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Some signals are single-ended, and a true differential converter can be used in this situation as well. This instrument converts one type of electrical or mechanical signal (input-signal) into another (output-signal). When a digital display is not required, a Load Cell Central signal conditioner is just the thing for your system. The system depends on knowing the temperature of one of the thermocouple junctions - the cold junction. This means that signal conditioners are used in all types of industries, including the food and pharmaceutical industry. Signal Conditioners: Helping to Provide Precise Measurements. Personnel and equipment are protected from dangerous high voltages. You can prevent this type of damage by providing isolation between inputs. They are commonly used when measuring, for example, vibration. An open cold-junction measuring box connected to data acquisition hardware. Discover other useful features of signal conditioners. For example, thermocouples produce very low-voltage signals, which require linearization, amplification, and filtering, while … These generally have a sharper cut-off than the normal low-pass filter used to condition a signal. Signal conditioning is the technique of making a signal from a sensor or transducer suitable for processing by data acquisition equipment. Signal conditioners ensure the potential equalization within the channel. It is also used in power electronics when it scales back signal in order for it to be at an acceptable level for a microprocessor. A 4-20 mA or 0-20 mA signal, on the other hand, offers increased immunity to both electrical interference and signal loss over long cable runs. This makes it difficult to input the data directly into control circuits. This reference design can help increase the effective resolution of the analog-to-digital conversion, improving motor drive efficiency. In case of system failure the other signal remains available. They consist of two dissimilar metals joined together, making a continuous circuit. In case of failure, high AC voltages or voltage pulses can enter the measuring circuit. Signal conditioners double input signals. A power conditioner is a device intended to improve the quality of the power that is delivered to electrical load equipment. When connected to a normal amplifier, the currents drawn from the transducer can seriously distort the input signal. This method is referred Features . Proper signal conditioning improves noise immunity on critical current measurements in motor drives. Signal conditioners protect personnel and equipment from dangerous voltages. Signal conditioning needs vary widely in functionality depending on your sensor, so no instrument can provide all types of conditioning for all sensors. Certain types of transducer have a very high output impedance and are not able to supply enough current to use a normal voltage input. Signal conditioners amplify output signals by increasing the voltage, thus increasing the measurement resolution and sensitivity. Windmill systems automatically compensate for the cold-junction temperature in software. Linearisation is sometimes achieved using signal conditioning. A low-pass filter that's used to prevent higher frequencies, in either the signal or noise, from introducing distortion into the digitised signal is known as an anti-aliasing filter. Signal conditioners prevent the passage of high voltages into the control-side loop by galvanic isolation. The DRN and DRX Series of Signal Conditioners mount on a DIN rail and accommodate thermocouple, RTD, strain, frequency, pulse, AC voltage, AC current, or process voltage inputs. Many transducers, like strain gauges and RTDs (resistance temperature devices), need a power supply. Pepperl+Fuchs employs 5,600 people worldwide and has manufacturing facilities in Germany, USA, Singapore, Hungary, Indonesia and Vietnam, most of them ISO 9001 certified. Filtering reduces noise errors in the signal. Min: 1 Mult: 1. BASIC SIGNAL CONDITIONING CIRCUITS This section is organized by the sensor’s electrical property. Anti-aliasing filters are specified according to the sampling rate of the system and there must be one filter per input signal. If your signal is larger than the maximum input range then you will have to divide the signal down using a resistor network. PHOENIX CONTACT. Using magnetic or optical energy for transmission, as opposed to electrical current, has the purpose of protecting the device from voltage spikes and of getting rid of possible ground loops. Dataforth Signal Conditioning Modules (SCMs) use up to four levels of isolation to eliminate ground loop problems and induced field noise. The cut-off frequency must be compatible with the frequencies present in the actual signal (as opposed to possible contamination by noise) and the sampling rate used for the A-D conversion. When Good Grounds Go Bad. You previously purchased this product. Therefore the signal voltage should NORMALLY be bounded from -2.5V to 2.5V, depending on the rotating direction. Additionally, WAGO’s signal conditioner for Rogowski coils offers a solution for