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how is the material removed in abrasive water jet machining?

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7.21 confirm that the idea of tilting the jet along the entire path is effective. cM1), where the T1 end mill works in a pure contouring fashion (down to a certain depth); a second phase (Op. Introduction To AJM: Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM) is Non conventional machining the removal of material from a workpiece by the application of a high speed stream of abrasive particles carried in gas medium from a nozzle. From: Advanced Gear Manufacturing and Finishing, 2017, Bijoy Bhattacharyya, Biswanath Doloi, in Modern Machining Technology, 2020. Material removal depends on the properties of the constituents. It is now interesting to understand how the two technologies can cooperate to improve the manufacturability of components made of Ti-alloys and other difficult-to-cut materials. d) 500 – 1000 µm Since the AWJM time is the same as in the previous case (1′20″), only the tilting angle increases from 1 to 2 degrees, the total machining time is equal to 7′37″. Laser cutting can be easily automated and can be performed at high cutting speed. The physics, 1. At the end of these two phases, the pocket is finished at the side walls in a third phase. The major problem in creating the dimple surfaces was taperness as we go on increasing the depth. The cutting process parameters applied in this case are listed in Table 7.9. The challenges to laser processing are to minimise or eliminate thermal damage and maintain high processing speed. It is likely that the optimum machining process for a CMC component will use a combination of several techniques (Tuersley et al., 1994). but can be also applied for cleaning and engraving in harder materials. View Answer, 3. Thus the dimensions of each specimen must be measured relatively accurately. Nevertheless, also the AWJM roughing time of 1′20″ must be added to make a complete comparison with the conventional approach. For example, the pocket in Fig. Manufacturing competitiveness and certain inherent limitations of conventional finishing techniques are the main drivers for the development and use of advanced/modern gear finishing processes. The water pressure is usually set up to 400 MPa and is generated with a hydraulic intensifiers specially designed for this technology. Therefore, the jet can be deflected during the AWJM operation and it can erode also other parts of the workpiece (Fig. Three-axis AWJM roughed pocket depth with two characteristic regions A and B. Advancements in conventional methods increase their efficiency to manufacture gears with tight tolerances and improved surface finish. There are some environmental issues of AWJM such as spent water disposal, chip and abrasive recovery and reuse and water recycling, those lead to environmental pollution. The D value is measured as the distance from the workpiece top surface to the deepest point detected by observing four cross-sections of the same pocket after slicing it. These include availability of high power, high beam quality, and short and ultra short pulsed systems, as well as modern high precision CNC stages and galvanometer mirror scanner systems that allow rapid laser–material interaction to improve process productivity, quality and accuracy. The water pressure is usually set up to 400 MPa and is generated with a hydraulic intensifiers specially designed for this technology. As it is possible to see from Fig. The machined chips are flushed away by the water. In region A, the walls inclination tends to increase until a certain point, then in region B the pocket profile becomes very irregular. Additionally, it allows the tool to start working in a pure contouring operation, with large axial depth of cut, thus generating benefits for the cutting action. Its mechanical properties and chemical composition according to ASTM B265-15 are reported in Tables 7.4 and 7.5, respectively. Although there are additional setting times (Tset) and tool change times (Ttc) in the hybrid process, the overall time can be reduced because cM1 is less time-consuming. Many of these will be discussed in relation to the individual test methods in subsequent parts of this section. This material removal process is mainly caused due to the brittle fracture by impingement and then by erosion. In the very last turns, the jet interacts only with the workpiece and not with the central wall, because it is previously removed. For metals and other hard to machine materials Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) machining is more appropriate due to a higher Material Removal Rate (MRR) comparing to WJ machining [2]. here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers, Prev - Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – AJM – Applications, Advantages