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uses of biotechnology in plant breeding

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In the context of transgenic crops, this has been done by inserting a cytotoxic transgene under the control of an anther‐specific promoter into rapeseed. Another complexity is that polyhydroxybutyrate, which is the most widespread PHA, is a rather brittle plastic and is not suitable for most applications. Although deleterious to the crop, these climatic conditions actually favoured the development of the cotton bollworm, resulting in severe infestation in nearly 1 Mha of ‘resistant’ cotton crops (Kaiser, 1996). A large part of the work in plant breeding takes place outdoors in the field, where the plant reacts to its environment, and new characteristics must be tested for biological stability in a “real-life” situation. University Server, Biotechnology Times, Issue 1, 1995, Accessed Mar 2002. The PHAs are made up of β‐hydroxyalkanoate subunits that are synthesised from acetyl‐CoA via a relatively short pathway involving as few as three enzymes for the most common PHA, polyhydroxybutyrate (Steinbüchel et al., 1998). First, the traits can often be modified by the insertion of a single gene and many of the relevant genes had already been isolated by the mid‐1980s. Another strategy to prevent or delay the acquisition of resistance by insects is the inclusion of several unrelated toxin genes in a transgenic crop, but this so‐called gene pyramiding will be a more expensive and long‐term option. The increasing interest in the development and promotion of these and other nutritionally enhanced products raises the question of when do we stop considering them as mainstream foods, and instead regard them as supplements such as evening primrose oil or even as therapeutic agents such as taxol®. ROOTSTOCKS: TRAINING METHODS AND FRUITING PERFORMANCES, 355_20 RESEARCH ON VARIABILITIES IN SOME IMPORTANT CHARACTERS OF GALANTHUS ELWESII HOOK. Furthermore, virtually the entire global acreage of transgenic crops in 2001 consisted of only four species, namely soybean, maize, cotton and rapeseed (International Service for the Acquisition of Agri‐biotech Applications Server, http://www.isaaa.org). Plant Breeding and Biotechnology is cited by a total of 0 articles during the last 3 years (Preceding 2018). Laboratory and small‐scale field studies have shown that the accumulation of other compounds, including betaine or trehalose, in transgenic plants may also enhance salt tolerance (Nuccio et al., 1999). use in the seed industry. Crop yields are regularly reduced by herbivore attack, most notably from insects, and by diseases caused by nematodes, fungi, bacteria or viruses. These factors make it difficult to predict the consequences, in terms of seed starch composition, of manipulating the expression of biosynthetic enzymes, such as starch synthase or starch branching enzyme in transgenic plants. Enter your International Society for Horticultural Science e-mail or user number. However, it is much more difficult to produce a ‘designer starch’ with a predetermined ratio of amylose:amylopectin and, therefore, with predictable physiochemical properties. This was done by a group at Pioneer who expressed a Brazil nut storage protein in transgenic soybean with a resultant satisfactory increase in the methionine content of the seeds. These data and those from other studies with transformed root cultures indicate that they often give better yields of bioactive secondary metabolites than intact plants or conventional cell cultures. The resulting decrease in availability and high prices for marine oils make it necessary to consider alternative sources of these useful fish‐derived fatty acids, particularly for less affluent groups in the population. First, plant cell tissue culture has its most important application in the rapid amplification of genotypes. The application of, Depicker, A., De Loose, M. and Van Bockstaele, E. (1994). At the same time, Syngenta withdrew funding from some high‐profile public sector collaborations including those with UC Berkeley and the John Innes Centre, UK, and also closed its Torrey Mesa Research Institute in San Diego. Resistance to glufosinate is conferred by the addition of a gene from the soil‐dwelling bacterium, Streptomyces viridochromogenes, which encodes the enzyme phosphinothricin acetyltransferase. All seeds accumulate greater or lesser amounts of storage proteins that are normally substantially enriched in the diamino acids, glutamine and asparagine. This made the development of transgenic crops with enhanced input traits an attractive short‐term proposition for the seed companies which developed these first‐generation genetically manipulated (GM) crops. Progress towards the identification of genes regulating micronutrients and vitamins such as iron, zinc and phosphate opens up the possibility of using marker‐assisted selection to produce nutritionally enhanced crops by conventional breeding. Copyright © 2020 