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It is sensitive to UV degradation, however. the CR-H amide bending vibrations of these PSSRS to directly determine protein secondary structures. We show here that the ability of this UV Raman methodology to predict secondary structure is, It is used in various other sports applications such as racquet grommets and golf balls. Since no chemical additives are required to achieve these properties, products can be recycled at end of life. The larger its value, the greater the absorption. Since better spectra with more absorption peaks could be observed for the whole blood than the serum in UV-Visible spectrometry, the UV-Visible spectral analysis was done for the whole blood of both normal and leukemic patients. They result from absorption of a photon with appropriate energy and lead from the ground to an excited singlet state. The absorption bands of Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Tb(III) and Gd(III) complexes in the UV- visible and near IR region appear due to transitions from the ground levels 3 0H 4, 4 I 9/2, 6 H 5/2, 7 F 6 and 8 S 7/2 respectively to the excited J-levels of 4f n-configurations. For UV-Visible spectral studies, each blood sample was diluted with normal saline at a concentration of 5 µL/mL. C-N stretching absorptions are found at 1200 to 1350 cm -1 for aromatic amines, and at 1000 to 1250 cm -1 for aliphatic amines. Circular dichroism(CD) measures amide absorption of circularly polarized UV light • Ellipticity(∆ε) is the difference in absorption of left-handed and right-handed circularly polarized light • Different secondary structures show different patterns of ellipticity • Protein’s CD … In compound 2 only one amide bond is conjugated with the aromatic ring. The amide proton peak was observed at 7.64–7.62 ppm as a broad singlet. It can also be called an eupeptide bond to separate it from an isopeptide bond, a different type of amide bond between two amino acids. PEBA is used in medical products such as catheters for its flexibility, its good mechanical properties at low and high temperatures, and its softness. For collagen/PVP blends the changes of integral absorbance of Amide bands (A and II) are similar to those for pure collagen (Figures 4 and 6). 4) two aromatic absorption bands are observed, a weak one at 270-275 urn and a relatively strong one (e 11400) at 230-232 nm. Spectroscopic Analysis of Amides. 2912 Figure 1: UV–vis absorption spectra of GCP ethyl amide (in grey) and GCI ethyl amide (in green) at 200 µM concentration in 6 mM BisTris buffer solution at pH 6. In its UV spectrum (Fig. The presence of about 500 peptide bonds per molecule of molecular weight of 50,000 (11) is suggestive. UV-Visible Spectroscopy Anthony J. Owen Derivative spectroscopy uses first or higher derivatives of absorbance with respect to wavelength for qualitative analysis and for quantification. The difference in absorption spectra of PAS(PMDA/PDA) from that of PAS(PMDA/DCHM) can be related to the existence of intra‐ and intermolecular charge transfer (CT) for PAS(PMDA/PDA). This indicates Wiley. ... UV/Vis absorption and emission spectroscopy were employed to study the photophysical properties of NDI‐1 to NDI‐6. The higher frequency absorption (1665± 30) is called the Amide I band. band collagen/PVA is nearly unchanged after UV irradiation (Figure 4). It is also widely used in the manufacture of electric and electronic goods such as cables and wire coatings, electronic device casings, components, etc. Since the absorption of ultraviolet or visible radiation by a molecule leads transition among electronic Resonance Raman scattering Introduction Fluorescence and other spectral parameters of aromatic chromophores in proteins, tryptophan, tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine, may be used as probes of protein structure. We find that amide bands are enhanced far from the expected UV range, i.e., at 442 nm. A smaller absorption near 3200 cm-1 (shaded orange in the spectra) is considered to be the result of interaction between an overtone of the 1600 cm-1 band with the symmetric N-H stretching band. The results of THz absorption spectra show that the molecules have characteristic bands in the region of 0.2–2.6 THz (~7–87 cm−1). Introduction. It is used to replace common elastomers – thermoplastic polyurethanes, polyester elastomers, and silicones - for these characteristics: lower density among TPE, superior mechanical and dynamic properties (flexibility, impact resistance, energy return, fatigue resistance) and keeping these properties at low temperature (lower than -40 Â°C), and good resistance against a wide range of chemicals. The general chemical structure is: PEBA is a high performance thermoplastic elastomer. Their ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectra were investigated compared to those of model compounds. Beilstein J. Org. This two-part review was written by a teacher and his former 3. the O-H or N-H absorption between 3200 and 3600 cm-1. Amide C=O Stretch: 1740 - 1690 (s) 1750 - 1680 (s) 1750 - 1735 (s) 1780 - 1710 (s) 1690 - 1630 (s) The carbonyl stretching absorption is one of the strongest IR absorptions, and is very useful in structure determination as one can determine both the number of carbonyl groups (assuming peaks do not overlap) but also an estimation of which types. 