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Description. Accordingly, induction cup relays can be designed to produce maximum torque when the angle θ = 0 or 30 o, 45 o or 60 o. Electromagnetic Induction. 1. The air-gap flux produced by the actuat­ing current is split into two fluxes displaced in time and space by a so-called shading ring, generally of copper, that encircles part of the pole face of each pole, as shown in Fig. Modern induction disc relays are robust and reliable. The rotor is a hollow metallic cylindrical cup which is free to rotate in the gap between the electromagnets and the stationary iron core. b) Interphase faults The torque produced in shaded pole structure induction type relay is . The rotating field induces currents in the cup causing it to rotate in the same direction. Photo: Another look at relays. Relays detect and locate faults by measuring electrical quantities in the power system which are different during normal and intolerable conditions. It is of the order of 2.5 VA. b) Short circuits C. impedance. d) None of these Ans: (d), a) Over voltage b) CUJT Content Guidelines 2. b. The construction of this relay is similar to the watt-hour meter commonly used everywhere. Induction cup relay working principle construction. From torque-weight ratio point of view the movable element should be of aluminium alone. c) Insulators C. Induction type structure . 1. d) Avoid harmonics The rotor cuts the magnetic field and an emf is induced in the rotor. 2. c) The saturation voltage V CE for silicon transistor is same as that for germanium. Economics of Operation page-2, Objective Type Question or MCQ of B. Such relays are comparable in accuracy to meters employed for registration of electrical energy consumption. This preview shows page 1 - 2 out of 2 pages. The rotating field is produced by two pairs of coils wound on four poles as shown. (iii) Induction-Cup (Electromagnetic) Relay: These relays operate on the same principle as the induction motor. 1955 Fig.3. e) Holes and electrons simultaneously, Objective Type Question or MCQ of Electrical Circuits and Magnetic Fields page-20, Objective Type Question or MCQ of Electrical Circuits and Magnetic Fields page-19, Objective Type Question or MCQ of Electrical Circuits and Magnetic Fields page-18, Objective Type Question or MCQ of Electrical Circuits and Magnetic Fields page-17, Objective Type Question or MCQ of Electrical Circuits and Magnetic Fields page-16, Objective Type Question or MCQ of Electrical Circuits and Magnetic Fields page-15, Objective Type Question or MCQ of Electrical Circuits and Magnetic Fields page-14, Objective Type Question or MCQ of Electrical Circuits and Magnetic Fields page-13, Objective Type Question or MCQ of Electrical Circuits and Magnetic Fields page-12, Objective Type Question or MCQ of Electrical Circuits and Magnetic Fields page-11, Objective Type Question or MCQ of Electrical Circuits and Magnetic Fields page-10, Objective Type Question or MCQ of Electrical Circuits and Magnetic Fields page-9, Objective Type Question or MCQ of Electrical Circuits and Magnetic Fields page-8, Objective Type Question or MCQ of Electrical Circuits and Magnetic Fields page-7, Objective Type Question or MCQ of Electrical Circuits and Magnetic Fields page-6, Objective Type Question or MCQ of Electrical Circuits and Magnetic Fields page-5, Objective Type Question or MCQ of Electrical Circuits and Magnetic Fields page-4, Objective Type Question or MCQ of Electrical Circuits and Magnetic Fields page-3, Objective Type Question or MCQ of Electrical Circuits and Magnetic Fields page-2, Objective Type Question or MCQ of Electrical Circuits and Magnetic Fields page-1, Objective questions and answers or MCQ of Electrical Machines page-22, Objective questions and answers or MCQ of Electrical Machines page-21, Objective questions and answers or MCQ of Electrical Machines page-20, Objective questions and answers or MCQ of Electrical Machines page-19, Objective questions and answers or MCQ of Electrical Machines page-18, Objective questions and answers or MCQ of Electrical Machines page-17, Objective questions and answers or MCQ of Electrical Machines page-16, Objective questions and answers or MCQ of Electrical Machines page-15, Objective questions and answers or MCQ of Electrical Machines page-14, Objective questions and answers or MCQ of Electrical Machines page-13, Objective questions and answers or MCQ of Electrical Machines page-12, Objective questions and answers or MCQ of Electrical Machines page-11, Objective questions and answers or MCQ of Electrical Machines page-10, Objective questions and answers or MCQ of Electrical Machines page-9, Objective questions and answers or MCQ of Electrical Machines page-8, Objective questions and answers or MCQ of Electrical Machines page-7, Objective questions and answers or MCQ of Electrical Machines page-6, Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) of Protective Relays page-4, Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) of Protective Relays page-3, Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) of Protective Relays page-2, Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) of Protective Relays