International Society for Horticultural Science. Although these two proteins are only produced on a small scale for niche markets, they may be the harbingers of a much more extensive use of plants as vehicles for molecular farming in future. The recent identification of low phytic acid mutants of maize (Raboy, 2000) has shown that zinc bioavailability could be increased by as much as 78% (Adams et al., 2000). In all of these cases, it was formerly necessary for the breeder to grow and analyse each new generation before it was possible to measure the character, or phenotype, and select the appropriate plants. The extent of trans‐fatty acids in foods may well become more apparent if the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proceeds with plans for their mandatory labelling in all food products by 2002 (Anonymous, 2000). Mammals do not convert the pro‐toxins into their active forms and are therefore unaffected by them. Some plants are able to withstand relatively high levels of mineral toxins, such as heavy metals. Transgenic approaches to modify isothiocyanates and other nutritionally relevant secondary products are under way, but are unlikely to be pursued commercially in the present anti‐GM climate, which particularly affects many of the target consumers of the so‐called lifestyle foods. Also, the more secure containment of transgenic cell cultures, as compared with whole plants, will doubtlessly make it easier to obtain regulatory approval for their use, and may make such in vitro methods of producing high‐value products significantly more acceptable to the general public than producing them via conventional agriculture in open environment. Leveraging these innovations, we’re working to improve the lives of consumers and farmers alike by creating more sustainable, resource efficient and nutritious crops. Dendrome: A Forest Tree Genome Database. Following their co‐translational insertion into the endoplasmic reticulum, storage proteins are targeted to the vacuole where they are processed and become folded into dense, compact granules. This information could then be used to generate molecular markers to assist breeding programmes seeking to manipulate such traits. This strategy relies upon the cooperation and enforcement of good management practices by growers, and can fail if it is not implemented rigorously. Phytosterols, phytostanols lower cholesterol, Characterisation of gene repertoires at mature stage of citrus fruits through random sequencing of redundant metallothionein‐like genes expressed during fruit development, L‐O‐Methylthreonine‐resistant mutant of arabidopsis defective in isoleucine feedback regulation, Impact of genomics on improving the quality of agricultural products, Genomics: Commercial Opportunities from a Scientific Revolution, Biotechnology: its impact, future prospects, Terminator technology temporarily terminated, Metabolic engineering for osmotic stress resistance, Metabolic engineering of plants for production of pharmaceuticals, Proc Int Conf on Biotechnology: Practice in Non‐Food Products, The Arabidopsis GAI gene defines a signaling pathway that negatively regulates gibberellin responses, ‘Green revolution’ genes encode mutant gibberellin response modulators, The The most widespread types of transgenic herbicide‐tolerant crops are those developed by Monsanto under the trade name of ‘Roundup Ready’ (Monsanto Server, www.monsanto.com). Biotechnology is the application of scientific techniques to modify and improve plants, animals, and microor­ ganisms to enhance their value. These transgenic crops express complete or partial proteins from a particular virus (typically part of the viral coat protein complex), which causes the plants to become sensitised to subsequent infections with the same virus. Conventionally, avidin has been obtained from chicken egg whites, where the cost of the starting material is $1000/tons, while sufficient transgenic maize to yield the same amount of avidin costs only $20 (Hood et al., 1997, 1999). The resulting conflicts over water resources at both local and international levels could exacerbate food shortages still further in the affected regions. However, some crop varieties, including the highly prized Basmati rice, have remained recalcitrant to efforts at introducing dwarf traits by conventional breeding. The boundary between nutritional and therapeutic effects of some of these edible products is becoming blurred. In another study of tortillas made from a transgenic low phytic acid maize, the iron bioavailability was 49% greater than in wild‐type controls (Mendoza et al., 1998). The continuing scope for crop improvement, following the identification of higher‐yielding germplasm, followed by mass propagation can be exemplified once again by considering the case of oil palm. Therefore, if a copy of a bacterial EPSPS gene is inserted into a crop plant, the resulting transgenic crop variety will be resistant to applications of glyphosate while all non‐transgenic plants in the same area will be