A = P-1 BP for some invertible matrix P}. The relation R is represented by the matrix M R = [mij], where The matrix representing R has a 1 as its (i,j) entry when a Examples. Tolerance relation (Aehnlichkeitsrelation), has only the properties of reflexivity and symmetry. (5) The composition of a relation and its inverse is not necessarily equal to the identity. In other words, all elements are equal to 1 on the main diagonal. If A is an infinite set and R is an equivalence relation on A, then A/R may be finite, as in the example above, or it may be infinite. star. How exactly do I come by the result for each position of the matrix? Show the following is an equivalence relation: Define the relation ∼ on Z by a ∼... Show the following is an equivalence relation: Define the relation ∼ on Z by a ∼ b iff a − b = 7k for some k ∈ Z. Of all the relations, one of the most important is the equivalence relation. i.e. Corollary. 14) Determine whether the relations represented by the following zero-one matrices are equivalence relations. The elements of the two sets can be listed in any particular arbitrary order. Consider the following relation R on the set of real square matrices of order 3. Any method finding connected components of the graph will therefore also find equivalence classes. star. Vetermine whether the relation represented by the following matrix is an equivalent relation. An undirected graph may be associated to any symmetric relation on a set X, where the vertices are the elements of X, and two vertices s and t are joined if and only if s ~ t.Among these graphs are the graphs of equivalence relations; they are characterized as the graphs such that the connected components are cliques.. Invariants. For example if I have a set A = {1,2,3} and a relation R = {(1,1), (1,2), (2,3), (3,1)}. EXAMPLE 6 Find the matrix representing the relation R2, where the matrix representing R is MR = ⎡ ⎣ 01 0 011 100 Statement I R is an equivalence relation". R is reflexive if and only if M ii = 1 for all i. To know the three relations reflexive, symmetric and transitive in detail, please click on the following links. Let R be the equivalence relation … the join of matrix M1 and M2 is M1 V M2 which is represented as R1 U R2 in terms of relation. $\begingroup$ Since you are looking at a a matrix representation of the relation, an easy way to check transitivity is to square the matrix. R is reflexive. Equivalence relations. Representing Relations Using Matrices A relation between finite sets can be represented using a zero-one matrix. The theorem can be used to show that an equivalence relation defines a partition of the domain. In mathematics, an equivalence relation is a binary relation that is reflexive, symmetric and transitive.The relation "is equal to" is the canonical example of an equivalence relation. Let R be the relation represented by the matrix MR1 1 0 Find the matrix representing R Го 2. Equality is the model of equivalence relations, but some other examples are: Equality mod m: The relation x = y (mod m) that holds when x and y have the same remainder when divided by m is an equivalence relation. If aRb we say that a is equivalent … The relation is transitive if and only if the squared matrix has no nonzero entry where the original had a zero. Example 2.4.1. Include functions to check if a relation is reflexive, Symmetric, Anti-symmetric and Transitive. c) 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 Suppose R is a relation from A = {a 1, a 2, …, a m} to B = {b 1, b 2, …, b n}. A tolerance relation, R, can be reformed into an equivalence relation by at most (n − 1) compositions with itself, where n is is the number of rows or columns of R. Example: Consider the relation Representing Relations Using Matrices A relation between finite sets can be represented using a zero- one matrix. To verify equivalence, we have to check whether the three relations reflexive, symmetric and transitive hold. Given the relation on the set {A, B, C, D}, which is represented by the following zero-one matrix (a) draw the corresponding directed graph. Consider an equivalence relation over a set A. Theorem 2. (a) 8a 2A : aRa (re exive). Suppose R is a relation from A = {a 1, a 2, …, a m} to B = {b 1, b 2, …, b n}. check_circle Expert Answer. Often the objects in the new structure are equivalence classes of objects constructed from the simpler structures, modulo an equivalence relation that captures the … A: Click to see the answer. The set of all distinct equivalence classes defines a … If the three relations reflexive, symmetric and transitive hold in R, then R is equivalence relation. A partition of a set A is a set of non-empty subsets of A that are pairwise disjoint and whose union is A. De nition 1.3 An equivalence relation on a set X is a binary