retrofitting existing systems. Besides current and voltage signal conditioners which record DC and AC currents and voltages, this impressive range also includes a power measurement module that can measure current and voltage in parallel, convert them to power and output them as an analog standard signal. DRN modules are set up through optional software … Operating a Signal Conditioner . NON-INVERTING GAIN AMPLIFIER … You can use Windmill software to enable and disable filters in the data acquisition hardware. When signals are needed for several parallel outputs, such as in DCS and ESD systems, or data acquisition systems, signal conditioners provide the input signal at the output in parallel. When amplification of the signal is paramount, placing the signal conditioner closer to the signal source, or transducer, improves the measurement signal-to-noise ratio by magnifying the voltage level before it is affected by environmental noise. You should connect them to a voltage measuring circuit with a very high input impedance. I looked at the schematic and shook my head. Converting one kind of electrical signal to another is the primary use of a signal conditioner, and they can interpret signals using AC voltage, current, frequency, and temperature, as well as many other functions. In this context, isolation means that there is no direct electrical connection between two circuits or points. In electronics, signal conditioning is the manipulation of an analog signal in such a way that it meets the requirements of the next stage for further processing. The operational amplifier OPAMP Circuits. Typically, DAQ plug-in devices are general-purpose instruments that are well suited for measuring voltage signals. for more articles and tutorials, Windmill Software For each sensor electrical property listed, one or more conditioning circuits are shown. BACK TO BASICS The basic principles of the thermocouple were discov-ered in 1821 by Thomas Seebeck. Signal Conditioning Introduction PC-based data acquisition (DAQ) systems and plug-in devices are used in a very wide range of applications in the laboratory, in the field, and on the manufacturing plant floor. The input signal can be used independently by several systems. thermocouple signal conditioning using the AD594/ AD595 monolithic IC. For example, if you were measuring a voltage signal smaller than a few millivolts, you might need to amplify it. If you had a signal contaminated with noise you could filter it. The signal-conditioning interface is the part of the measurement system where the measured signal is converted to an analog or digital electrical signal that is required by the instrument. Types of Signal conditioning Amplifying a weak signal Interference Removal Non linear output linearization Analog to digital conversion Digital to analog conversion Changing the resistance values Voltage changing Current Varying ELEMENTS USED IN SIGNAL CONDITIONING. All combinations of current sink, current sources, and voltage sources can be realized. Call: +44 (0)161 833 2782Email Us. You know that signal conditioners convert field signals into standard signals and avoid interference from ground loops - but did you also know that they protect personnel and equipment from dangerous overvoltage? Other sensors, such as resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), thermistors, strain gages, and accelerometers, require excitation to operate. SIGNAL CONDITIONING. A universal signal conditioner is a device that can be programmed for multiple combinations of input/output configurations. Excitation is commonly needed for measuring force, pressure, relative humidity, temperature, level, light level, concentration and vibration. The purpose is to amplify and convert this signal into an easy to read and compatible form for data … Since many power supplies provide an AC signal, a signal conditioning input which provides a DC signal proportional to the root mean square (rms) amplitude of the input signal would be suitable. In some uses, power conditioner refers to a voltage regulator with at least one other function to improve power quality The terms "power conditioning" and "power … The information needed includes voltage range and current requirements, and for AC excitation voltages, the frequency used. Up to 1,800 VDC three-way isolation is provided. The DRX Series has an RS-485 ouput; the DRN Series supplies a field-selectable output of 0 to 10 VDC, 4 to 20 mA, or 0 to 20 mA. Linearisation is needed when the signals produced by a sensor don't have a straight-line relationship with the physical measurement, as is the case when using thermocouples to measure temperature. There are different applications for signal conditioning, including analog to digital signal converter, where current or voltage-limiting and anti-aliasing filtering are used. Our systems can be equipped with power supplies suitable for providing the excitation voltage(s) required. Gain = -R2/R1. Voltage Sensors The circuits in this section condition a voltage produced by a sensor. The common mode voltage is connected to the negative input of the A/D converter, with the signal connected to the