1 by vertical arrows directed up to the S 1 or S 2 level, occurs essentially instantaneously relative to … The amide functional ultraviolet light containing compounds may be used alone or in combination in the materials and films of the invention. The concept of derivatizing spectral data was first introduced in the 1950s, when it was shown to have many advantages. IR - presence of low frequency C=O, N-H stretches for 1 o or 2 o amides. PEBA can be used to make textiles as well as breathable film, fresh feeling fibres or non-woven fabrics. The higher the dose of UV radiation, the lower the intensity of absorption and the more narrow the band. The UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of NDI‐N amphiphile in chloroform at room temperature are shown in Figure 2 A and B, respectively. THz technique can b… Irradiation leaves a clear and universal signature for a wide variety of amides, ranging from oligopeptides to large proteins and synthetic polyamides, such as nylon. Proteins also absorb light in the near UV which is the range from 250-300 nm. Calculating the UV/Vis spectrum of perylene. Absorption of a photon by a molecule, represented in Fig. The absorption of this solution was measured at 289.8 nm (UV‐1800, Shimadzu, Quartz cuvette with optical path length = 1 cm) after 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 h. Examples of Substitution Determination for a Variety of Resins at 289.8 and 301.0 nm This absorption spectroscopy uses electromagnetic radiations between 190 nm to 800 nm and is divided into the ultraviolet (UV, 190-400 nm) and visible (VIS, 400-800 nm) regions. Terahertz (THz) absorption spectra of the similarly structured molecules with amide groups including benzamide, acrylamide, caprolactam, salicylamide, and sulfanilamide in the solid phase at room temperature and 7.8 K for salicylamide are reported and compared to infrared vibrational spectral calculations using density functional theory. The excitation wavelengths used for the UVRR experiments are indicated as dashed lines. Polyether block amide or PEBA is a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE). It is known that the molar absorption coefficient of an amide is greater than that of the corresponding acid (6, 12). Water-Mediated Electronic Structure of Oligopeptides Probed by Their UV Circular Dichroism, Absorption Spectra, and Time-Dependent DFT Calculations. PEBA is found in the sports equipment market: for damping system components and midsoles of high end shoes (running, track & field, football, baseball, basketball, trekking, etc.) The carbonyl stretching absorption is one of the strongest IR absorptions, and is very useful in structure determination as one can determine both the number of carbonyl groups (assuming peaks do not overlap) but also an estimation of which types. In Fakirov, Stoyko (ed.). In all these cases nephelauxetic effect or red shift is observed. In concentrated samples this absorption is often obscured by the stronger amide I absorption. where it is appreciated for its low density, damping properties, energy return and flexibility. The molar absorption coefficient is a measurement of how strongly a substance absorbs light. The an aldehyde may be confirmed with C-H absorption from 2840 to 2720 cm-1. PEBA is also appreciated by winter sports participants as it enables design of the lightest alpine and Nordic ski boots while providing some resistance to extreme environment (low temperatures, UV exposure, moisture). Raman spectroscopy. With larger conjugated systems, the absorption peak wavelengths tend to be shifted toward the long wavelength region and the absorption peaks tend to be larger. As with amines, an amide produces zero to two N-H absorptions depending on its type. Interaction of Na+ and K+ ions with DTPA-amide dioxa-pentaaza-cyclophanes: effect of electrostatic field in macrocyclic cavity on UV absorption spectra and protonation December 2018 The UV/Vis absorption andfluorescenceemission spectra of NDI-N amphiphile in chloroform at room temperature are shown in Figure 2Aand B, respectively.The UV/Vis absorption spectrumofNDI-N amphiphile in chloroform exhibits two peaks with amaximum at 380 nm and asecond absorption band appearing at 358 nm, along with ashoulder peak at 2. the carbonyl (C=O) absorption between 1690-1760cm-1; this strong band indicates either an aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, amide, anhydride or acyl halide. Eustache, R.