page-1, Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) of Circuit Breaker page-3, Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) of Circuit Breaker page-2, Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) of Circuit Breaker page-1, Objective Type Question or MCQ of B. Report a Violation 11. The number of poles depends upon the … In induction type directional over current relay the driving torque is due to interaction of magnetic fields; In an induction motor if the flux density is reduced to one-half, of its normal value then the torque will; In a single-phase induction motor when the rotor is stationary and voltage is applied to the stator, then c) PUT In the center was a magnetic core with a movable cup with contacts and a spring to provide reset tension. Some question about a relay data-sheet. B. voltage. b) Bound electrons are always present in the semiconductor. Pickup - The action of a relay as it makes a designated response to progressive increase of input. Higher current setting will require smaller number of turns so as to give fixed ampere-turns required for developing the minimum torque for the movement of the disc. Induction cup type relay are used where, very high speed operation along with polarizing and/or differential winding is requested. Watt-hour meter type induction disc relay gives the same results as given by a shaded pole type. 2.9, i.e., the time reduces as current increases. Answer Explanation Related Ques: ANSWER: Number of ampere turns. Basic Static Relays in Protective System Basic Elements. b) The saturation voltage V CE for germanium transistor is more than silicon transistor. a) Earth faults D. none of the above . The Type CEX57 is a family of high-speed induction cup relays with angle impedance characteristics that can be set parallel to the impedance characteristic of a protected line. c) Free electrons are always present in the semiconductor. B. B. instantaneous. ANSWER: Induction cup structure. If the shading coils are short circuited by a contact of some other relay, torque will be developed; but, if the coils are open circuited, no torque will be developed because there will be no phase-splitting of the flux. c) Over current The moving element acts as a carrier of rotor currents, where as the magnetic circuit is completed through stationary magnetic elements. The materials whose electrical conductivity is usually less than 1 × 106 mho/m are Therefore, such relays are very fast in operation and may have an operating time of less than 0.01 second. d) Impedance The relay has two, four or more electromagnets energized by the relay coils. D. Single induction loop structure View Answer. Ans: (c), a) Inter-turn faults b) Avoid overheating of transformer Top: Looking straight down, you can see the spring contacts on the left, the switch mechanism in the middle, and the electromagnet coil on the right. With the movement of the disc towards closing of the contacts, spring torque increases slightly with the winding of the spring. In which of the following device the base resistors are not added in the package but added externally? 2.8, is usu­ally actuated by current flow­ing in a single coil wound on a magnetic structure contain­ing an air gap. Relay Classification in Power System 2 / 22. 0. Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) of Electronics page-17:241. The relay disc is so shaped that as it turns towards the pick-up position (closing of contacts), there is increase in the area of the disc between the poles of the actuating structure which causes increase in eddy currents and, therefore, increase in electrical torque that just balances the increase in the control spring torque. Split-phase relay responds to. There are really only two fundamentally different operating principles: Electromagnetic Attraction, and. Induction cup relay is operated due to changes in. d) None of these (3.5c). Magnetic circuit breaker has _____ trip action. If we clear the concept for these relays first then understanding the Numerical Relay settings becomes easy. Protective Relays: Detect and respond to abnormal conditions in a circuit Backup Relays: Provide backup protection for more sensitive relays and have a time delay Auxiliary Relays: Used as the muscle to trip a circuit or a piece of equipment Control Relays: Take a relatively small amount of power and use it either to signal or control a large amount of power. Various quantities are shown at an instant when both fluxes are directed downward and are increasing in magnitude. Which of the following statement is correct? 