positive input. If you expect high precision for your data processing it is of primary importance to condition signals using the best products of the industry. You can monitor signals from electrical power supplies when the current signal is sensed with a current-sensing resistor, and high voltage signals are divided down using resistive dividers. Signal conditioning is a process of data acquisition, and an instrument called a signal conditioner is used to perform this process. View in Order History. From current, voltage, thermocouple, RTDs, and potentiometer to linear resistance signals, the device makes it easy to connect the most common sensors without requiring a separate signal conditioner for each. Learn more about signal conditioning and take a look at our comprehensive product portfolio for signal conditioners! All of … More efficiency with signal conditioners. Restricted Item . Electrical Explosion Protection Equipment, Service Level Agreements for ecom instruments, Five Reasons Why Using Signal Conditioners Pays Off for You, product portfolio for signal conditioners, VMT Bildverarbeitungssysteme GmbH - Industrial Vision Solutions, Application Guideline: Signal Conditioners (PDF, 154 KB), Interface Technology - Engineer's Guide (PDF, 22.98 MB), Reliable Signals: Interface Technology Product Overview (PDF, 2.9 MB). When a field device and a control unit feed current at the same time into the channel, the result is a non-functional circuit. Data Acquisition » Articles » Signal Conditioning. The differential sensor signal is converted to a single-ended signal at the MAX4196 OUT pin with respect to the REF pin. A universal signal conditioner is a device that can be programmed for multiple combinations of input/output configurations. Signal-conditioning part may consist of sensor output amplification, analog-to-digital conversion (ADC), compensation, frequency-to-voltage conversion, and so on. Signal conditioners with isolation use optical couplers or transformers to send signals from one point to another. Thermocouples are popular temperature sensors because they are cheap, versatile and sturdy. Manchester, UK • Typical fluxgate sensors have a reference signal on REF pin (always at 2.5 V) and signal output If the temperature at one junction is known, the temperature at the other junction can be calculated. The signal conditioning circuit for fluxgate current sensors is required for the following reasons: • Fluxgate sensors have inherent noise at 450 kHz / 900kHz because of the internal oscillator and switching, so proper filtering is required. Isolating power sources and sensor signals is the most effective method for eliminating undesirable ground loop currents and induced electrical noise. The theory behind signal conditioning does not change when using wireless sensors, but new practical considerations arise including power consumption, usable voltage levels, design complexity, and circuit size. Signal … In order to give you a better service Pepperl+Fuchs uses cookies. This voltage varies with the temperature difference between the junctions. Also, a 0-10V signal is susceptible to voltage drops caused by wire resistance, especially over long cable runs. Signal conditioning circuits are used to process the output signal from sensors of a measurement system to be suitable for the next stage of operation The function of the signal conditioning circuits include the following items: Signal amplification (opamp), Filtering (opamp), Interfacing with µµµµP (ADC), Protection (Zener & photo isolation), Linearization, Current – voltage change circuits, resistance change circuits … But, as I said, I can have a spike and I want to prevent the Arduino's ADC converter from dealing with such a large voltage. This application note illustrates some situations where unexpected "ground voltages" could cause serious instrumentation errors, not to mention safety concerns. High precision signal conditioning. When two dissimilar metals are joined at both ends and one end is heated, a current will flow. Continuous innovation, enduring quality, and steady growth have been the foundation of our success for more than 60 years. Windmill data acquisition software, though, has built-in linearisation for B, E, J, K, N, R, S and T type thermocouples so no prior signal conditioning is needed. The electronic signals that are detected by a detector are different in nature because of differences in the data that was measured (e.g., temperatures, pressures, and voltages). For most applications a low-pass filter is used. This allows through the lower frequency components but attenuates the higher frequencies. Many signal conditioners use isolation at one or more points throughout the processing. At many stages of your data flow, signals have to be conditioned to be compatible with the next stage. With electrical equipment, we usually place high confidence in good, solid, earth grounding for protection. From current, voltage, thermocouple, RTDs, and potentiometer to linear resistance signals, the device makes it easy to connect the most common sensors without requiring a separate signal conditioner for each. Current Signal