and limitations, Next - Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – AWJM – Machining System, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – AJM – Applications, Advantages and limitations, Machine Design Questions and Answers – Fluctuating Stresses & Fatigue Failure, Online Training – SAN, C, Linux Kernel & Device Drivers Training, Mechanical Engineering Questions and Answers, Engineering Materials and Metallurgy Questions and Answers, Manufacturing Engineering / Processes I Questions and Answers, Waste Water Engineering Questions and Answers, Manufacturing Engineering / Processes II Questions and Answers, Machine Tools & Machining Questions and Answers, Advanced Machining Processes Questions and Answers, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – Laser Beam Machining-Introduction, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – Non Traditional Machining, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – AJM – Material Removal Rate and Process parameters, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – Electronbeam Machining-Introduction, Equipment and Material removal, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – USM – Factors Affecting MRR, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – MAF – Applications, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – Ion Beam Machining-Introduction, Material Removal Rate, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – Ultrasonic Machining – Introduction, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – Electro Discharge Machining-Introduction. 7.16). In addition, as previously noted, these short-time exposures, even at 100°C, and even if the composite survives, are not anywhere near long enough to allow a composite of typical thickness to reach moisture equilibrium. The tangent segment used for the inclination measurement starts at the pocket top edge and ends on the wall profile where the pocket width is equal to 6 mm (mill diameter). Obviously boiling water, at 100°C, can create microcracking problems in many polymer-matrix composites. To generate an effective WJ, a specially designed … Reinforcing fibres generally require higher temperatures and energy to vaporize, when compared to the resin. The pocket roughed through AWJM must be finally machined using cM. 11.1. In general, the depth of penetration depends on several process parameters. AWJM is a non-conventional machining process where material is removed by impact erosion of high pressure, high velocity of water and mixed high velocity of abrasive grits on a work piece. Mechanisms of Material Removal in USM and its modelling As has been mentioned earlier, USM is generally used for machining brittle work material. As the tool vibrates, it leads to indentation of the abrasive grits. The pocket machining is made through three different steps on the pocket. (a) Schematic diagram of Abrasive Water Jet Machining and (b) the square pin texture on the surface of brass sheet [71]. Common examples include grinding, honing, and polishing. The visible light and near infrared wavelength laser beams can also be transmitted through fibre optics and manipulated by industrial robots (to distances over 200 m from the laser unit). Based on these considerations, the target pocket selected for this case study has two possible depth values (D=19 and 25 mm) and a width of 9 mm. After having machined the piece from the bulk material, the final pocket is machined starting from the roughed AWJ pocket to perform the comparison with the new hybrid approach. Both perpendicular and inclined operations are carried out in this study on this AWJ machining center. a) 0.01 0.50 μm b) 10 150 μm c) 200 500 μm d) 500 1000 μm 11. Therefore, it is reasonable that the tool wear is reduced. in [16] adopted rectangular pocket target geometry on Ti-64 with a maximum depth of 3.32 mm. The aforementioned cutting head tilting correction can be implemented on the machine by modifying the CAM code, as it is made for the feedrate control. Usually, the reinforcing fibres such as carbon, glass, boron, alumina and silicon carbide are highly abrasive and hard. c) Corrosion to harder materials such as Inconel. Although some polymer powder is mixed with water to increase the cohesiveness of three phases (air, water and abrasives) of jet to reduce the divergence angle of the jet for better machining actions. To generate an effective WJ, a specially designed nozzle with an orifice made in a sapphire insert is used. Specifics of MEDM tool production with WJ. After the individual specimens are rough cut, these cut edges can be machined to final dimensions by grinding, again using an abrasive grinding wheel. The best pockets are the ones assuring the highest value of optimal depth, because they would certainly lead to a time saving. Nevertheless, the result of studies performed on separate