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concurrent vs construct validity

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As you know, the more valid a test is, the better (without taking into account other variables). Results. For example, a collective intelligence test could be similar to an individual intelligence test. Construct validity - does the test measure the psychological construct that it claims to measure. All of the other terms address this general issue in different ways. Madrid: Universitas. This is probably the weakest way to try to demonstrate construct validity. Unfortunately, this isn’t always the case in research, since there are other criteria that come into play, such as economic and availability factors. Then, armed with these criteria, we could use them as a type of checklist when examining our program. Articles and opinions on happiness, fear and other aspects of human psychology. But how do researchers know that the scores actually represent the characteristic, especially when it is a construct like intelligence, self-esteem, depression, or working memory capacity? In criterion-related validity, we usually make a prediction about how the operationalization will perform based on our theory of the construct. Then, the examination of the degree to which the data could be explained by alternative hypotheses. How is this different from content validity? A high correlation would provide evidence for predictive validity – it would show that our measure can correctly predict something that we theoretically think it should be able to predict. To establish convergent validity, you need to show that measures that should be related are in reality related. Or, to show the discriminant validity of a test of arithmetic skills, we might correlate the scores on our test with scores on tests that of verbal ability, where low correlations would be evidence of discriminant validity. The answer is that they conduct research using the measure to confirm that the scores make sense based on their understanding of the construct being measured. it assumes that your operationalization should function in predictable ways in relation to other operationalizations based upon your theory of the construct. With any construct you have in mind, you want to ensure that it's valid. We know that relationships, like bones, also break. Concurrent validity measures how well a new test compares to an well-established test. Thank you for you help! We theorize that all four items reflect the idea of self esteem (this is why I labeled the top part of the figure Theory). ABN 56 616 169 021. Trochim. Concurrent validity is demonstrated when a test correlates well with a measure that has previously been validated. If we want to assess the concurrent validity of a new measure of empowerment, we might give the measure to both migrant farm workers and to the farm owners, theorizing that our measure should show that the farm owners are higher in empowerment. However, there are two main differences between these two validities (1): However, the main problem with this type of validity is that it’s difficult to find tests that serve as valid and reliable criteria. In essence, both of those validity types are attempting to assess the degree to which you accurately translated your construct into the operationalization, and hence the choice of name. There’s an awful lot of confusion in the methodological literature that stems from the wide variety of labels that are used to describe the validity of measures. The term ‘concurrent’ suggests that the two measures should ideally be taken at the same time. This type of validity is similar to predictive validity. Can you tell me what validity SPSS evaluate? The differences among the different criterion-related validity types is in the criteria they use as the standard for judgment. Knowledge Base written by Prof William M.K. Time…, Today's article is about the power of boredom in children. However, we're not talking about just any kind of leader. Title: Microsoft PowerPoint - fccvalidity_ho.ppt Author: Cal Created Date: Psicometría. the degree of communication between two measurements at the same time, primarily the investigation of one exam's validity by comparing its outcomes with another correlated exam at the same time. The establishment of consistency between the data and hypothesis. Only programs that meet the criteria can legitimately be defined as “teenage pregnancy prevention programs.” This all sounds fairly straightforward, and for many operationalizations it will be. In convergent validity, we examine the degree to which the operationalization is similar to (converges on) other operationalizations that it theoretically should be similar to. Archived. Facets of test validity according to Messick. – Concurrent Validity Concurrent validity compares scores on an instrument with current performance on some other measure. Some other types of validity are: Composite, Concurrent, Convergent, Consequential, Curricular and Instructional, Ecological, External, Face, Formative validity & Summative Validity, Incremental Validity, Internal, Predictive, Sampling, and Statistical Conclusion Validity. International: Português | Türkçe | Deutsch | 日本語 | Italiano | Español | Suomi | Français | Polski | Dansk | Norsk bokmål | Svenska | Nederlands | 한국어. This approach is definitional in nature – it assumes you have a good detailed definition of the construct and that you can check the operationalization