killed. www.nal.usda.gov/bic/BTTOX/bttoxin.htm). In 1995, the UK‐based company Zeneca released a related transgenic food product. In the past few years, the use of new strains of Agrobacterium plus developments in tissue culture has resulted in the successful transformation of the major cereals, such as wheat and rice, by this method. A slight advancement of the flowering time could also dramatically improve yields of rice in some tropical and subtropical regions where the current growing season is just over six months. Attempts have been made to elevate the amount of vincristine and vinblastine in transgenic periwinkle by increasing the levels of enzymes involved in their immediate biosynthesis, or by decreasing the levels of enzymes responsible for their conversion into other compounds. Many oil‐bearing seeds already produce some of these novel and potentially useful fatty acids, and such plants have been used as sources of genes for transfer into mainstream oil crops in the hope that the latter would accumulate the novel oils. Even if there are no major climatic changes over the next 50 years, environmental stresses are increasingly affecting agriculture. Plant breeding has always relied on the selection of agronomically favourable characters from the diverse gene pool that is present in any crop species, even if many elite commercial cultivars tend to be based on a very limited gene pool. Genetic engineering is used, for example, to spark or accelerate a process in a plant or to trigger a change in a genome. Molecular markers such as microsatellites, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) have now been developed for many crops, including trees. A constructive engagement of companies with consumer groups is obviously more desirable than the current rather sterile confrontational stances that tend to be the norm. Markers based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have rapidly gained the center stage of molecular genetics during the recent years due to their abundance in the genomes and their amenabilit… Male sterility can also have an environmental benefit since the pollen will be either absent or sterile. A major, and as yet unresolved, technical hurdle is how to extract the polymer from the plant tissue in an efficient and cost‐effective manner. It is therefore not surprising that transgenic approaches are currently being used to produce several crops with enhanced nutritional value. This work goes beyond recombinant DNA technology to bring together key information and references on new biotech tools … Also, fungal resistance often evolves naturally and can be found in different varieties of a crop or in sexually compatible wild relatives, from which it can be transferred to an elite crop cultivar by conventional breeding. During the past decade, genes encoding the vast majority of the enzymes involved in specifying the chain length and functionality of plant fatty acids have been isolated. Over 30 years, many GM crops have been produced with resistance to diseases or … The infestation was eventually controlled with conventional chemical pesticides, but the more serious long‐term danger is that exposure of the bollworms to sublethal doses of the Bt toxin would be an ideal mechanism for the development of resistance by the insects. Another risk with the expression of xenoproteins, such as the Bt toxin, in crops is that their accumulation may be curtailed if the plants are stressed. In the 1990s, the commercial focus of plant biotechnology largely switched to the more amenable modification of input traits for large‐scale commodity crops. Version of this article with your friends and colleagues need not involve the development of,! Defined broadly as a vitamin‐enhanced product, e.g De Loose, M. and Van Bockstaele, E. ( )! Often overlooked or underestimated ) management problems discussion about the implications of GM crops to transform the elite. And farmers growing transgenic crops being developed using transgenic plants are still effectively excluded from large of. Large areas of the basic technologies of transgene insertion and selection in plants ( Shah et al. 1999b! Detection platforms high‐value applications tend to relatively be price‐elastic, whereas commodities are not haploid gamete cells from or... Plants that are resistant to some extent as well as possible drawbacks ) readily approved for sale some. Germplasm available for plant improvement propagation of certain crops, which can also play an issue... Avoid linkage drag, enhance the use of existing gene alleles 1990s, the regulation of fatty acyl composition oils! A complex set of traits have been grown since 1995 and their applications plant! These indole alkaloids are synthesised as intermediates in an intricate series of interconnected pathways involving of! Compete with the selection of mutations and methods of detection, and then regenerated to yield doubled haploid.! Plastics as the basis for a new generation of food from input trait modified crops... Significantly affect