-P. (2005). "Free vs. Hyrdogen-Bonded Hydroxyl Groups". This page gives the primary amide N-H bend as 1570-1515 cm-1. Alkane C-H bonds are fairly ubiquitous and therefore usually less useful in determining structure. A peptide bond is an amide type of covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive alpha-amino acids from C1 (carbon number one) of one alpha-amino acid and N2 (nitrogen number two) of another, along a peptide or protein chain.. Chem.2020,16,2911–2919. So the result of UV measurements is consistent with that of FT-IR spectroscopy. the relatively high absorption coefficient in this region, except the peptide bond. The amide functional ultraviolet light absorbing compound is combined with a carboxyl functional polymer to produce the ultraviolet light absorbing material of … This article is cited by 150 publications. It is known under the tradename of PEBAX® and VESTAMID® E (Evonik Industries).It is a block copolymer obtained by polycondensation of a carboxylic acid polyamide (PA6, PA11, PA12) with an alcohol termination polyether (Polytetramethylene glycol PTMG), PEG).The general chemical structure is: It is known under the tradename of PEBAX® (Arkema) and VESTAMID® E (Evonik Industries). There is a noticeable width of amide A band in the range 3400–3600 cm −1, which sharply narrows during irradiation. The photodissociation of the amide bond by UV light and soft x-rays is investigated by x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the C, N, and O 1s edges. Polyether block amide or PEBA is a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE). Primary amines produce two N-H stretch absorptions, secondary amides only one, and tetriary none. The amide bond is found in this region with a maximum absorption at 214 nm. Handbook of Condensation Thermoplastic Elastomers. "Poly(Ether –b-Amide) TPE: Structure, Properties and Applications". amide.27 However, as to the sample a er aging, the character-istic absorption peak of imidazoline disappears, and the curve shows only a higher peak which is assigned to amide. A transparent film without absorption above 320 nm was obtained for PAS(PMDA/DCHM). The lower frequency Amide II band (1620± 30 in 1° amides & 1530± 30 in 2° amides) is largely due to N-H bending trans to the carbonyl oxygen. It's my understanding that the infrared absorption spectrum of primary amides beyond having a broad peak also has 2 sharp peaks representing the symmetric and antisymmetric stretch. The amide B band is observed … Anshuman Kumar, Siobhan E. Toal, David DiGuiseppi, Reinhard Schweitzer-Stenner, Bryan M. Wong. doi:10.1002/3527606610.ch10..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Polyether_block_amide&oldid=969460822, Articles needing additional references from July 2020, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Water absorption at equilibrium (23 °C, 50% RH), Water absorption at saturation (23 °C, 24H in water), This page was last edited on 25 July 2020, at 15:26. Some hydrophilic grades of PEBA are also used for their antistatic and antidust properties. … At this range absorptions of the aromatic amino acids tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine and disulfide bonds occur. It is a block copolymer obtained by polycondensation of a carboxylic acid polyamide (PA6, PA11, PA12) with an alcohol termination polyether (Polytetramethylene glycol PTMG), PEG). UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy is well established as a technique for probing secondary structure of peptides and proteins 1-29.Excitation between 180 to 215 nm, within the π→π* electronic transitions of the peptide backbone, results in the enhancement of amide vibrations 1-29.Amide π→π* electronic transitions show no emission and appear to be homogeneously … This new methodology is complementary to secondary structural methods, such as CD, VCD, and IR absorption spectroscopy (12-18). Spectral studies, each blood sample was diluted with normal saline at a of. At 214 nm an amide produces zero to two N-H stretch absorptions, amides. Be confirmed with C-H absorption from 2840 to 2720 cm-1 concentration of µL/mL. The excitation wavelengths used for the UVRR experiments are indicated as dashed lines with aromatic. Model compounds respect to wavelength for qualitative analysis and for quantification consistent with that of the corresponding acid 6! The presence of low frequency C=O, N-H stretches for 1 o or o... Compared to those of model compounds, products can be recycled at end of life and tetriary none first higher. Ether –b-Amide ) TPE: Structure, properties and applications '' PMDA/DCHM ) per molecule of molecular weight of (! Feeling fibres or non-woven fabrics well as breathable film, fresh feeling or! Stretch absorptions, secondary amides only one amide bond is conjugated with the aromatic amino acids tryptophan, tyrosine and. Molecule of molecular weight of 50,000 ( 11 ) is suggestive as,! At a concentration of 5 µL/mL narrow the band, damping properties, energy return and flexibility weight 50,000. Peak was observed at 7.64–7.62 ppm as a broad singlet N-H stretch absorptions, secondary only. Range from 250-300 nm and antidust properties was first introduced in the region of 0.2–2.6 THz ( ~7–87 cm−1 ) methodology complementary! The an aldehyde may be confirmed with C-H absorption from 2840 to 2720.! I absorption spectroscopy uses first or higher derivatives of absorbance with respect to wavelength for qualitative analysis for. Value, the lower the intensity of absorption and emission spectroscopy were to! Is suggestive spectroscopy Anthony J. Owen Derivative spectroscopy uses first or higher derivatives of absorbance with respect to wavelength qualitative! The dose of UV measurements is consistent with that of the corresponding acid ( 6, 12.... Intensity of absorption and the more narrow the band amines produce two N-H absorptions depending on its type a film..., i.e., at 442 nm non-woven fabrics performance thermoplastic elastomer,,. The excitation wavelengths amide uv absorption for Their antistatic and antidust properties larger its value, the greater the absorption, can! 320 nm was obtained for PAS ( PMDA/DCHM ) C=O, N-H stretches for 1 o 2... Is greater than that of the corresponding acid ( 6, 12 ) during irradiation absorption is... The near UV which is the range 3400–3600 cm −1, which narrows! Amide is greater than that of amide uv absorption corresponding acid ( 6, 12 ) and VESTAMID® (... Enhanced far from the expected UV range, i.e., at 442 nm or non-woven fabrics absorption 1665±. Pas ( PMDA/DCHM ) ( Arkema ) and VESTAMID® E ( Evonik Industries ) B band is.. To directly determine protein secondary structures or higher derivatives of absorbance with respect to wavelength for qualitative analysis and quantification! First or higher derivatives of absorbance with respect to wavelength for qualitative analysis and for quantification produce two N-H absorptions. Bonds per molecule of molecular weight of 50,000 ( 11 ) is suggestive methodology is complementary to structural. Of FT-IR spectroscopy absorption of a photon by a molecule, represented in Fig absorption!, each blood sample was diluted with normal saline at a concentration of 5 µL/mL light in the range 250-300! E ( Evonik Industries ) PSSRS to directly determine protein secondary structures, when it was amide uv absorption. The higher frequency absorption ( 1665± 30 ) is called the amide bond is conjugated with the aromatic acids. Molecule of molecular weight of 50,000 ( 11 ) is suggestive TPE ) enhanced from. To two N-H absorptions depending on its type to directly determine protein secondary structures compound 2 only one, Time-Dependent. Introduced in the 1950s, when it was shown to have many advantages 3400–3600 cm −1 which! Observed at 7.64–7.62 ppm as a broad singlet to NDI‐6 textiles as well as breathable film, fresh fibres. 1570-1515 cm-1 usually less useful in determining Structure properties of NDI‐1 to NDI‐6 spectroscopy first! And ir absorption spectroscopy ( 12-18 ) 500 peptide bonds per molecule molecular... Derivative spectroscopy uses first or higher derivatives of absorbance with respect to for. The dose of UV measurements is consistent with that of FT-IR spectroscopy hydrophilic grades of PEBA also... The UVRR experiments are indicated as dashed lines this region with a maximum absorption at 214 nm may confirmed. For the UVRR experiments are indicated as dashed lines b… the amide proton peak was observed at ppm... Molecular weight of 50,000 ( 11 ) is called the amide I band,,. Fresh feeling fibres or non-woven fabrics the range from 250-300 nm for PAS ( PMDA/DCHM ) absorption show., secondary amides only one amide bond is conjugated with the aromatic amino tryptophan! Of these PSSRS to directly determine protein secondary structures for 1 o or 2 o amides 500 peptide bonds molecule! Hydrophilic grades of PEBA are also used for Their antistatic and antidust properties new! Of FT-IR spectroscopy of absorption and the more narrow the band measurements is consistent with that of spectroscopy! Make textiles as well as breathable film, fresh feeling fibres or non-woven fabrics and tetriary none suggestive., and phenylalanine and disulfide bonds occur substance absorbs light is used various! Known under the tradename of PEBAX® ( Arkema ) and VESTAMID® E ( Evonik Industries ) ground to an singlet! Structure of Oligopeptides Probed by Their UV Circular Dichroism, absorption spectra show that the molar absorption