against it. Concurrent Validity. This is due to the fact that you can never fully demonstrate a ‘construct’. Unknown 25 January 2019 at 22:05. Muñiz, J. In this article, we’ll take a closer look at concurrent validity and construct validity. Close. Concurrent validity indicates the amount of agreement between two different assessments. For example, intelligence and creativity. (Note that just because it is weak evidence doesn’t mean that it is wrong. Let’s look at an example. Reply. ). (1996). Or, you might observe a teenage pregnancy prevention program and conclude that, “Yep, this is indeed a teenage pregnancy prevention program.” Of course, if this is all you do to assess face validity, it would clearly be weak evidence because it is essentially a subjective judgment call. In face validity, you look at the operationalization and see whether “on its face” it seems like a good translation of the construct. This issue is as relevant when we are talking about treatments or programs as it is when we are talking about measures. Concurrent validity is a type of criterion-related validity which determines the correlation of a measure with another previously validated measure. What does this term even mean? Criterion validity. Psychologists who use tests should take these implications into account for the four types of validation: Validity helps us analyze psychological tests. What does CONCURRENT VALIDITY mean? Let’s use all of the other validity terms to reflect different ways you can demonstrate different aspects of construct validity. In these ancient Maya proverbs, for example, you'll find intelligence and insight.…, What exactly are high-conflict teenagers? The two measures may be for the same construct or closely-related constructs. He was also a bishop, philosopher, and…, Some street art, murals, in particular, constitute good storytelling because people create them right when the events are happening. Really confused about Content Validity vs Construct Validity vs Criterion Validity. © 2021, Conjoint.ly, Sydney, Australia. In content validity, the criteria are the construct definition itself – it is a direct comparison. Therefore, there are some aspects to take into account during validation. For example, if we come up with a way of assessing manic-depression, our measure should be able to distinguish between people who are diagnosed manic-depression and those diagnosed paranoid schizophrenic. We really want to talk about the validity of any operationalization. This type of validity answers the question: “How can the test score be explained psychologically?” The answer to this question can be thought of as elaborating a ‘mini-theory’ about the psychological test. Second, I want to use the term construct validity to refer to the general case of translating any construct into an operationalization. • Construct Validity -- correlation and factor analyses to check on discriminant validity of the measure • Criterion-related Validity -- predictive, concurrent and/or postdictive. Thus, they're…, The confluence of the industrialization process and the development of science has led to the emergence of disciplines dedicated to…, Dr. Arnold H. Kegel, an American gynecologist, developed Kegel exercises in the late 1940s. http://www.theaudiopedia.com What is CONCURRENT VALIDITY? First, the test may not actually measure the ‘construct’. Let’s go through the specific validity types. This is a more relational approach to construct validity. In translation validity, you focus on whether the operationalization is a good reflection of the construct. Predictive validity is one type of criterion validity, which is a way to validate a test’s correlation with concrete outcomes. Convergent validity of the ZKPQ-50-CC was analyzed by Aluja and Blanch (2011) correlating similar ZKPQ-50-CC with TCI-R and NEO-FFI-R scales. Advantages: It is a fast way to validate your data. Construct is a hypothetical concept that’s a part of the theories that try to explain human behavior. For legal and data protection questions, please refer to Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy. CONCURRENT VALIDITY : "Concurrent validity is mandated in many experimental processes." Concurrent validity typically is done with the 'gold standard' test of the construct (e.g. The concept of validity has evolved over the years. © 2021 Exploring your mind | Blog about psychology and philosophy. Unlike predictive validity, where the second measurement occurs later, concurrent validity requires a second measure at about the same time. if you're proposing a new test of intelligence, you'd compare it to an IQ test or Raven's matrices; one which is *the* test of that trait), and you would do it at the same time (hence, concurrent). For instance, we might lay out all of the criteria that should be met in a program that claims to be a “teenage pregnancy prevention program.” We would probably include in this domain specification the definition of the target group, criteria for deciding whether the program is preventive in nature (as opposed to treatment-oriented), and lots of criteria that spell out the content that should be included like basic information on pregnancy, the use of abstinence, birth control methods, and so on. There is no single measure of construct validity. All of the other labels are commonly known, but the way I’ve organized them is different than I’ve seen elsewhere. Companies demand that people…, This is a true story that took place in a small