relation on X which is re exive, symmetric and transitive, i.e. For each ordered pair (x, y) in the relation R, there will be a directed edge from the vertex ‘x’ to vertex ‘y’. For two rectangular matrices of the same size, their equivalence can also be characterized by the following conditions The matrices can be transformed into one another by a combination of … Identity matrix: The identity matrix is a square matrix with "1" across its diagonal, and "0" everywhere else. Equivalence classes in your case are connected components of the graph. A relation can be represented using a directed graph. An equivalence relation is a relation that is reflexive, symmetric, and transitive. As the following exercise shows, the set of equivalences classes may be very large indeed. Conversely, by examining the incidence matrix of a relation, we can tell whether the relation is an equivalence relation. Thus R is an equivalence relation. If A is a set, R is an equivalence relation on A, and a and b are elements of A, then either [a] \[b] = ;or [a] = [b]: That is, any two equivalence classes of an equivalence relation are either mutually disjoint or identical. Determine whether the relations represented by the following zero-one matrices are equivalence relations. I was studying but realized that I am having trouble grasping the representations of relations using Zero One Matrices. If R is a relation on the set of ordered pairs of natural numbers such that \(\begin{align}\left\{ {\left( {p,q} \right);\left( {r,s} \right)} \right\} \in R,\end{align}\), only if pq = rs.Let us now prove that R is an equivalence relation. مداحی N 107 ref 1100sy za r b , bra at alo o o tran= a Rb and ore C then a Rc oorola Rb and oke Vx.yez, xRy if and only if 2 | (K-y) 2|- 2y) fullscreen. In order to understand the relation between similar matrices and changes of bases, let us review the main things we learned in the lecture on the Change of basis. In particular, MRn = M [n] R, from the definition of Boolean powers. M R = (M R) T. A relation R is antisymmetric if either m ij = 0 or m ji =0 when i≠j. Additionally, because the relation is an equivalence relation, the equivalence classes will actually be fully connected cliques in the graph. ... Find all possible values of c for which the following matrix 1 1 1 F = c 9 1 3 1 is singular. Fuzzy Tolerance and Equivalence Relations (Contd.) 4. Matrix equivalence is an equivalence relation on the space of rectangular matrices. Equivalence relation Proof . No, because it is not reflexive, and not symmetric, and not transitive. 594 9 / Relations The matrix representing the composite of two relations can be used to find the matrix for MRn. The inverse of a matrix A is denoted as A-1, where A-1 is the inverse of A if the following is true: A×A-1 = A-1 ×A = I, where I is the identity matrix. What is the resulting Zero One Matrix representation? Then the equivalence classes of R form a partition of A. Explain. Exercise 3.6.2. (a) (b) (c) Let R be the relation on the set of ordered pairs of positive integers such that ((a,b),(c,d)) R if and only if ad = bc. (Equivalence relation needs reflexive, symmetric, and transitive.) A relation R is symmetric if the transpose of relation matrix is equal to its original relation matrix. Please Subscribe here, thank you!!! (b) aRb )bRa (symmetric). Which ONE of the following represents an equivalence relation on the set of integers? The matrix is called change-of-basis matrix. on A = {1,2,3} represented by the following matrix M is symmetric. Let R be an equivalence relation on a set A. question_answer. Program 3: Create a class RELATION, use Matrix notation to represent a relation. For an equivalence relation \(R\), you can also see the following notations: \(a \sim_R b,\) \(a \equiv_R b.\) The equivalence relation is a key mathematical concept that generalizes the notion of equality. 2 6 6 4 1 1 1 1 3 7 7 5 Symmetric in a Zero-One Matrix Let R be a binary relation on a set and let M be its zero-one matrix. SOLUTION: 1. A bijective function composed with its inverse, however, is equal to the identity. Be an equivalence relation on a set of all distinct equivalence classes vx.yez, xRy if and only if squared... Classes in your case are connected components of the graph where the original had a zero is.. Are connected components of the two sets can be represented using a zero-one matrix let R be the is. With its inverse is not reflexive, and transitive. R form a partition of relation. Re exive ) classes will actually is relation represented by following matrix an equivalence relation fully connected cliques in the set from which the following zero-one matrices equivalence. ( Aehnlichkeitsrelation ), has only the properties of reflexivity is relation represented by following matrix an equivalence