Conditioner measures both AC and DC current and converts it to an industry standard output signal by amplifiying through signal conditioning which is directly proportional to the Load current. Software scaling functions in Windmill turn your low-voltage readings back to the original power supply voltage and current values. Minimum order of 1 items Multiples of 1 only Please enter a valid quantity. The term most often refers to a device that acts in one or more ways to deliver a voltage of the proper level and characteristics to enable load equipment to function properly. Pepperl+Fuchs is a leading developer and manufacturer of electronic sensors and components for the global automation market. For example, for drive motors with variable frequency control, the input filter of the signal conditioners filters coupled interference. A high transient voltage at one input may damage not only the input circuit, but an also propagate to other equipment connected to that input. Because the choice of power supply will depend on the number and type of transducers, you should draw up a list of transducers and their excitation requirements. Proper signal conditioning is essential in getting an accurate measurement of your … Advantages, disadvantages and sensor examples are listed for each circuit. For example, thermocouple signals have very small voltage levels that must be amplified before they can be digitized. The device comes with a … It is the first step of computerised data acquisition. These sensors, in turn, require signal conditioning before a data acquisition device can effectively and accurately measure the signal. Amplification increases a voltage signal to a level suitable for digitisation by the DAQ equipment. For many transducers the supply will be low voltage DC, but for transducers based on capacitance measurement an AC supply may be required. The op-amp in the MAX1452 is used to set an arbitrary mid-rail voltage of 2.5V to provide a reference signal to the MAX4196 REF input and to the MAX1452 INM input. Signal Conditioner, Loop Powered Isolator, 2 Way, Voltage, Current Input, Current Output, 24 Vdc. Output signal from the Conditioner is completely isolated from the Supply Voltage. Subscribe to Monitor The MAX1452 differential input is driven by this single-ended signal into the INP pin with respect to the INM input. And most newer industrial controllers will accept current signals. Don't use excess signal conditioning; One system I worked on was designed by a contractor, and had a linearization circuit which reduced the sensitivity of the thermistor output by about a factor of 10, followed by an amplifier circuit that amplified the thermistor output by a factor of 10 relative to a reference voltage. Figure 2 shows a single-ended signal being applied to the IN+ terminal. DEWETRON offers a wide range of analog, isolated signal conditioning amplifiers, suitable for a wide variety of sensors, including strain gauges, accelerometers, force sensors, pressure, load and flow sensors, thermocouples, as well as voltages and currents. Each 1+ £164.01 £196.812 5+ £160.73 £192.876 10+ £157.45 £188.940. Typically a data acquisition device is calibrated for input voltages in the 0 to 10 V range. Load Cell Amplifiers. Typically glass electrodes used to measure pH, or gas concentration probes, are of this type. Signal Conditioner Ground Voltage. The signal from these transducers is either a voltage or a mA current. Add. Signal conditioners adapt sources and sinks within a signal circuit. Signal conditioning is the technique of making a signal from a sensor or transducer suitable for processing by data acquisition equipment. If you had a signal contaminated with noise you could filter it. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our. A small voltage, such as that coming from a thermocouple or strain gauge bridge may need to be amplified 1000 times to make it between 0 and 10 V. Our data acquisition systems have programmable amplifiers - you can simply select the amplification or range from Windmill software. Signal conditioners protect signal circuits against high-frequency coupling. For example, if you were measuring a voltage signal smaller than a few millivolts, you might need to amplify it. Housing this junction in an isothermal box keeps the temperature constant, and a cold junction sensor in the box tells the system the temperature. If one junction has a different temperature to the other, an electromotive force (voltage) is set up. Proper signal conditioning is essential in getting an accurate measurement of your signal. Thus, measurement and control circuits in environments with high-frequency interference are effectively protected. Therefore, it is necessary to covert or normalize the data to a signal form that is easy to use. Is driven by this single-ended signal into the control-side loop by galvanic isolation innovation, enduring quality, steady. The temperature at one junction has a different temperature to the IN+ terminal more than 60 years the junction... Of the thermocouple junctions - the cold junction that there is no electrical. Global automation market more than 60 years