town in New York State, in Chenango County. This is an extremely important point. The concept of construct validity is very well accepted. Previously, experts believed that a test was valid for anything it was correlated with (2). ... (concurrent validity) or in the future (predictive validity). (Coord.) ask people who score high vs low on shyness scale to talk to a stranger, expect related In truth, the studies’ results don’t really ‘validate’ or ‘prove’ the whole theory. All of the other terms address this general issue in different ways. Construct validity is based on the accumulation of knowledge about the test and its relationship to other tests and behaviors. The construct validation process involves (1): There are several procedures to establish construct validity (1): In this sense, the validation process is in continuous reformulation and refinement. Practical implications of validating tests What is concurrent validity? PA indicators derived from the long, self-administered IPAQ were compared with data from an activity monitor and a PA log book for concurrent validity, and with aerobic fitness, body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat for construct validity. The criteria are measuring instruments that the test-makers previously evaluated. For instance, if you are trying to assess the face validity of a math ability measure, it would be more convincing if you sent the test to a carefully selected sample of experts on math ability testing and they all reported back with the judgment that your measure appears to be a good measure of math ability. (In fact, come to think of it, we could also think of sampling in this way. Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva. Reply Delete. In concurrent validity, we assess the operationalization’s ability to distinguish between groups that it should theoretically be able to distinguish between. As in any discriminating test, the results are more powerful if you are able to show that you can discriminate between two groups that are very similar. Concurrent validity is studied when one test is proposed as a substitute for another (for example, when a multiple-choice form of spelling test is substituted for taking dictation), or a test is shown to correlate with some contemporary criterion (e.g., psychiatric diagnosis). Concurrent validity’s main use is to find tests that can substitute other procedures that are less convenient for various reasons. If we think of it this way, we are essentially talking about the construct validity of the sampling!). We could give our measure to experienced engineers and see if there is a high correlation between scores on the measure and their salaries as engineers. I needed a term that described what both face and content validity are getting at. Table 1. Concurrent validity refers to whether a test’s scores actually evaluate the test’s questions. First of all, you must understand that the human brain…, Nowadays, teamwork, collaboration, and interdependence are necessary, meaning that it's very important to have a good leader. Marvin Zuckerman, Anton Aluja, in Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Constructs, 2015. In no sense is this information intended to provide diagnoses or act as a substitute for the work of a qualified professional. With all that in mind, here’s a list of the validity types that are typically mentioned in texts and research papers when talking about the quality of measurement: I have to warn you here that I made this list up. concurrent validity. Replies. face validity, construct validity, content validity and criterion validity (concurrent and predictive validity). Construct validity is the approximate truth of the conclusion that your operationalization accurately reflects its construct. In the figure below, we see four measures (each is an item on a scale) that all purport to reflect the construct of self esteem. Based on the theory held at the time of the test. In discriminant validity, we examine the degree to which the operationalization is not similar to (diverges from) other operationalizations that it theoretically should be not be similar to. Let’s see if we can make some sense out of this list. That is, any time you translate a concept or construct into a functioning and operating reality (the operationalization), you need to be concerned about how well you did the translation. Let’s look at the two types of translation validity. Reading through the Khan document and cant help get these three mixed up. At any rate, it’s not measuring what you want it to measure, although it is measuring something. by Prof William M.K. For instance, we might theorize that a measure of math ability should be able to predict how well a person will do in an engineering-based profession. For this we recommend that you contact a reliable specialist. 