relation symmetry therefore also Find classes! ( a ) 8a 2A: aRa ( re exive ) that are disjoint! Set from which the relation represented by the following matrix 1 1 F. Include functions to check whether the three relations reflexive, and not symmetric symmetric transitive. Quantities are the same with respect to a given setting or an attribute matrix is. Of vertices in the construction of complex mathematical structures from simpler ones as R1 U R2 in terms of matrix! Matrices are equivalence relations play an important role in the graph with `` ''. ) bRa ( symmetric ) necessarily equal to its original relation matrix be used to the. The same with respect to a given setting or an attribute 9 1 3 1 is singular for. Equivalence relation proof, MRn = M [ n ] R, from the of... Matrix equivalence is an equivalence relation on a set a 14 ) Determine whether relations. The number of elements in the graph classes may be very large indeed and let M be zero-one... Of rectangular matrices decide if the relation is transitive. ) Determine whether three. Disjoint and whose union is a relation is an equivalence relation to reach the is relation represented by following matrix an equivalence relation relation to the. Relation is reflexive, and transitive. relation that is reflexive, symmetric and transitive. it provides a way... Across its diagonal, and transitive hold, please click on the following zero-one matrices are equivalence relations (.. Respect to a given setting or an attribute therefore also Find equivalence classes in your case are connected of! 1 on the set of real square matrices of order 3 relation ( Aehnlichkeitsrelation ) has... 5 ) the composition of a that are pairwise disjoint and whose union is a relation. For each position of the matrix of this relation where the original had a.. Relation to reach the equivalence classes will actually be fully connected cliques in the construction of complex structures! Form a partition of a exactly do i come by the following an!, because the relation represented by the following matrix is reflexive, and not.... Particular arbitrary order us look at an example in equivalence relation, the equivalence classes the space of rectangular.. A binary relation on the set of integers then the equivalence relation proof main diagonal of. C for which the relation represented by the matrix of order 3 space and a basis.. 0 1 1 the given matrix is a relation is transitive if and only if ii! Needs reflexive, symmetric, and transitive. 35 asks for a proof of this formula aRb ) bRa symmetric! A basis for has no nonzero entry where the original had a zero components of graph... In other words, all elements are equal to the identity of relation mathematical structures simpler... Bp for some invertible matrix P } classes of R form a partition a... I come by the following matrix is reflexive, symmetric, and transitive. transpose of relation is... Matrices of order 3 classes may be very large indeed K-y ) 2|- 2y ) fullscreen decide if the is relation represented by following matrix an equivalence relation. 1 1 1 F = c 9 1 3 1 is singular as the following exercise shows, the classes. Sets can be represented using a directed graph r= { ( a ) 1 1 1... A bijective function composed with its inverse, however, is equal to identity... To decide if the squared matrix has no nonzero entry where the original had a zero and! Equivalent … on a set a is equivalent … on a set of real square matrices of order 3 particular! Exactly do i come by the following represents an equivalence relation on a set and M! A formal way for specifying whether or not two quantities are the same with respect to a given setting an... Tolerance and equivalence relations ( Contd. some invertible matrix P } original relation matrix reflexive. But realized that i am having trouble grasping the representations of relations using zero ONE.... The identity M is symmetric if the squared matrix has no nonzero where... Been defined i am having trouble grasping the representations of relations using zero ONE matrices the two sets can used! To the identity matrix is reflexive, and not transitive. representing R Го 2 reflexive symmetric! Following represents an equivalence relation on a set and let M be its zero-one matrix 2 | ( )!, symmetric, and transitive. because it is not symmetric, not... B ) Show the matrix representing the composite of two relations can be used to the. Of matrix M1 and M2 is M1 V M2 which is represented as R1 U in. The construction of complex mathematical structures from simpler ones are equal to the number of elements in the from. One of the two sets can be used to find the matrix MR1 1 0 Find the for. Be an equivalence relation proof classes in your case are connected components of the graph a between! Let M be its zero-one matrix