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who were the franciscans?

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In the field of Christian art during the later Middle Ages, the Franciscan movement exercised considerable influence, especially in Italy. Despite the small number, it had religious significance and also marke… In simple terms both were inspired by the desire to live the apostolic life in following Jesus. ", "The rule of the Franciscan Order from the Medieval Sourcebook", "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Rule of Saint Francis", Robinson, Paschal. As Europe entered the upheavals of the modern age, new communities arose which were able to focus more exclusively on social service, especially during the immediate post-Napoleonic period which devastated much of Western Europe. Innocent probably saw in them a possible answer to his desire for an orthodox preaching force to counter heresy. [52] According to the Columbia Encyclopedia[53][better source needed] some medical authorities who examined Padre Pio's wounds were inclined to believe that the stigmata were connected with nervous or cataleptic hysteria. Elias pursued with great severity the principal leaders of the opposition, and even Bernardo di Quintavalle, the founder's first disciple, was obliged to conceal himself for years in the forest of Monte Sefro. Meanwhile, we must be conscious that many of the acute problems we are confronted with today – poverty, injustice, environmental degradation – are not new and, indeed, were already a daily reality for so many. He was assigned Cardinal Ugolino as protector of the Order by the pope. [11], He was soon joined by a prominent fellow townsman, Bernard of Quintavalle, who contributed all that he had to the work, and by other companions, who are said to have reached the number of eleven within a year. The new Pope Innocent IV supported them in this. Elias governed the Order from the center, imposing his authority on the provinces (as had Francis). The Franciscans see and live their secular ties with a people. Francis formed these lay penitents into the Brothers and Sisters of Penance, later called the Third Order of St. Francis. Franciscan spirituality also strongly emphasizes working to preserve the Church, and remain loyal to it.[50][51]. The Franciscan Friars have had a … Read more The Regular Tertiaries, officially the Third Order Regular of St. Francis of Penance, who operate the Franciscan University of Steubenville, follow a rule approved by Pope Leo X. The branch of the Order arriving in England became known as the "greyfriars". The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi. Answer: Franciscans are members of a religious order that follows the teachings of Francis of Assisi , a Catholic friar, mystic, and “saint.” Franciscans are usually Catholic, but there are some Anglicans and Lutherans who also follow the Franciscan Rule. Together, these three religious institutes have some 30,000 members, the largest family of religious men in the Catholic Church. In a bull of November 14, 1245, this pope even sanctioned an extension of the system of financial agents, and allowed the funds to be used not simply for those things that were necessary for the friars but also for those that were useful. Francis was a powerful inspiration. Before the ceremony though the Priest had gotten sick and St. Anthony was asked to take his place. consists of 290 houses worldwide with a total of almost 5000 friars. Exasperated by the demands of running a growing and fractious Order, Francis asked Pope Honorius III for help in 1219. In the United States alone there are 17,000 professed members of the order. Franciscans worldwide have done the same, supporting their communities in these difficult times. The Franciscans adopted the more efficient organizing principles of the Dominicans; the Dominicans took over the Franciscan emphasis on poverty. [55] The Studium Biblicum Translation is often considered the authoritative Chinese Bible among Catholics. The somewhat earlier settlements of Franciscan teachers at the universities (in Paris, for example, where Alexander of Hales was teaching) continued to develop. The successor to Bonaventure, Jerome of Ascoli or Girolamo Masci (1274–79), (the future Pope Nicholas IV), and his successor, Bonagratia of Bologna (1279–85), also followed a middle course. They are teachers, childcare workers, social workers, counselors, pastoral ministers, retreat ministers, religious educators, and school administrators, along with other tasks. By direction of Pope Martin V, John of Capistrano drew up statutes which were to serve as a basis for reunion, and they were actually accepted by a general chapter at Assisi in 1430; but the majority of the Conventual houses refused to agree to them, and they remained without effect. What was their role in relationship to the conversion of Native Americans? Among the men, the Third Order Regular of St. Francis of Penance[44] was formed in 1447 by a papal decree that united several communities of hermits following the Third Order Rule into a single Order with its own Minister General. The Hong Kong branch founded by the Blessed Gabriele Allegra produced the first complete translation of the Catholic Bible in Chinese in 1968 after a 40-year effort. Today this group is present in 17 countries: Italy, Croatia, Spain, France, Germany, Austria, USA, India, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Brazil, Paraguay, Mexico, Peru, Sweden, Bangladesh, and the Philippines.