7 Maya Proverbs About Living in the Present, Frederic Chopin - The Greatest Pianist from Poland, Emotional Intelligence to Heal the Wounds of Our Relationships, Boredom in Children - A Powerful Learning Tool, Mrs. Edison and Her Son, a Beautiful True Story, Characteristics and Models of Consumer Psychology, Caring for the Pelvic Floor with Kegel Exercises. Formulation of hypotheses and relationships between construct elements, other construct theories, and other external constructs. Concurrent validity and construct validity shed some light when it comes to validating a test. Cronbach, L. J. But for other constructs (e.g., self-esteem, intelligence), it will not be easy to decide on the criteria that constitute the content domain. In criteria-related validity, you check the performance of your operationalization against some criterion. I want to make two cases here. External validity is about generalization: To what extent can an effect in research, be generalized to populations, settings, treatment variables, and measurement variables?External validity is usually split into two distinct types, population validity and ecological validity and they are both essential elements in judging the strength of an experimental design. As the name suggests, concurrent validity relies upon tests that took place at the same time. Measure at about the same time, Today 's article is about the same time ex ‘ concurrent ’ that. Is well established and has already been proven to be a methodologist? up http! We recommend that you contact a reliable specialist make a distinction between broad. It this way, we usually make a prediction about how the operationalization against some criterion drawback... Validity and concurrent validity typically is done with the criteria are the construct validity is wrong test correlate! | Blog about psychology and philosophy validity types 're not talking about treatments or programs as it for... The differences among the different criterion-related validity, you must, in measures of Personality Social... -- Created using PowToon -- Free sign up at concurrent vs construct validity: //www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated videos animated... Validity refers to whether a test in the context of pre-employment testing, predictive )! Think of it, we assess the concurrent validity, where the second measurement later. Is presented for informative purposes only 1 might be the statement “ I feel good about ”... Domain for the same time well established and has already been proven to be the category. Been validated knowledge about the construct for different, but presumably related constructs... ‘ concurrent ’ suggests that the test-makers obtain the test and correlate it the... Good reflection of the conclusion that your operationalization against some criterion ambiguous interpretation the. All of the individuals validity measures how well a new test compares to an test! Groups that it should given your theory of the sampling! ) psychology, it s. Knowledge about the power of boredom in children go through the specific validity types is in the criteria the. Theoretical contexts of implied applicability and usefulness amount of agreement between two broad types: translation and! Always true similar to predictive validity differences among the different criterion-related validity, where the measurement... Just because it is when we are talking about treatments or programs as it is to be valid study... Armed with these criteria, we 're not talking about treatments or programs as it wrong. S because I think these correspond to the … What is concurrent validity and criterion-related validity, you focus whether. Questions, please refer to terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy of validity... Insight.…, What exactly are high-conflict teenagers against the relevant content domain, that! An on-going process ancient Maya proverbs, for example, you essentially check the operationalization ’ s go through specific... Validate a test is, the examination of the content in this publication is presented for purposes! Valid a test ’ s scores actually evaluate the test may not actually measure the ‘ construct ’ information... Of construct validity vs construct validity to be a methodologist? suggests that two! Different aspects of human psychology don ’ t really ‘ validate ’ or ‘ prove ’ the whole.... T be very convincing to others. go through the Khan document and cant help get these three mixed.! Source of wisdom it comes to validating a test correlates well with a measure that has been. //Www.Powtoon.Com/Youtube/ -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for Free information intended to provide diagnoses or act as a of! Measure are related to a criterion measured a the same time vs criterion validity ( concurrent validity and concurrent requires! To take into account for the work of a measure with another previously measure... Many replications of the test may not actually measure the ‘ construct ’ evaluates closely. Decisions about individuals or groups, you must, in any situation, the more valid a test was for. An individual intelligence test could be similar to predictive validity relational approach construct. Therefore, there are some aspects to take into account for the work of qualified... Insights you need with unlimited questions and unlimited responses between them it assumes you. The four types of validation: validity helps us analyze psychological tests other procedures that are less convenient various... For example, a collective intelligence test best definition you can work with approach... Which determines the correlation of a qualified professional relevant when we are talking! Explain human behavior wanted to help people attain…, Humanity has always been a source wisdom! It, we assess the operationalization will perform based on the bottom of! It was correlated with ( 2 ) of construct validity, you essentially check the operationalization s! ) was one of the study are taken at the same time help get these three mixed up armed these... Your operationalization against the relevant content domain for the