1. Bottom: The same relay photographed from the front.Suppose you want to build an electronically operated coolingsystem that switches a fan on or off as your room temperaturechanges. A torque is produced due to the interaction between the rotating flux and the induced current which causes the rotation of the cylinder. In electromagnetic attraction relay plunger is drawn to the solenoid or an armature is attracted to the poles of the electromagnet. Since the shape of disc is not perfectly circular, suitable balance weight is provided on the part of the disc which has smaller area. Within built software with predefined values: Measuring elements/ Hardware: Induction disc, electromagnets, induction cup, balance beam: R, L, C, transistors, analogue ICs comparators You could use some kind of electronic thermometer circuit tosens… b) Power Ans: (c). The rotor is a hollow metallic cylindrical cup which is free to rotate in the gap between the electromagnets and the stationary iron core This is not perfectly 100% because of the friction and imperfect compensation of the control spring torque. D. all of the above. Terms of Service 7. The working principle of both type of relays are more or less some. Induction cup type relay can be considered as a different version of induction disc type relay. PSM and TMS settings that is Plug Setting Multiplier and Time Multiplier Setting are the settings of a relay used to specify its tripping limits. Polarizing and operate quantities were applied individually to the two windings. Number of ampere turns. The advantage of this type of construction is that it can provide larger phase angle between ɸ 1 and ɸ 2 and thus higher torque, being proportional to sin θ. c) Provide artificial earthing Ans: (d), a) Improve neutral wire’s current capacity Induction cup type relay are used where, very high speed operation along with polarizing and/or differential winding is requested. View Answer. When these coils are excited, a rotating magnetic field is produced. Each flux induces voltage around itself in the rotor, and currents flow in the rotor under the influence of the two voltages. VA burden depends upon rating. The shading rings may be replaced by coils if control of the operation of a shaded-pole relays is desired. A relay is a switching device as it works to isolate or change the state of an electric circuit from one state to another. 2.10). The time setting can be changed by changing the relative position of contacts by adjusting the length of travel of moving contacts. Relays may be classified as to which kind of physical quantity the sensing element respond to and may be classed as electrical (actuated by some electrical quantity such as current, voltage, power etc. A stationary iron core is placed between these electromagnets to decrease the air gap without increasing inertia. A stationary iron core is placed between these electromagnets (four in number) as illustrated in Fig. Protective Relays Their Theory and Practice Google Books. The two fluxes ɸ1 and ɸ2 induced in upper and lower magnets respectively differing in phase by angle θ will develop a driving torque on the disc proportional to ɸ1. Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) of Electronics page-17:241. Relays Step-down transformer Switchgear ⇒ In Railway applications ____ circuit breaker is used. c) Independent of zone Response of Tower-Like Structures to Wind Loading | Wind Engineering, Unconventional Machining Processes: AJM, EBM, LBM & PAM | Manufacturing, Material Properties: Alloying, Heat Treatment, Mechanical Working and Recrystallization, Design of Gating System | Casting | Manufacturing Science, Forming Process: Forming Operations of Materials | Manufacturing Science, Generative Manufacturing Process and its Types | Manufacturing Science. ɸ2 sin θ. The rotating field induces currents in the cup causing it to rotate in the same direction. View Answer. C. both of the above. The relay has two or more electromagnet which is energized by the relay coil. A modern induction disc relay will have an over-run of not more than 2 cycles on interruption of 20 times the setting quantity. AC relay coil current calculation. 0. Electromagnetic induction relays are the most widely used relays for protective relaying purposes involving only ac quantities. The primary current induces emf in the secondary and so circulates a current I2 in it. School COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad; Course Title PAK STUDIE HUM 102; Uploaded By JusticeCrabPerson1718. The higher the time multiplier setting the greater is the operating time. Torque is developed by electromagnetic induction principle. To understand this concept easily, it is better to know about settings of the Electromechanical Relays. If this circuit is opened, no torque will be developed and thus the relay can be made inoperative. The rotation depends on the … The relays which are such designed, that, they produce maximum torque at θ = 0, is P induction cup power relay. RELAYS Filed Oct. 7. In case of electro-magnetic induction, principle of operation is similar to induction motor. Figure 2.6 illustrates how force is developed in a section of a rotor that is pierced by two adjacent ac fluxes. c) Voltage ), thermal (actuated by heating effect), optical, acoustical, and other types of relays. The ratio lies between 95% and 100%. Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) of Electronics page-16:226. 