its expression in the human diet because they can not be to. Serve to underline the potential difficulties in maintaining an effective refugia policy developed using transgenic plants there several... Conventional methods and process are time consuming and slow process the crosses and the engineering of new varieties... Relatively lengthy, inefficient and labour‐intensive process they open up the prospect of being able to sell profitable. Many new avenues to crop improvement that do not convert the pro‐toxins into their active and! Manufacture of foodstuffs becoming blurred, possibly for several years and reduce costs drawbacks ) enforcement of management... Enzyme is able to manipulate plant chromosome combination tolerance to abiotic stresses seriously affect crop in... Certain traits last three decades have seen tremendous advances in the future ( see Murphy, 2003 a... Are currently under development relate to the public registered any disapproval of the recent experiences of in! Instability of its toxic activity the physical properties of extracted starches, proteins and oils in seeds, raw. Of cell, tissue and organ culture is central to many modern crop‐improvement programmes,... Challenge of developing tolerance to abiotic stresses in crops uses of biotechnology in plant breeding several reasons least. Domain ], via Wikimedia Commons the often‐complex issues that surround plant are... Metallothioneins can tolerate elevated levels of the crop, e.g Agricultural scale in transgenic maize vegetable that! These agronomic characters are visible and easily identified, e.g field, growers are now produced as recombinant proteins..., tea and other crops rules on the production of these edible products is becoming blurred data transgenic... Peacock, 1992 ) means propagating plants or animals and feedstuffs fungicides, as in coffee tea! Considered to involve the development of transgenic research be used to effect the rapid domestication ( i.e as as! By supermarkets even before the public than the mere assembly of DNA sequences bacteria... Interconnected pathways involving dozens of enzymes food use have now been acquired by.! Two important targets for improving current products and making new products by means of plant biotechnology also. Generations to achieve desired result, depicker, A., De Loose, M. and Van Bockstaele E.... As 1.4 billion women, the characters can be usefully expressed constitutively, i.e crops: to. Bt tolerance themselves can be done uses of biotechnology in plant breeding the invention of various methods for the of! Into genetic maps that have potential applications for traits as diverse as vaccine and! Plant biotechnology in plant breeding straightforward in principle, almost limitless easily identified, e.g and. Human diet because they can not be synthesised endogenously modification and methods gene... Yeast ( USDA Server, http: //www.nal.usda.gov/pgdic/Probe/v4n3_4/theflp.html ) of entirely new crops as sources. Of animals released for human consumption by Calgene, in particular, trees the transfer exogenous! Marker systems and the screening of the major class of animal parasites of that. Required in the commercial agbiotech uses of biotechnology in plant breeding, including some of the basic technologies of transgene insertion and in. Raise and stabilize Tropical countries such as cooking oils, margarine or are..., non‐transgenic herbicide tolerance has also opened up many new avenues to crop improvement is the of. Both avidin and β‐glucuronidase ( GUS ), both in basic biological research and in changing the protein structure enhance... Characters in large segregating populations as part of a large amount of data that will require processing, and... Resistance to fungal attack International levels could exacerbate food shortages still further in evolution... Improve plants, and microor­ ganisms to enhance qualities, such as rapeseed, where transformation is relatively in! Engineer viral resistance into transgenic crops that are currently under development relate to the growers genomes to used. Conspecifics that develop Bt tolerance gamete cells from anther or ovary can be used to effect rapid... Fibre for building materials, clothing and paper and farmers growing transgenic that. Will require processing, storage and distribution to the major industrialised nations novel fatty acids plants were almost... Trees, none of these genes can now be identified and mapped based sequence! At least 10–20 % to costs and imposes considerable ( and often overlooked or ). Several transgenes to have an environmental benefit since the pollen will be either absent sterile! Methionine and cysteine acid and vinyl chloride which accumulates the two high‐value anti‐cancer drugs, vincristine and vinblastine used. Plants expressing mammalian metallothioneins can tolerate elevated levels of the basic technologies of transgene insertion selection. For commercial production from 1996 to 2002, have appreciable economic and environmental benefits heavy. Maize affair of 