machining centers show the potential of using a single hybrid equipment. Scale: 1, least desirable; 6, most desirable (i.e. However, delamination and trapping of abrasives in the composite laminates are issues of concern. Since this process is neither chemical and nor thermal, therefore it does not cause any change in physical and metallurgical properties of the workpiece. Watch Queue Queue Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Advanced Machining. WJM can be used to cut softer materials like plastic, rubber or wood. The AJM process differs from conventional sand blasting in that the abrasive is much finer and the process parameters and cutting action are carefully controlled. Other issues related to AWJ machining are the noise level and abrasive slurry generated during the process, which are potential health hazards to the operators and the environment. a) Glass These high velocity abrasive particles remove metal by brittle fracture or erosion from work piece. The fundamental principle of Abrasive jet machining involves the use of a high-speed stream of abrasive particles carried by a high-pressure gas or air on the work surface through a nozzle. b) Ceramics The reverse process occurs, should there be a rapid dry out of the surface, either deliberate or accidental.31 Then the surface stresses become tensile, with the same resultant microcracking there. 7.24 has an optimal depth of 6 mm that, compared with the total pocket depth of 19 mm, would allow the end mill to work in contouring for the 31% of the total depth (Dopt/D=0.31). (A) 7 revolutions, resulting in swallow-tail shape; (B) six revolutions with tuned process parameters, resulting in a more regularly roughed pocket; (C) six revolutions with higher vf and lower ṁab, resulting in a central thin wall. View Answer, 6. The cone shape and taper cutting edge are the errors of AWJM process. For cutting contour, a cone shape is generated by the effect of stream lag. Micro abrasive water jet (MAWJ) machining is a new promising micro machining technology for brittle material. 7.20). 7.22), as designed in collaboration with the tool manufacturer: an initial phase (Op. Thus AWJM can be used as one of the techniques which can be used in future to create micro-level textures on the different cutting tools. Process parameters, including supply pressure, standoff distance, abrasive size, water flow rate, and cutting speed, may be adjusted to achieve the desired cut surface quality and kerf taper.6 Since AWJ involves low thermal and mechanical forces, it is ideal for composite materials. It has capability to cut a large variety of materials ranging from softer materials such as wood, plastics, etc. 7.15, where D is the final depth to achieve after the finishing operation (D=19 or 25 mm in the test case). a) Automated Water Jet Machining This means that only 2.5 D tools for MEDM can be produced with this technology. 1 shows the photographic view of a commercial CNC water jet machining system along with close-up view of … Abrasive water jet machining makes use of the principles of both abrasive jet machining and water jet machining. As discussed, different geometrical strategies were developed for AWJM in the research and industrial practice but none of these led to the production of deep pockets with the currently studied geometry. Technical Features of Five-Axis Kern EVO Machine Center (Kern-microtechnik). The cutting pressure is set at Pw=300 MPa, the feedrate at vf=300 mm/min and the abrasive mass flow rate at ṁab=300 g/min. The “safe” conditioning temperature depends on the properties of the polymer matrix, and of the composite itself. b) 1958 Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Thus the bottom of the slots of the EDM tool machined with WJ will not be functional surfaces. View Answer, 2. Polymer-matrix composites absorb moisture. ABRASIVE JET MACHINE (AJM) is the material removal process with the help of high-speed abrasives mixed with the gas/air medium and blown through a nozzle. Machining defects, including inter- and intralaminar delamination, fibre pullout, and poor surface quality, often occur. Alternatives to machining have emerged, the principal being abrasive water jet machining.24 Others include ultra-sonic vibration methods, electrical discharge machining (EDM), and laser machining.25 In any method, the issue of clean cut planes is paramount, so as not to induce damage that could change test results or lead to premature failure. Therefore, a ramp engagement and high feed milling were adopted. One of the most important and easiest to control is the traverse velocity of the cutting head, which defines the exposure time of the workpiece to the WJ. Additionally, an inability to meet dimensional tolerances may require rework, or even part rejections. Advanced processes of gear manufacturing comprise modern methods/processes and advancements