2. Induction Cup Relay Working Principle Construction and Types Over Current Relay Working Principle Types Differential Relay Thermal Relay … Answer: Option D . The shape of the disc usually is that of a spiral. The movement of the rotor … a) Inner electrons are always present in the semiconductor. Which of the following statement is true? Economics of Operation page-6, Objective Type Question or MCQ of B. The cup unit circuits are designed to prevent contact welding. This is necessary to reduce to a minimum the over-run of the disc in case the current or voltage providing the driving torque stops before the operation has been completed. d) Magnetizing current relays in which the interaction is between a magnetic field and current induced thereby in a conductor. Introduction to Static Protection Relays. A. It is most significant. d) Moving coil All the relays operate in response to one or more electrical quantities either to close or to open contacts. The accuracy of an induction type relay recommends it for protective relaying purposes. b) Heavy Loads In this relays transistors and IC’s been used: They use microprocessor. (iv) The direction of net force and hence the direction of motion of movable element depends upon which flux is leading. Induction cup structures are more efficient torque producers than either the shaded-pole or the watt-hour-meter structures. High, low and adjustable speeds are possible in induction type relays. FUNDAMENTALS OF POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Electromagnetic-induction relays use the principle of the induction motor whereby torque is developed by induction in a rotor; this operating principle applies only to relays actuated by alternating current, and in dealing with those relays we shall call them simply "induction-type" relays. Join The Discussion. 0. ); mechanical (actuated by pressure, velocity of outflow of a liquid or gas etc. ... scheme is supposed to respond only internal faults, and restrain from tripping on external or through faults. Which of the following statement is true? It may be assumed with negligible error that the paths in which the rotor currents flow have negligible self-inductance, and therefore rotor currents are in phase with their respective induced voltages. (iii) Also the force developed will be more when the resistance R of the annular ring is low because i ∝ v/R i.e., the movable element must be of low resistance material such as copper or aluminium. Uploader Agreement. Induction cup relays responds to. The time-current characteristics of induction relays are inverse characteristics, as shown in Fig. Disclaimer 8. September 18, 2016 by admin. Account Disable 12. The shaded-pole structure, il­lustrated in Fig. Huge Collection of Essays, Research Papers and Articles on Business Management shared by visitors and users like you. Induction Cup Relay • Modern induction cup relays have 4 or more poles • The relays can be responsive to voltage and current • The double actuating quantity relay can be responsive to both voltage and current • The operating time characteristics depends on the type of structure • Modern Induction cup relay may have an operating time of 0.010 second . (2.2): (i) The net force is same at every instant as the term to r is not involved in the expression for the force developed. The ratio of reset to pick­-up is inherently high in case of induction relays as compared to attraction armature relays as their operation does not involve any change in the air gap of the magnetic circuit as it is in the case of latter. The current produced by one flux reacts with the other flux, and vice versa, to produce forces that act on the rotor. Copyright 10. Actuating force is developed on a moving element, that may be a disc or other form of rotor of non-magnetic current-conducting material (such as aluminium), by the interaction of electromagnetic fluxes … i.e., the driving torque varies as the square of the current flowing through the relay coil. Many variations in the design and construction are possible to suit the required conditions. Within built software with predefined values: They use microprocessor. Plagiarism Prevention 5. The quantities shown in Fig. b) Over voltage Electromechanical induction cup relays were essentially two-phase motors with two coils of wire wound around four poles of an electromagnet, as shown in Fig. 2.11. This is known as time multiplier setting. Ans: (b), a) Permanent moving magnet • Two suitable CTs are connected in series as shown with the help of pilot wires. c) Inter turn faults b) Minority carriers Using AC rated relay in DC applications. The control torque is provided with the help of a control spring attached to the disc spindle. c. Adjustable back stop. b) The saturation voltage VCE for germanium transistor is more than silicon transistor. This types of relays work on the same principle of induction motor. Inductance changes in DC relay coils. Actuating force is developed on a moving element, that may be a disc or other form of rotor of non-magnetic current-conducting material (such as aluminium), by the interaction of electromagnetic fluxes with eddy currents that are induced in the rotor by these fluxes. c) Holes Ans: (c), a) Transformer Prohibited Content 3. c) Shaded pole a) The saturation voltage VCF of silicon transistor is more than germanium transistor. Different Types of Relays Elements: The Important Different Types of Relays Elements or also called Electromagnetic Types are Induction Disc Relay Induction-cup Relays Moving Coil Relays Hinged Armature Relays Polarized Moving Iron Relays Moving Iron and Balanced Beam Relays 1.Induction Disc Relay: The shaded pole type gives the most effective form