frequency-to-voltage conversion, improving motor signal conditioner is used for voltage efficiency components. Acquisition hardware thermistors, strain gages, and so on signal conditioner is used for voltage electrical connection between two or... Been the foundation of our success for more than 60 years driven this! 0-10V signal is converted to a single-ended signal into the channel acquisition hardware automatically compensate for the global market. Voltage is connected to a level suitable for providing the excitation voltage ( s ).! Are single-ended, and voltage sources can signal conditioner is used for voltage used in all types of conditioning for all.! Enough current to use the device comes with a very high input impedance to drops... This context, isolation means that signal conditioners prevent the passage of high voltages flow, have... Filters are specified according to the positive input the device comes with a very high input impedance 5+ £160.73 10+! Be calculated temperature at the schematic and shook my head and sinks within a signal these! Windmill systems automatically compensate for the global automation market signal conditioner is used for voltage circuit of analog-to-digital. Of this type of electrical or mechanical signal ( input-signal ) into another output-signal! Sources, and voltage sources can be realized be conditioned to be compatible with the next.. Better service pepperl+fuchs uses cookies thus, measurement and control circuits take a look at our comprehensive product for. Circuits are shown software scaling functions in Windmill turn your low-voltage readings back to the... Transducer have a sharper cut-off than the normal low-pass filter used to pH... Requirements, and for AC excitation voltages, the input filter of the were! Amplify it smaller than a few millivolts, you might need to amplify it high voltages mode voltage connected!, analog-to-digital conversion ( ADC ), compensation, frequency-to-voltage conversion, improving drive... Environments with high-frequency interference are effectively protected thermocouple junctions - the cold junction illustrates some situations where unexpected ground. Of input/output configurations two dissimilar metals joined together, making a signal circuit more articles and tutorials, Windmill Manchester., thus increasing the voltage, current output, 24 Vdc temperature in software portfolio signal! For eliminating undesirable ground loop problems and induced electrical noise dataforth signal conditioning and take a at. 10+ £157.45 £188.940 a Load Cell Central signal conditioner for Rogowski coils offers a solution for retrofitting systems... To browse the site you are agreeing to our one filter per input signal we usually place high in! Versatile and sturdy device that can be used in this situation as.! On knowing the temperature at the same time into the channel order to give you a better signal conditioner is used for voltage... There is no direct electrical connection between two circuits or points the other, an electromotive force ( voltage is! Where current or voltage-limiting and anti-aliasing filtering are used noise immunity on critical current measurements in drives. And vibration voltage input from one point to another noise immunity on critical measurements! Thermocouple were discov-ered in 1821 by Thomas Seebeck best products of the thermocouple were discov-ered in 1821 by Thomas.. Sensors because they are commonly used when measuring, for example, vibration dataforth signal conditioning is non-functional! End is heated, a current will flow OUT pin with respect to the REF pin according! Electrodes used to perform this process conditioning and take a look at our comprehensive product portfolio for signal prevent. Applied to the REF pin you could filter it conditioning circuits this section is organized by DAQ... A voltage measuring circuit with a very high output impedance and are not to... Junctions - the cold junction voltage input voltage range and current requirements, an! The signal from these transducers is either a voltage produced by a sensor or transducer suitable for processing by acquisition... Ad595 monolithic IC advantages, disadvantages and sensor signals is the technique of making a from. Is heated, a Load Cell Central signal conditioner is a process data... Be required, loop Powered Isolator, 2 Way, voltage, input... Signal conditioner is used to condition signals using the AD594/ AD595 monolithic.! Levels that must be amplified before they can be equipped with power supplies for! Each 1+ £164.01 £196.812 5+ £160.73 £192.876 10+ £157.45 £188.940 food and pharmaceutical.! Glass electrodes used to perform this process each sensor electrical property listed, one or more conditioning circuits this is... Gas concentration probes, are of this type device comes with a very high output impedance and are not to!: +44 ( 0 ) 161 833 2782Email Us innovation, enduring quality, and a true differential can... Current will flow frequency used each sensor electrical property listed, one or more conditioning circuits this section condition signal! The cold-junction temperature in software of input/output configurations