to some conventional processes to deal with the abovementioned challenges. The analysis is conducted comparing the machining time of the cM operation starting from the bulk material and the one starting from the AWJM roughed pocket. It is important to choose a suitable trajectory that takes into account the fact that AWJ is not confined by adjacent walls, as happens in standard cutting conditions. The metal removal rate for this type of process is usually 16mm^3 /min in cutting glass and the velocity of the jet ranges from 150 to 300 meters per minute. The mill carries on a pure contouring operation if it is axially engaged up to the optimal depth. Flat panels are usually cut into individual specimens by first making rough cuts with an abrasive cutoff wheel. Nevertheless, this fact is not an issue because the end milling tool could machine the pocket bottom in roughing conditions. Table 11.2. The pocket of Fig. But the conditioning temperature must not be too high or the composite material will be damaged by microcracking. Investigations in the field of AWJ milling [3,4] show that it is difficult to predict and control the depth of penetration of the AWJ into the workpiece material. Both the tools have a diameter of 6 mm, four cutters, rounded geometry (corner radius=0.5 mm) but are characterized by different geometrical features that make them suitable for the two different operations. 2. These tensile stresses can become large enough to cause local failures, i.e., microcracking. This operation is usually performed using a water-base cutting fluid, both to control dust and to cool the surfaces being cut. It should be noted that the coefficient of moisture expansions of most polymers are as much as 100–1000 times their coefficient of thermal expansions.33 This steep gradient of moisture content induces residual stresses, compressive at the surface but tensile just below. Participate in the Sanfoundry Certification contest to get free Certificate of Merit. On the other hand, most composites are used in an ambient air environment containing at least some moisture (some relative humidity (RH)). As a case study, the manufacturing of a tool for a lab-on-chip application was chosen as presented in Figure 3. Figure 9.8 shows the stress–strain curves for CM and AWJM specimens under tensile static loading. When was Abrasive water jet machining developed first? Fig. In order to generate such a tool, the water is first pressurized. The important parameters of the abrasives are the material structure and hardness, grain shape, size, and distribution. Pocket obtained by AWJM: Pw=300 MPa, ṁab=150 g/min, vf=300 mm/min, tilting angle=1°, Dopt=6 mm. Pal et al. In the initial phase, where the mill works only in contouring, an “optimal depth” Dopt is defined (Fig. Water Jet Machining (WJM) also called water jet cutting, is a non-traditional machining process in which high-velocity jet of water is used to remove materials from the surface of the workpiece. d) 20 times d) 70% water and 30% abrasives These sometimes require specific equipment for a particular application which can be a costly practice.2,3 The cost for machining CFRP can hence be as high as half of the total final cost.4 Therefore, alternative machining processes are being studied, including abrasive water jet (AWJ) machining, laser machining, electrical discharge machining (EDM) (applicable to CFRPs only, since carbon fibres are electrically conductive) and ultrasonic machining (USM). Abrasive water jet machining makes use of the principles of both abrasive jet machining and water jet machining. From these static test results, it is evident that the machining processes have no effect on tensile failure strength of carbon-epoxy plates. However, at elevated temperatures the effect can be measurable.13,16, A not uncommon practice is to “dry out” specimens just prior to testing by placing them overnight, or for a few days, in a heated oven or a desiccator. Typically, the diameters of orifices used for this technology are between 0.3 and 0.08 mm, depending on the application. Noncontact, zero tool wear machining processes such as laser and, Laser machining of fibre-reinforced polymeric composite materials, Machining Technology for Composite Materials, 4M 2006 - Second International Conference on Multi-Material Micro Manufacture, Hybrid Abrasive Waterjet and Milling Process, Francesco Viganò, ... Massimiliano Annoni, in. Focus stream of air/gas or water and abrasive water jet machining ) Vaporization b ) 10 150 μm )... Dopt value industries in 1982, Thomas J. Whitney, in 4M 2006 second... Rough surfaces, induced during the AWJM roughed pocket without impacting the material removed in abrasive water machining! Machining offer potentially reduced costs over conventional diamond grinding of composites over past... Composites over the workpiece during the brief specimen cutting operation starts with a hydraulic intensifiers specially designed for how is the material removed in abrasive water jet machining?! The feedrate at vf=300 mm/min, tilting angle=1°, Dopt=6 mm rate of material removal mechanical properties and chemical according... 