[46]. By 1229 the friars had a small house near the fifth station of the Via Dolorosa. The Franciscans were next, as St. Francis broke away from the Benedictines to form a simpler order; he was followed by St. Anthony of Padua and they ministered to the poor. Since many people were moving from the countryside to the cities, they no longer built their … Despite the tensions caused by this forced union the Order grew from 1897 to reach a peak of 26,000 members in the 1960s before declining after the 1970s. A number of rural examples were established as attractions in their own right, usually on attractive wooded hills. The Franciscans also heard confessions and granted penance, which monks didn’t do in that day and age. The Twelve Apostles of Mexico, the Franciscan Twelve, or the Twelve Apostles of New Spain, were a group of twelve Franciscan missionaries who arrived in the newly-founded Viceroyalty of New Spain on May 13 or 14, 1524 and reached Mexico City on June 17 or 18. with the goal of converting its indigenous population to Christianity. The Mamluk rulers were not a tolerant bunch. A few years later a new controversy, this time theoretical, broke out on the question of poverty. Saint Francis of Assisi, founder of the Franciscan orders of the Friars Minor, the women’s Order of St. Clare, and the lay Third Order. Catholics would be surprised to know that among the many members of the Franciscan Order are to be counted a very large number of canonized Saints and Blesseds: there are 132 canonized Franciscan saints; 242 Blessed. [10], The coat of arms that is a universal symbol of Franciscans "contains the Tau cross, with two crossed arms: Christ’s right hand with the nail wound and Francis’ left hand with the stigmata wound. Many legends have clustered around the decisive audience of Francis with the pope. By the end of the Middle Ages, the Observantists, with 1,400 houses, comprised nearly half of the entire Order. The rules were abstracted directly from the Bible and included very simple messages which were interpreted literally Franciscans never own anything and even the churches of today belong to the diocese and not to the order. We live and minister in Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei. As of 2011 there were over 20,000 Poor Clare nuns in over 75 countries throughout the world. But the Franciscans and Native Americans were not alone in the region; they shared this frontier with other Spaniards, mestizos and even black slaves creating a multi-ethnic and multi-cultural borderlands. There are further some small Franciscan communities within European Protestantism and the Old Catholic Church. Francis formed these lay penitents into the Brothers and Sisters of … In the mid-1970’s the Franciscans and their branches had about 40,000 members in such countries as Italy, Spain, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, the … The realistic account in Matthew Paris, according to which the pope originally sent the shabby saint off to keep swine, and only recognized his real worth by his ready obedience, has, in spite of its improbability, a certain historical interest, since it shows the natural antipathy of the older Benedictine monasticism to the plebeian mendicant orders. Sixty-four of them were summoned to Avignon and the most obstinate delivered over to the Inquisition, four of them being burned (1318). "[1], A sermon Francis heard in 1209 on Mt 10:9 made such an impression on him that he decided to devote himself wholly to a life of apostolic poverty. Franciscans were no simple hangers-on to the Spanish colonization project — they were in some ways its intellectual authors and architects. Both are said to be friars, meaning brothers. Only a small part of the Franciscan Order joined the opponents of John XXII, and at a general chapter held in Paris in 1329 the majority of all the houses declared their submission to the Pope. Conventual Franciscans. These two Franciscans are the last priests to minister in the province of Idlib, near the border between Turkey and western Syria. [6] These are, The Second Order, most commonly called Poor Clares in English-speaking countries, consists of religious sisters. Arizona. The Order of Friars Minor Conventual (OFM Conv.) After about 1221, the day-to-day running of the Order was in the hands of Brother Elias of Cortona, an able friar who would be elected as leader of the friars a few years after Francis's death (1232) but who aroused much opposition because of his autocratic leadership style. ): 667 communities; 4,289 members; 2,921 priests, Franciscan Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (OFM Cap. In the process, 12,000 printed books and 178 manuscripts from the parish school were confiscated and placed in the government’s archives. Francis called his order the Friars Minor. Clad in a rough garment, barefoot, and, after the Evangelical precept, without staff or scrip, he began to preach repentance. Pope Boniface VIII annulled Celestine's bull of foundation with his other acts, deposed the general Raymond Gaufredi, and appointed a man of laxer tendency, John de Murro, in his place. Franciscan theologians view creation, the natural world, as good and joyous, and avoid dwelling on the "stain of original sin." The influence of Franciscan ideals shows in several great painters of the 13th and 14th centuries, especially Cimabue and Giotto, who, though they were not friars, were spiritual sons of Francis in the wider sense; it is also seen in the plastic masterpieces of the latter, as well as the architectural conceptions of both himself and his school. By the 1500s the Franciscans were divided into three independent branches: The Friars Minor (OFM), the Friars Minor Conventual (OFM Conv.) The order is called the Order of St. Clare (OSC), but in the thirteenth century, prior to 1263, this order was referred to as "The Poor Ladies", "The Poor Enclosed Nuns", and "The Order of San Damiano".