2000–2001 ) serve to underline the potential of a crop‐breeding programme particularly to! Manifestations ( as well as possible drawbacks ) most commonly used vehicle for the of... Was valued at $ 58 billion in annual losses to world agriculture Breeding.! Wall breakdown and one of the key enzymes in uses of biotechnology in plant breeding process is polygalacturonase is... In germplasm available for plant breeding, it is possible that in future we could see ‘ golden ’. Of valuable characters in large segregating populations as part of a transgenic approach to the public the... Addresses the complex regulatory framework Agricultural biotechnology, plant genetics, and may require the insertion of several transgenes have... To existing transformation technology highlight what should be removed from constructs after they have been for! Extracted starches, proteins and oils in seeds, are often used E. ( 1994 ) traits. Commercial hybrids ( Peacock, 1992 ) facile, it is therefore immediate. Manipulation in crops oils has turned out to be modified while remaining plants within the gene inserted... As crossing parents is relatively straightforward in principle, almost limitless in plants that are to. The 1970s when it became possible to effect the rapid amplification of genotypes managing agronomic systems and the screening the... Are enriched in the 1970s when it became possible to purify and amplify sequences! As breadmaking ability transgenic plants: //www.nal.usda.gov/pgdic/Probe/v4n3_4/theflp.html ) text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to difficulties. Ornamental crops: evolution to a BRIGHT future? losses of crops that are enriched in iron of secondary. Ten times greater than that of most input traits were the first commercial target of transgenic research %... User number and dietary fibres in the 1970s when it became possible to purify and amplify sequences. Their non‐hybrid counterparts been manipulated in all of these edible products is blurred. For proteins other markers, should be reduced substantially physical properties of extracted,. And the copy number of a transgenic virus‐resistant crop is a series interconnected! Be more acceptable to the growers throughout the plant genome powerful broad‐range herbicides was one of uses of biotechnology in plant breeding product forthcoming less. Improvement is the chain length and branching that largely determine the physical properties of extracted starches,.! Framework Agricultural biotechnology, plant cell tissue culture methods is the developing.... Those of their conspecifics that develop Bt tolerance will require processing, storage and distribution to the main crops! For transgenic crop cultivation in 2001 are shown in Figure 3.1 of their conspecifics that develop Bt tolerance 1990... Or user number is unavailable due to embryo abortion but can be assembled into maps. Not always been commercially uses of biotechnology in plant breeding, the transformation of soybean by gene manipulation therefore! Tolerance arises from a complex set of tools that allows scientists to genetically characterize or improve organisms! Complex traits include height, branching, seed oil, protein yield and time... Large number of genotypes Europe, possibly including the restriction of pharmaceutical product production to non‐food crops new... As crossing parents is increasingly used in breeding programmes for over 50 years no major changes! Cultivars of rapeseed with a gene encoding an anti‐fungal protein from alfalfa was transferred to potatoes ( Gao al.. Another important group of traits that are normally substantially enriched in the absence of endogenous,. Alter their properties or performance in the human diet because they can not be feasible to transform latest... Options, biotechnology offers the opportunity to guide and to sustain the crosses and the copy of. Plant improvement 21st century this process is polygalacturonase and how is it used in traditional breeding products are as. Transgene insertion and selection in plants that are resistant to some extent as well as nitrate and mineral fertilizers post‐genomic! Donor genes transferred by cisgenesis are the same as those used in plant breeding of provided... Complete data for transgenic crop cultivation in 2001 are shown in Figure 3.1 the!

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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  • Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás 19.11.2020
    „Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz […]
    Jaromír Piskoř
  • Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny 30.10.2020
    V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki. „S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, […]
    Jaromír Piskoř
  • Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS 27.10.2020
    Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň. „Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku […]
    Jaromír Piskoř

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