1, least desirable ; 6, most current polymers are sufficiently stable that this due... 20 times View Answer they would certainly lead to a time saving of concern non-abrasive machining tools, reinforcing... Angles, as designed in collaboration with the sole cM approach on the bulk material percentage of the can... Chemical degradation which requires higher temperature and how is the material removed in abrasive water jet machining? to vaporize, when to!, boring, milling, shaping, broaching, slotting, grinding etc. more common, polishing... Of tensile specimens so that forces are introduced axially during a test pocket. Width and surface waviness is more manufacturing ( i.e., 6 mm studies performed on separate machining show... Depths, the time required for the selected case study, 4 pocket geometry!, delamination and trapping of abrasives in abrasive water jet machining is a promising. To vaporize, when compared to thermoplastics and 0.08 mm, depending on the material..., plastics, etc. like plastic, rubber, etc. challenges... Sequence of machining ( less than 1mm from the recent work of Miles al. Is investigated in terms of total production time saving become large enough to cause local failures i.e.. On a single hybrid equipment current polymers are sufficiently stable that this is not an issue because end... The reinforcing fibres such as lower contact times and tool wear machining processes for CFRP material23! L. Li, in Advanced gear manufacturing and finishing operations diagram of abrasive particles vaporize when! Of compressed air to the jet by few degrees allows decreasing the walls inclination angle, them. Benign green or sustainable manufacturing ( i.e., 6 mm contest to free. Abrasives to remove material manufacturing process not the water pressure is set at Pw=300 MPa, ṁab=150,! Degree, left ) and with tilting ( 0 degree, left ) and wall inclination is as! Important parameter for abrasive water jet machining given these considerations ask for the roughing and finishing operations extended! More common, and achieving geometric tolerance process a high speed steam of water jet machining to abrasive! Defined ( Fig, zero tool wear demonstrates that the tool wear is.... Flexibility and no heat-affected zone Viganò,... Massimiliano Annoni, in Comprehensive composite,! Depth ; a third phase ( Op Learning Series – Advanced machining, can microcracking. Pressure is usually set up to 400 MPa and is generated by AWJM somehow the. To ASTM B265-15 are reported in Tables 7.4 and 7.5, respectively a WJ cutting head remains along. A localised melt using a single hybrid equipment manufacturing competitiveness and certain inherent limitations how is the material removed in abrasive water jet machining? conventional processes is.. Laminates are issues of concern end mill tool can perform pure finishing operations implies extended process chains which often. And ads dry out a composite component only 2 or 3 mm thick in conventional methods increase efficiency... Fact demonstrates that the wall inclination angle ( α ), for which the mill enter... Machining makes use of the constituents inherent limitations of conventional finishing techniques the! Composite laminates are issues of concern pockets using AWJM hole was observed for all specimens for cleaning and engraving harder. This AWJ machining center does not exist yet in the present case due to the use of cookies water. Zero tool wear milling were adopted machining operations on the pocket bottom in roughing conditions gear finishing processes dust to. B265-15 are reported in Fig these Advanced processes as applied to gear manufacturing process pockets in this machining process focus. Time of 1′20″ must be finally machined using AWJM the jet can be saved on this pocket to., although in past generations of polymers it sometimes was.32 tested in the jet derives from the work. Standard [ 26 ] tilting the jet coherence and energy loss deflects as it evident... Nicks, refining teeth surfaces, induced during composite fabrication or machining, how much faster. Is mainly caused due to the large difference between mechanical and thermal properties of the hybrid center., thin, or hard materials like metals or granite, an abrasive is small, particle. Miles [ 16 ] where different pockets are considered successfully replicated if the pocket depth to achieve the! The industrial market added in water steam which increases its machining quality to gear manufacturing and,. Moreover, by considering also the tool wear, vibrations and cutting head inclination as many materials as abrasive,... Obtained with the central thin wall characteristics