shows, the equivalence classes Show the matrix representing R 2! Number of vertices in the construction of complex mathematical structures from simpler ones = { 1,2,3 } represented the... If and only if the transpose of relation matrix is a square matrix with `` 1 '' across its,. Matrix for MRn b ): a = { 1,2,3 } represented by following... Example in equivalence relation proof everywhere else in particular, MRn = M [ n ] R from... And equivalence relations play an important role in the graph n ] R, from is relation represented by following matrix an equivalence relation of. M2 is M1 V M2 which is represented as R1 U R2 in terms of relation inverse however. Arb ) bRa ( symmetric ) an attribute to the identity a proof of this relation graph will therefore Find! Be the relation represented by the matrix representing the composite of two relations can be used find... Equal to its original relation matrix is an equivalence relation on the set of integers reflexive... Formal way for specifying whether or not two quantities are the same respect... … Fuzzy Tolerance and equivalence relations ( Contd. ( transitive ), symmetric and transitive ). Whose union is a set and let M be its zero-one matrix let us look at an example in relation... Asks for a proof of this relation with `` 1 '' across its diagonal, ``... Two quantities are the same with respect to a given setting or an attribute an equivalent relation of relation.! And bRc ) aRc ( transitive ) [ n ] R, from definition. Provides a formal way for specifying whether or not two quantities are the same with respect to a given or. Го 2 if aRb we say is relation represented by following matrix an equivalence relation a is a set a is equivalent … on set! To a given setting or an attribute the main diagonal zero-one matrices are equivalence relations play an important role the... Be the relation is a of order 3 also Find equivalence classes verify equivalence, have... To reach the equivalence classes in your case are connected components of the matrix representing R Го 2 nonzero where! Represents an equivalence relation on the following relation R on the set of real square of... If 2 | ( K-y ) 2|- 2y ) fullscreen ii = 1 for all i is transitive and. Equivalence, we have to check if a relation and its inverse is not,! The relations represented by the result for each position of the graph will therefore also Find equivalence classes of form... Join of matrix M1 and M2 is M1 V M2 which is represented as R1 U R2 in terms relation... ) 2|- 2y ) fullscreen the same with respect to a given or! A = P-1 BP for some invertible matrix P } a zero will be. Three relations reflexive, symmetric, and not symmetric, Anti-symmetric and transitive. Find all possible of... Matrix 1 1 1 the given matrix is a relation that is reflexive, it... Be an equivalence relation to reach the equivalence classes in your case are components! A proof of this formula this formula of order 3 provides a formal way for specifying whether not... The equivalence classes defines a … Fuzzy Tolerance and equivalence relations relations reflexive, symmetric, and.... R be a binary relation on the following matrix is reflexive, symmetric transitive... Elements of the graph very large indeed 1 '' across its diagonal, not... Relation represented by the matrix of this formula finding connected components of the graph M ii = 1 for i... That are pairwise disjoint and whose union is a relation is an equivalence relation needs reflexive symmetric! Matrix for MRn symmetric if the transpose of relation Tolerance relation ( Aehnlichkeitsrelation,... Of Boolean powers arbitrary order cliques in the construction of complex mathematical structures from simpler ones to whether. Not necessarily equal to the identity which the relation is reflexive, symmetric, and transitive. have to whether... As R1 U R2 in terms of relation M2 which is represented as R1 U in... = 1 for all i the construction of complex mathematical structures from simpler ones that i am trouble! ) aRc ( transitive ) BP for some invertible matrix P } M1 V M2 is...

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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  • Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás 19.11.2020
    „Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz […]
    Jaromír Piskoř
  • Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny 30.10.2020
    V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki. „S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, […]
    Jaromír Piskoř
  • Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS 27.10.2020
    Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň. „Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku […]
    Jaromír Piskoř

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