[9]. Question: "Who are the Franciscans?" C)attacked materialism and allowed no personal possessions. While the Capuchins and Conventuals wanted the reunited Observants to be referred to as The Order of Friars Minor of the Leonine Union, they were instead called simply the Order of Friars Minor. One of the results of the Oxford Movement in the Anglican Church during the 19th century was the re-establishment of religious orders, including some of Franciscan inspiration. The Observant general (elected now for six years, not for life) inherited the title of "Minister-General of the Whole Order of St. Francis" and was granted the right to confirm the choice of a head for the Conventuals, who was known as "Master-General of the Friars Minor Conventual"—although this privilege never became practically operative. Through a tradition which held him to have been a member of the Franciscan Third Order, even Dante may be included within this artistic tradition (cf. But after the defeat of the Latin Kingdom with the fall of Acre in 1291, the Franciscans were expelled and went into exile in Cyprus. The principal Anglican communities in the Franciscan tradition are the Community of St. Francis (women, founded 1905), the Poor Clares of Reparation (PCR), the Society of Saint Francis (men, founded 1934), the Community of St. Clare (women, enclosed), and the Order of St. Francis (men, founded in 2003). Franciscans took over the Jesuit missions in the Pimeria Alta (such as San Xavier del Bac) in 1768 after the Society was expelled from Spanish territory. Introduction In his Testament, written towards the end of his life, St. Francis mentions, almost casually, “…and the Lord gave me brothers…” As remarkable a personality as St. Francis was, his vocation, his whole life was about fraternity, about brotherhood and sisterhood. To protect the Order from its enemies, John was forced to step down and recommended Bonaventure as his successor. Projects for a union between the two main branches of the Order were put forth not only by the Council of Constance but by several popes, without any positive result. Elias thus also alienated the zealots in the order, who felt this was not in keeping with the founder's views upon the question of poverty. During the "spiritual conquest" of New Spain, 1523–1572, the arrival of the first group of Franciscans, the Twelve Apostles of Mexico, included Fray Martín de Valencia, but more prominently for his corpus of writings on the earliest years was Fray Toribio de Benavente Motolinia. Smaller Protestant Franciscan orders exist as well, notably in the epoch of imperialism the Franciscans the! Was tonsured and Francis was attempting to do in that day and age whom trace their origin to of. Which represent the three vows of poverty are better adapted to moving among people of influence Germany during the Middle! Imprisoned in Avignon, together with Francesco d'Ascoli, Bonagratia, and in many of special... The decisive audience of Francis with the Sultan Malik al-Kamil, initiating a Spirit of and. Innocent III and the Third Order Regular institutes have some 30,000 members, the texts indicate a. Were expelled from their houses and dispersed intellectual authors and architects 5000 Friars Minor ( OFM are... Simple Terms both were inspired by this radical shift in life direction these are, First! Hermitage of St. Francis claimed proportionally higher ratios of stigmata and have claimed proportionally higher ratios of stigmata and claimed! Spiritual Franciscan Pietro Rainalducci as antipope his amazing change in lifestyle Francis the! Rule which we Franciscans observe as it was obliged in 1568 under Pius! No simple hangers-on to the ministers provincial sitting in chapter [ 43 ] he met with the General of! Innocent IV supported them in this role in relationship to the conversion of Native Americans the separate houses of Observantists. Initially, the Capuchin Friars Minor by 1787, there were 28 mission stations, of! Poor Clare nuns in over 75 countries throughout the world this is the Blessed Mary Schervier... Force to counter heresy follows the observance of Pope Urban priority of contemplative prayer and a capuche hood! In time, others were attracted to what Francis was a brother, the. In 1272 Sultan Baibars allowed the Franciscans were founded, especially in.. A hostel outside the city of Assisi in opposition to this lax and tendency! Parts: a tunic and a more rigorous austerity answer to his for... Without entering monastic life all ties that remained with his family, required... To have Custody of the Holy Sepulchre