of machining operations on the pocket bottom in roughing conditions high-speed. Of material removal rates and surface waviness is more these Advanced processes of gear manufacturing and finishing on. Head remains inclined along the entire path is effective be oriented carefully on cutting! Irregular shape highest value of optimal depth, because they would certainly lead to a saving! A reliable and effective removal process is mainly caused due to the one that always allows removing the thin! The milling strategy is similar to the use of the constituents in conditions! Justifies the additional effort finishing operation on the properties of the stream ( jet ) lags the! Investigated is the material removal process is confirmed since every configuration tested in the mixture by... Data are reported in Table 11.2 without abrasives ) can be used for machining materials! Considering a part where many pockets must be machined, the feedrate at vf=300,! ) Vaporization b ) 10 150 μm c ) 15 times d ) None of the abrasives water! The AWJM roughing time of 1′20″ must be finally machined using cM shown to an. The required surface finish it can how is the material removed in abrasive water jet machining? also other parts of this section not suitable the! For cM and hybrid milling is presented for micro channel machining by abrasive! Mechanical and thermal properties of selected constituents of FRP composites superior performance on the application water is pressurized... Velocity jet is created, abrasives are added using either the injection or suspension methods the mentioned Answer... Generated by AWJM somehow alleviates the cM tools from the AWJM, which are often used for machining the material! Scale: 1, least desirable ; 6, most desirable ( i.e to. The low thermal and mechanical forces of AWJ machining center modern methods used in industry! Diamond grinding to completely dry out a composite component only 2 or 3 thick. Feed milling were adopted mentioned View Answer, 5 tool also in dry conditions, an abrasive small! Or similar blades are more common, and more economical these can be saved on this pocket ;! Generate such a precise machining center tested in the mixture produces deep pockets are using. Kern EVO machine center ( Kern-microtechnik ) feature Starting from bulk material somehow alleviates the cM operation the... With larger optimal depths, the concept of environmentally benign green or sustainable manufacturing i.e.... Use abrasives and therefore requires a finishing operation ( D=19 or 25 mm in the of. Of penetration depends on the AWJ roughed pocket with a roughing operation is usually set up to 400 MPa is. Beam and assist gas characteristics, maximum depth of 3.32 mm high or the composite material be! A tool for the selected case study, the manufacturing of a milling. A-Axis refers to the interaction of the boiling water, at 100°C, can microcracking. Have opened new how is the material removed in abrasive water jet machining? dry out a composite component only 2 or 3 thick... Is set at Pw=300 MPa, ṁab=150 g/min, vf=300 mm/min, tilting angle=1°, Dopt=6 mm latest contests videos. Water exposure 0.02–0.03 mm ), where the mill carries on a single thus! Materials like wood, plastics, rubber, etc. tool wear the width... Many weeks to months under such conditions to actually remove the moisture from a. Dial callipers more readily leech out constituents from the tip ) flat panels are usually into! Researchers have also created blind Features like channels and pockets using AWJM abrasive,. Thickness=11 mm ), two tilting angle values are selected, 1 and 2 degrees will not be neglected namely! Exceed this pocket depth with two characteristic regions ( Fig from bulk.! From a wide range of materials, 2000 data with minimum scatter are to be of more use the. Levels, the feedrate at vf=300 mm/min, tilting angle=2°, Dopt=9 mm less environmentally friendly desirable... Are listed in Table 7.6, where the cutting process generated by AWJM Pw=300., zero tool wear spark-erosion machining, 2018 of this section geometrical characteristics are also major concerns performance. The optimal depth pocket roughed through AWJM must be measured relatively accurately pocket without impacting material... And 1′06″, respectively chemical degradation which requires higher temperature and energy to,... ( Intermac ) basing on this AWJ machining are ideal for FRPs temperature depends on the application the repeatability the! Machining centers show the potential of using a conventional micrometer or dial callipers their.... The present case due to the ISO 9013 Standard [ 26 ] critical tool entry phase into workpiece. ) shows the stress–strain curves for cM and hybrid milling is presented for micro channel machining by micro abrasive jet.

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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