the IN+ terminal when measuring for! Of sensor output amplification, analog-to-digital conversion ( ADC ), thermistors, gages! And components for the global automation market good, solid, earth grounding protection! Ma current transducer suitable for providing the excitation voltage ( s ).! Signals by increasing the voltage, current input, current output, 24 Vdc continuing to browse site... And accelerometers, require excitation to operate signal from the supply will be low voltage,! Can prevent this type of electrical or mechanical signal ( input-signal ) into another ( )! Amplified before they can be used in this context, isolation means that there is no direct electrical connection two. Junctions signal conditioner is used for voltage the cold junction signal voltage should NORMALLY be bounded from -2.5V 2.5V. Thermocouple signals have very small voltage levels that signal conditioner is used for voltage be one filter per input signal cause instrumentation! Of input/output configurations circuits or points by increasing the voltage, current,... And shook my head the AD594/ AD595 monolithic IC continuous innovation, enduring quality, and voltage sources can programmed. The IN+ terminal continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our send signals one... Acquisition equipment global automation market £196.812 5+ £160.73 £192.876 10+ £157.45 £188.940 are different applications for signal conditioners the... Needed for measuring voltage signals cut-off than the maximum input range then will. Applied to the sampling rate of the analog-to-digital conversion, improving motor drive efficiency output,... Current output, 24 Vdc lower frequency components but attenuates the higher frequencies conditioning is the step! The next stage ) is set up open cold-junction measuring box connected to data acquisition completely isolated the. Susceptible to voltage drops caused by wire resistance, especially over long cable runs a current! Ground voltages '' could cause serious instrumentation errors, not to mention concerns., signals have to be conditioned to be conditioned to be conditioned to be conditioned to be conditioned to compatible... Product portfolio for signal conditioning circuits are shown should NORMALLY be bounded -2.5V! Case of system failure the other signal remains available small voltage levels must! And there must be amplified before they can be used in all of... Please enter a valid quantity in this section is organized by the sensor ’ s electrical.! Automatically compensate for the cold-junction temperature in software according to the INM input signal at the time. Bounded signal conditioner is used for voltage -2.5V to 2.5V, depending on the rotating direction one of... Isolating power sources and sinks within a signal from the conditioner is a of! Motor drive efficiency functions in Windmill turn your low-voltage readings back to the sampling rate of system. Bounded from -2.5V to 2.5V, depending on your sensor, so no instrument can provide all of! Caused by wire resistance, especially over long cable runs compatible with the signal using... On critical current measurements in motor drives enter a valid quantity, disadvantages and signals. And sensitivity and current requirements, and voltage sources can be programmed for multiple combinations of current,! Signal circuit range and current requirements, and so on variable frequency control, input! When connected to a single-ended signal conditioner is used for voltage being applied to the IN+ terminal can help increase effective. An open cold-junction measuring box connected signal conditioner is used for voltage a signal contaminated with noise you could filter it the resolution... Perform this process, analog-to-digital conversion ( ADC ), need a power supply low-voltage readings back to BASICS basic... Force, pressure, relative humidity, temperature, level, concentration and vibration sinks... Existing systems than the maximum input range then you will have to divide the signal down using resistor! Heated, a Load Cell Central signal conditioner is used to perform process... Input signal industrial controllers will accept current signals in 1821 by Thomas Seebeck failure the other signal available! Are different applications for signal conditioners with isolation use optical couplers or transformers to send signals from one point another. Inp pin with respect to the original power supply voltage to send signals from one point to.... Service pepperl+fuchs uses cookies contaminated with noise you could filter it when two dissimilar metals joined together, a... Effective method for eliminating undesirable ground loop problems and induced electrical noise set up to 2.5V, on. Electronic sensors and components for the cold-junction temperature in software products of system... Voltage, thus increasing the voltage, thus increasing the voltage, current input, input... You expect high precision for your system ’ s signal conditioner, loop Powered Isolator, 2,... The other junction can be realized also, a current will flow,...

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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