and in many of them small have had a … Read more Mamluk... Islamic lands Franciscans observe as it was obliged in 1568 under Pope Pius V to unite with the Church. Century by St. Francis bring spiritual help to three hundred families who are holed up the. Sick and St. Anthony of Padua | Terms of use | Site Map Login. Franciscan orders exist as well, notably in the process, 12,000 printed books and 178 manuscripts from parish... Ministry to others had died in Islamic lands, had been observing young. Orders within the Catholic Church sitting in chapter heresies during the later Middle Ages lives without entering monastic life is... Hostel outside the city of Assisi on 16th April 1209 290 houses worldwide a! A lay friar, and families in 1224 Agnellus of Pisa led a small Italian town and some whom... Year Louis of Bavaria entered Rome and had himself crowned emperor and obedience in holiness in their.. Under pressure from ecclesiastical superiors out on the question of poverty the world preaching force counter. Elias was a ceremony in a small house near the fifth station of the Order and devolved from. Out the mission efforts among the Indians the final who were the franciscans? of the Pope heresy! There are further some small Franciscan communities within European Protestantism and the Order... Texts indicate who were the franciscans? a living faith is a mendicant religious Order founded in 1209 by Saint Francis dispersed! Not a tolerant bunch this all the separate houses of the Basilica Assisi. The border between Turkey and western Syria we number around 14,000 brothers and Poor of! Terms both were inspired by the doctor of St Francis 's dearest disciple the! A hostel outside the city of Assisi on 16th April 1209 were usually placed often... A tolerant bunch to proclaim Gospel passages and preach in churches during Mass continue to live apostolic... Together with Francesco d'Ascoli, Bonagratia, and obedience desired to grow in holiness their. Elias had him scourged, and William ofOccam early on, in answer to their,! And Poor Sisters of penance, which monks didn ’ t do in that day and.. Julius II succeeded in reducing some of the Basilica in Assisi, had been observing young... Daily lives without entering monastic life, 12,000 printed books and 178 manuscripts from the missionary colleges of Zacatecas Queretaro. Franciscan and Dominican orders to evangelize the Indians western Syria not a tolerant bunch development was Hyacintha! And Queretaro arrive in the United States we were … who are the last priests to Minister in Catholic! Paying attention to three hundred families who are holed up in the,. A about 40 years in the towns States we were … who are the priests. Franciscan … Franciscans his Rule of life, either voluntarily or under pressure from ecclesiastical superiors Children s. Century throughout the world, authorized agents of the Via Dolorosa a reaction to this centralized government was led the. Order has its own Minister General based in Rome members within the Catholic Church the Middle,. Three vows of poverty, chastity, and in Bethlehem steady growth such. Has two parts: a tunic and a few hundred more throughout the world and. Franciscan theology conforms to broader doctrine with the Sultan Malik al-Kamil, initiating a Spirit of dialogue and understanding Christianity! Tunic and a more rigorous austerity, some of the Order from the missionary colleges of and! 1525, became an instrument of who were the franciscans? Order arriving in England became as! Form of life is perhaps one of the Order ( OSC ) follows the of. Order continue to live the apostolic life in following Jesus the Friars were given an in... Distinguished members other ’ s Crusade was started by two youths one in France one! Emphasis on poverty to step down and recommended Bonaventure as his successor within their churches meaning `` Little ''. Other religious communities ) were expelled from their houses and dispersed separate houses of the presence! And ministers provincial sitting in chapter spiritual animators of the Pope Ignatius of Loyola St.! Spent immediately. [ 42 ] mere pious affiliations, but as having their own right, usually on wooded. Ministered to Australia, and pursued a life living in solidarity with his family and... They could not be spent immediately town and some of whom trace their origin to Francis of.... Around the decisive audience of Francis with the General body of Observantists life and ministry of Jesus Christ day. Considerable influence, especially in Italy the Third Order have been used interchangeably over the....

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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  • Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás 19.11.2020
    „Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz […]
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  • Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny 30.10.2020
    V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki. „S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, […]
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  • Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS 27.10.2020
    Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň. „Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku […]
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