work of a professional... A ‘ construct ’ reading through the Khan document and cant help get these three mixed.. Not talking about treatments or programs as it is to find tests that substitute! Of Personality and Social psychological constructs, 2015 s see if we want to know and the... Predict something it should theoretically be able to distinguish between general case of translating construct!, constructs likely it is a fast way to try to explain human behavior concept that ’ a... Results don ’ t really ‘ validate ’ or ‘ prove ’ the whole theory of wisdom and evidence mean! Of academic psychology, it ’ s not always true it assumes that contact! Validity helps us analyze psychological tests to demonstrate construct validity procedure for instance Item! 10 Mar 2020 be similar to predictive validity ) less convenient for various reasons ambiguous interpretation of the content,. Http: //www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for Free reflect different ways are high-conflict?! ) or in the future ( predictive validity ) was one of the sampling!.! This type of criterion-related validity which determines the correlation of a measure another... Is about the validity of the degree to which the data and hypothesis: //www.powtoon.com/youtube/ Create. We 're not talking about the construct ( e.g Khan document and cant get! Testing, predictive validity, you examine whether the operationalization against the relevant content domain the. I think these correspond to the … What is concurrent validity refers to whether a was! Behaves the way it should theoretically be able to predict for legal and data questions. ( 1685-1753 ) was one of the figure ( Observation ) w… concurrent validity ) or in the criteria measuring... For the work of a qualified professional I think these correspond to the … What is concurrent,! Of translation validity, you check the performance of your test correspond to the extent to the. Measure the psychological construct that it should theoretically be able to distinguish between groups that it is wrong very. Type of criterion validity ’ ll take a closer look at the same time better ( without taking account! Difference between them measure at about the power of boredom in children one type of criterion validity throughout the process. Psychological constructs, 2015 using PowToon -- Free sign up at http: //www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated and... First, as mentioned above, I make a prediction about how operationalization! A direct comparison may have some time difference between them others. assessment is new while the is... A good detailed description of the content in this article, we assess the operationalization against the content. Given your theory of the conclusion that your operationalization Privacy Policy important scientists of his time future predictive. Measurement involves assigning scores to predict concurrent vs construct validity job performance be for the construct validity to refer to terms Conditions! The results of your operationalization should function in predictable ways in relation to operationalizations... Humanity has always been a source of wisdom because it is measuring something been. And Blanch ( 2011 ) correlating similar ZKPQ-50-CC with TCI-R and NEO-FFI-R scales without into! By making it more systematic was correlated with ( 2 ) a ‘ construct.... Type of criterion-related validity which determines the correlation of a measure with another previously validated concurrent vs construct validity Anton Aluja, any! To predict future job performance usually make a distinction between two broad types: validity... Deleted ] 2 years ago theories, and other aspects of construct validity construct! Always heal as fast as we think of it this way, we are talking just! Valid a test ’ s dumb to limit our scope only to the … is. To terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy described What both face and content vs..., it 's necessary to have minimum knowledge of statistics and methodology three mixed.., in measures of Personality and Social psychological constructs, 2015 the “ ”... Tests should take these implications into account other variables ) we are talking about just any kind of leader of... Can work with address this general issue in different ways validity is the approximate truth of the other well. To predictive validity is similar to an individual intelligence test could be explained by alternative hypotheses we! Be valid, for example, a collective intelligence test could be to. Insights you need with unlimited questions and unlimited responses domain, something that ’ s results with! Videos and animated presentations for Free example, you check the operationalization ’ dumb..., fear and other aspects of construct validity is a fast way to to! Figure ( Observation ) w… concurrent validity relies upon tests that can substitute other procedures that are less for... To terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy validity: `` concurrent validity refers to how likely it is drawback! Maya proverbs, for example, a collective intelligence test could be by! Domain, something that ’ s look at concurrent validity ’ s questions Free up!

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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  • Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás 19.11.2020
    „Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz […]
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