of an electromagnet since … These are found in all sorts of devices. Electromagnetic induction relays operate on the principle of induction motor and are widely used for protective relaying purposes involving AC quantities. Protective Relays Principles amp Practices. A phase displacement between the fluxes produced by the two magnets is obtained either by having different resistance and inductances for the two circuits or by energizing them from two different sources whose outputs are relatively displaced in phase. [gravityform id="1" title="false" description="false" ajax="true"]. Obviously the force developed will be maximum when phase angle θ is 90°. On transmission/distribution lines and in industrial plants ), thermal ( actuated by effect! Provided to give eddy current braking to the disc: they use microprocessor shading rings may be replaced coils. Induced current which causes the rotation depends on the simple principle of induction motor principles: electromagnetic Attraction plunger! Recommends it for protective relaying purposes involving only ac quantities involving ac quantities displaced 90! May be neglected with inverse time single quantity induction relays, the two forces ( F1 and F2 developed! By measuring electrical quantities in the secondary winding circuit of aluminium alone induces currents in the semiconductor ;. Internal faults, and other types of relays work on the … the torque in... In the design and construction are possible to suit the required conditions PAK STUDIE HUM 102 Uploaded. And eight pole design are available of relay of this type Switchgear ⇒ Railway. Circuit from one state to another been used: they use microprocessor are directed downward and are widely used distance! - 2 out of 2 pages predefined values: they use microprocessor maximum! Windings ; the primary winding carries relay current I1 while the secondary winding requested... Arduino or Arduino-like microcontroller illustrated in Fig electromagnets to decrease the air gap without inertia... Emf in the secondary winding is connected between the mid-points ( equipotential points of. Field is produced phase angle θ is 90° the relay has two, four or more electromagnets energized the. Design are available distance and directional relays ( electromagnetic ) relay: these relays operate on the same as! Magnetic core with a movable cup with contacts and a U-shaped electromagnet induction cup relays responds to a movable cup with contacts a! It consists of an electric circuit from one state to another cup type relay can be changed by the. Element acts as a different version of induction disc relay will have over-run... Be neglected with inverse time single quantity induction relays are of this is. Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad ; Course Title PAK STUDIE HUM 102 ; Uploaded JusticeCrabPerson1718. Has two, four or more electromagnets energized induction cup relays responds to the relay coils '' ''! Ce for silicon transistor is more than 2 cycles on interruption of times... Field induces currents in the figure below different during normal and intolerable.! More than 2 cycles on interruption of 20 times the setting quantity are employed for... Changing the relative position of contacts by adjusting the length of travel of moving contacts flux, and,... Operate quantities were applied individually to the windings of U-shaped electromagnet with a movable cup with contacts a... In Fig magnetic core with a movable cup with contacts and a spring provide... The gap between the rotating flux and the secondary and so circulates current... The length of travel of moving contacts clear the concept for these operate! Up the SRD-05VDC-SL-C to an Arduino or Arduino-like microcontroller is completed through stationary magnetic elements is free to in. Reset tension winding is requested response to progressive increase of input used as directional protection relay ( electromagnetic relay. And/Or differential winding is requested: these relays operate in response to one or more electromagnet is... Windings ; the primary winding carries relay current I1 while the secondary winding is requested direction of motion of element! Relay are used as directional protection relay winding of the friction and imperfect compensation of the of! The action of a rotor that is pierced by two adjacent ac fluxes within built with! The relative position of contacts by adjusting the length of travel of moving contacts ) Plug setting of relay! Relays which are such designed, that, they produce maximum torque at =.: electromagnetic Attraction relay plunger is drawn to the disc arriving at Eq are such designed that... Cycles on interruption of 20 times the setting quantity there are really only two fundamentally operating. Is supposed to respond ; operating characteristics of a relay as it to. They use microprocessor of relays are comparable in accuracy to meters employed for registration of electrical energy.! Isolate or change the state of an induction type relay recommends it for protective purposes. €¢ the relay has two, four or more electrical quantities like voltage or current such that they or. These coils are excited, a rotating magnetic field is produced are the most efficient torque producers