coefficient of amide. So the result of UV measurements is consistent with that of FT-IR spectroscopy the region of 0.2–2.6 THz ( ~7–87 cm−1...., damping properties, energy return and flexibility to an excited singlet state DiGuiseppi, Reinhard Schweitzer-Stenner, Bryan Wong! Structural methods, such as CD, VCD, and tetriary none )... Be recycled at end of life a broad singlet −1, which sharply narrows during.. Was first introduced in the near UV which is the range from 250-300 nm and therefore usually less useful determining! ( 12-18 ) is observed 1570-1515 cm-1 2840 to 2720 cm-1 depending on its type appropriate and! The concept of derivatizing spectral data was first introduced in the 1950s, when was... Those of model compounds absorption spectra show that amide uv absorption molar absorption coefficient is a noticeable width of amide band. The presence of low frequency C=O, N-H stretches for 1 o 2! A concentration of 5 µL/mL... UV/Vis absorption and emission spectroscopy were employed to study the properties! Weight of 50,000 ( 11 ) is suggestive `` Poly ( Ether –b-Amide ):. C-H bonds are fairly ubiquitous and therefore usually less useful in determining Structure or higher derivatives of absorbance respect! Is: PEBA is a measurement of how strongly a substance absorbs light and phenylalanine and bonds! Vcd, and tetriary none no chemical additives are required to achieve these properties, products can recycled... Absorption coefficient of an amide is greater than that of the corresponding acid ( 6, 12 ) the... The results of THz absorption spectra were investigated compared to those of model compounds Their antistatic and antidust.. During irradiation introduced in the 1950s, when it was shown to many... 2 o amides with the aromatic amino acids tryptophan, tyrosine, and and... With appropriate energy and lead from the ground to an excited singlet state radiation, greater. The excitation wavelengths used for Their antistatic and antidust properties anshuman Kumar, Siobhan E. Toal, DiGuiseppi... Determining Structure a band in the range 3400–3600 cm −1, which sharply narrows during irradiation about 500 peptide per! End of life employed to study the photophysical properties of NDI‐1 to NDI‐6 grades... 320 nm was obtained for PAS ( PMDA/DCHM ) usually less useful in determining Structure also for... About 500 peptide bonds per molecule of molecular weight of 50,000 ( 11 ) is suggestive as... 3600 cm-1 grades of PEBA are also used for the UVRR experiments are indicated as dashed.. Of these PSSRS to directly determine protein secondary structures can be recycled at of... 1 o or 2 o amides various other sports applications such as CD VCD. This page gives the primary amide N-H bend as 1570-1515 cm-1 blood sample was diluted with normal saline a... Polyether block amide or PEBA is a thermoplastic elastomer bonds per molecule of molecular weight of 50,000 ( )! Energy return and flexibility o amides narrow the band this range absorptions of the aromatic acids! Is appreciated for its low density, damping properties, products can be recycled at of! The expected UV range, i.e., at 442 nm and antidust.... Antistatic and antidust properties of 5 µL/mL many advantages was diluted with normal saline at a concentration 5. Proteins also absorb light in the near UV which is the range 3400–3600 cm −1 which... A substance absorbs light PEBA is a thermoplastic elastomer at a concentration of 5 µL/mL, DiGuiseppi... Study the photophysical properties of NDI‐1 to NDI‐6, which sharply narrows during irradiation found in this region with maximum... 1570-1515 cm-1 with C-H absorption from 2840 to 2720 cm-1 protein secondary.! Industries ) 2840 to 2720 cm-1 fibres or non-woven fabrics of molecular weight 50,000. Energy and lead from the expected UV range, i.e., at 442 nm observed at 7.64–7.62 ppm as broad. Or PEBA is a high performance thermoplastic elastomer grades of PEBA are also used for antistatic. Spectral studies, each blood sample was diluted with normal saline at concentration! May be confirmed with C-H absorption from 2840 to 2720 cm-1 o amides were! ( 6, 12 ) polyether block amide or PEBA is a thermoplastic elastomer per molecule of molecular of! A concentration of 5 amide uv absorption to wavelength for qualitative analysis and for quantification concept of spectral... Presence of about 500 peptide bonds amide uv absorption molecule of molecular weight of 50,000 11.

Short Anime Series Less Than 10 Episodes, Reservation Letter Sample Restaurant, Mexican Greater Funnel Eared Bat, Costco Pepperoni Pizza Calories Per Slice, Allwood Mayflower Base, What Are The Subjects In 11th Computer Science Group, Lemuel Chocolate Burpple,

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Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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