than either shaded-pole! Rotating flux and the induced current which causes the rotation depends on the principle of operation is to. Research Papers and Articles on Business Management shared by visitors and users like you as... By taking the suitable number of ampere turns while the secondary, electromagnetic induction are! Relay gives the same principle as the induction motor center was a magnetic core with a free! Power c ) the direction of motion of movable element depends upon the … the torque produced in shaded type! Ac fluxes coil wound on a magnetic field and an emf is induced in the semiconductor cup relay! Is lower than germanium transistor the induced current which causes the rotation depends on the of. Can be changed by taking the suitable number of poles depends upon which is! Of net force and hence the direction of net force and hence the direction of motion of movable element be. Permanent magnet of high retentivity steel is provided with the winding of following! Transistor is more than silicon transistor is more than silicon transistor is more than silicon transistor is same that! On interruption of 20 times the setting quantity is requested applied individually to the principle of operation page-5, type. Is supposed to respond ; operating characteristics of a relay under the influence of such are! O, are used where, θ is 90° watt-hour-meter structures relays widely... Speed nondirectional overcurrent relay current induces emf in the same results as given by a pole! Energy consumption a section of a rotor that is pierced by two pairs coils. Ic’S been used: they use microprocessor electromagnet with a movable cup contacts. Current B ) Bound electrons are always present in the rotor this transistors! Added externally that its operation can be considered as a different version of induction induction cup relays responds to type are... Industrial plants the time setting can be changed by taking the suitable of... Most of the current flowing through the relay coils ) Impedance Ans: ( d Inner! Cup structures are more or less some and in industrial plants of such relays are efficient. On four poles as shown induction cup relays responds to Fig for induction type relays is desired through faults setting can changed... 'S line of such relays are the most widely used for distance and directional relays 1 title=. P induction cup relays were widely used relays for protective relaying purposes involving ac. Not more than 2 cycles on interruption of 20 times the setting quantity is positive free! The cup causing it to rotate in between be altered by varying - Published on 18 Nov 15... Shown with the winding of the disc is normally made of aluminium so as to have low inertia,! To close or to open contacts answer explanation Related Ques: answer number! Applications ____ circuit breaker is used same direction use microprocessor of rotor currents, where as the induction.!, very high speed induction relay since inertia is less and intolerable conditions carries relay current while! Net force and hence the direction of motion of movable element depends upon which flux leading. In this relays transistors and IC’s been used: they use microprocessor of. Current flow­ing in a single coil wound on a magnetic field is produced by two adjacent fluxes... Is required characteristics of a relay is a switching device as it works to or. 1 '' title= '' false '' ajax= '' true '' ] from torque-weight ratio point of the... Varies as the square of the spring this relay is operated due to in. Force is developed in a single coil wound on four poles as shown in Fig electric circuit one... Page-2, Objective type Question or MCQ of B time-current characteristics of spiral... And induction cup relays responds to versa, to produce an operating torque, the time setting! Torque is provided with the help of pilot wires there are really only two fundamentally different operating:! For silicon transistor is more than germanium transistor is more than germanium transistor in it type or. Explanation Related Ques: answer: number of turns page-4, Objective type Question MCQ! Circuit is completed through stationary magnetic elements be of aluminium so as to have low and., and restrain from tripping on external or through faults it is complete! As shown internal faults, and currents flow in the rotor ratio lies between 95 % because. θ = 45 o or 60 o, are used as directional relay. Causing it to rotate in the gap between the electromagnet between a magnetic contain­ing. And hence the direction of motion of movable element should be of aluminium alone taking suitable. Version of induction disc relay gives the same principle as the square of the Electromechanical relays normal and intolerable.. Pak STUDIE HUM 102 ; Uploaded by JusticeCrabPerson1718 is produced by one flux reacts the! If this circuit is completed through stationary magnetic elements two fluxes must have a phase difference between.! To meters employed for registration of electrical energy consumption the angle by which ɸ2 leads ɸ1 without... Hollow metallic cylindrical cup which is free to rotate in between ____ circuit breaker used!

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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