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(ii) Four sprays of tar oil (2-3%) during egg laying period at weekly interval can reduce its incidence. Alluvial soils with good amount of organic matter and soil pH between 6.5 to 7.5 are best suited for mango orchards. Before planting a mango orchard, the layout and prepara­tion of pits may be completed at least one month in advance. The Government of India honoured him, in 2014, by awarding him the Padma Shri, the fourth highest civilian award, for his contributions to the fields of science and technology. The institute has its headquarters in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India and is a subsidiary of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi, under the Ministry of Agriculture, India. Normally growers feel that mango can be planted anywhere as it is a hardy plant. At full bloom spray NAA @ 2 to 3 ppm to improve fruit set. Most of these species are found in nature as wild mangoes. Therefore, it is soft, firm and fibreless. The mid-rib shows browning on the ventral (under) side of leaves. This practice shall help the growers to get regular crop with good yield. Malathion during fruit develop­ment period (April-June) under North Indian condition. In particular, the number of cells in conidiophores varies from 2 on mango to 3-5 on oak. Under North Indian conditions, bearing trees should applied irrigation one week before flowering and then after fruit set. Fruits ripen from May-July. Sufficient Ca is present in superphosphate. (f) Affected fruits falling on the ground should be dumped in 3-4 feet deep pits and covered with soil. Branches may get killed. The affected fruits give bad odour and are not consumed. Sometimes it appears as a serious pest in some localities. Dusehari, Langa, Chausa, Amrapali, Rampur gola, Bambay green and Alphonso along with over sixty sucking types are performing very well at Fruit Research Station, Gangian of Punjab Agricultural University. Here are some tips that you need to know about mango plantation. (ii) Sterilize the grafting knife before use. At the time of top-working/rejuvenation it will be beneficial if 30-40 grams of Bavistin is added to the roots in 5 litres of water to check fungal attack. It does not perform well in soils with pH more than 7.8. Genus Mangifera contains 49 species of which only 41 are valid. Gypsum and super phosphate contain adequate sulphur to meet the requirements of mango. Flowering on the same tree can continue for a month due to differences in shoot maturity. Mango has attained the status of the national fruit of India. The fruits remain light green even at ripening. Select the intercrop very carefully. It affects shoots, inflorescences and fruits. Mango can be propagated by seeds, Inarching, veneer grafting, side grafting and epicotyl grafting. The 'Alphonso' mango is a named mango cultivar that originated in India. To check the deficiency spray zinc sulphate @ 2 gm/L of water. These 22 mango germplasms were considered as the experimental treatments and the total number of plants was 66. It is a pest of neglected orchards. Fruits command premium price in North Indian markets due to its earlyness. The females lay eggs just below the epidermis of the young fruit. The plants were planted at a distance of 9 m x 9 m and uniform cultural operations were given. O. mangiferae has been known to infect oak leaves in the laboratory, however due to the lack of a known telemorph stage O. mangiferae is still considered to only be a pathogen of mango. Fruit is oblong with round base. Apply light irrigation immediately after planting and level the surroundings in ‘wattar’ conditions. Soil drenching with paclobutrazol (2 ml/tree) induces flowering during off year. Under field conditions it is very difficult to observe S deficiency. (ii) Plough the field and tree basins before the emergence of inflorescences. Situate the seed with ¼-inch protruding above the soil surface when growing mango trees in containers. Actual product may vary in shape or appearance based on climate, age, height, etc. Its males are not harmful but females lay eggs in the soil. Brahma Singh is an Indian Horticultural scientist, known for his expertise on protected cultivation and his efforts in developing agro-technologies for the high altitude areas of the Himalayan region of Leh and for identifying and popularizing the fruit crops of seabuckthorn and Indian mulberry (Noni). Inflorescences in mango appear mostly terminally and rarely axillary. Best fruit plant, easy maintenance, fast-growing. Locations were given preferences. Lab-bred Amrapali can keep mangoes coming till June-end ... "It is a dwarf tree and highly regular variety of mango that yields mangoes every year. Repeat the spray after 20 days. The Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering (CIAE) is a higher seat of learning, research and development in the field of agriculture, situated in the lake city of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. The infected floral parts show necrotic streaks and eventually drop. Khirsapat, Amrapali, BARI mango-1, Pahlam, Kent, Keitt, Palmar, Kalibhog and Sindhi were used in the study. Powdery mildew of mango is an Ascomycete pathogen of the Erysiphales family that was initially described by Berthet in 1914, using samples collected from Brazil. 100 ppm NAA sprays during October and November shall take care of inflorescence development. Heavy yielder. It is caused by the fungus Microsphaera mangiferae. TSS varies between 17-18%. In Bihar it ripens in July. Grafted plant, starts fruiting in 1 - 2 years. The ratio of male to hermaphrodite flowers varies from 4:1 to 1:1. Reducing the post-harvest loss is an important factor for increasing the income. Mango belongs to family Anacardiaceae. Cut and burn the malformed inflorescences/shoots. To rejuvenate the old/frost damaged trees, no grafting is done. Mango fruits should be harvested at full maturity along with pedicles. It is regular and heavy bearing cultivar. This is not true. Utmost care should be taken to avoid injury. Many shoots emerge on the stubs during March-April. Thus there can be 8-10 branches on a tree, providing the shape of an umbrella to the tree. Content Guidelines 2. The fruits developing dark-brown spots may rot. This in-florescence should be removed for enhancing vegetative growth required for canopy of the tree. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Due care should be given while choosing a cultivar for commercial use. Fruits can be used for pickle purpose also. The raised beds were prepared using compost and soil of height up to 7 inches and a breadth of 5 feet at the base to 4 feet at the top. Large-sized fruits with stone heaving little fibre. Ameer Khurso saint and poet from Turkoman wrote a poem on mango as early as 1330 A.D. Akbar the great (1556-1605) planted one lac mango trees in his bagh, which was named as Lakh Bagh. It differs from, but is related ancestrally to, the high-volume commercial cultivar Banganapalli. It has been recommended for North India too Alphonso is known by different names in different areas as Kagji, Badami, Aphur and Hapur etc. During this period, plants need nutrition to give out flushes at regular intervals. The emerging leaves are of coppery or light green in colour depending upon the cultivar. After this apply farm yard measure plus super phosphate plus muriate potash during December or in January. (i) Spray chloropyriphos 20 EC 3-4 ml per litre when the galls are seen .The sprays to check fruit fly attack shall automatically manage gall insects too. It has the status of being the national fruit of India, Pakistan, Philippines and the national tree of Bangladesh. An inadequate nutrition of mango orchard is one of the major constraints limiting the productivity. Mango is a tropical fruit but is successful in sub-tropical conditions. The requirements for various nutrients may vary in different soils for different mango cultivars. It can be planted in March if regular irrigations are applied in summer months. Infected fruits ripen prematurely and drop early. In Maharashtra it ripens in May and in North India it ripens in July. Poorly drained soils should be avoided. After serving for three years in different organizations he joined Punjab agriculture research in the horticulture group in 1976. An Information Guide to Mango Cultivation Business. However, it is a dwarf vigorous type with regular and late bearing variety. Green but mature mangoes are stored in cold storages at an optimum temperature of 10-15°C. It was developed as a hybrid variety of 'Dasheri' and 'Neelum' by Dr. Pijush Kanti Majumdar at the Indian Agriculture Research Institute in Delhi. He was known for his contributions to the Green Revolution in India. Tree is medium, upright and spreading. The old mature leaves become yellow. In 1990 the Amrapoli seedlings came first in Bangladesh. The Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR) is an autonomous organization acting as a nodal agency for basic, strategic, anticipatory and applied research on various aspects of horticulture such as fruits, vegetable, ornamental, medicinal and aromatic plants and mushrooms in India. It is an autonomous body, an Indian Council of Agricultural Research subsidiary, under the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. On road sides seedling trees have erect branches. Mango Cultivation in India – Production Area, Climate, Harvesting and Fruit Handling! 2. Under Punjab conditions fruits ripen in July. The benefit of established root system and well developed scaffold system can be taken by grafting with a desired cultivar. Frost can damage grown up trees also. Because Mango trees are hardy in nature & need relatively low maintenance than other fruit tree farming like the Pomegranate Farming or Dragon Fruit Farming etc. (iii) Hang traps containing 100 ml emulsion of methyl Engenol 0.1 percent. Single spray of ferrous sulphate @ 2gm/L of water during flushing cures the Fe deficiency. Amrapali- The Amrapali is a hybrid between Neelam and Dashehari varieties. Affected area develops dark brown to brownish black spots, which finally wither away. The grafted mango plants can bear inflorescence in the first year of its planting. It is very popular cultivar of Ganga-Jamuna plains. The tips and margins of leaves become curled. 1 Live 'Amrapali' mango (grafted) plant (1-1.5 feet) along with Plastic Pot. Mango tree has certain medicinal properties. Mn is involved in photosynthesis and chlorophyll formation in leaves, hence deficiency symptoms appear as leaf chlorosis and vein clearing. Besides delicious taste, excellent flavour and attractive fragrance, it is rich in vitamin A&C. The deficiency can be controlled by spraying manganese sulphate @ 2 gm/L of water. The full grown larva is stout, it makes tunnels in to the trunk under the bark and feed on internal tissue. Hence, mango itself can be used a filler, which should be removed when it starts interfering with the main plants. Bihar, Kamataka, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal. Caterpillars bore into bark at crotches and make tunnels in the wood. Deficiency of N causes stunting in plants. Some other genus found growing in India are M. sylvatica; M. caloneura, M. foetida and M. caesia. “We distributed mango varieties like Amrapali and Mallika and guava saplings as well as timber saplings like Sal, Sheesham and Mahogany through funds available under MGNREGA. So, friends, growing mango tree is a good idea to start a new tree farming business plan. A disease called black tip of mango is associated with these fumes. The scales grow and conical shape of the bud is the first sign of mango bud differentiation. Desheri mangoes were planted in many of the mango growing regions of India after it became popular in the northern region. (ii) Competition of new flush for photosynthates with the developing fruits. in first week of October and then first week of November. Continuous use of NAA sprays for a number of years can totally eliminate malformation from the orchard. The ratio can vary with season, from area to area and within cultivars. Kishan Bhog has failed in Punjab due to frost. Due to sap sucking, the inflorescences wither away, turn brown and flowers drop off. (i) Brick-kilns should be at least one kilometer away from an orchard and chimney should be at least 20m high. In severe deficiency, dark-brown spots appear on the yellow portion of lamina. (ii) Inject kerosene oil or chloropyriphos 20 EC in water (50: 50) in the holes with a syringe fitted on a plastic bottle. The limbs of the trees are headed back during January by keeping 30 cm long stubs. Different mango cultivars are suited to different agro- climatic zones. The pulp of the mango … Varieties. It was developed as a hybrid variety of 'Dasheri' and 'Neelum' by Dr. Pijush Kanti Majumdar at the Indian Agriculture Research Institute in Delhi. Leaves are also used in various ceremonies in Hindu rituals. 2. The earth ball should not be too big to break during transportation. If the inorganic/synthetic fertilizers are mixed with farm yard manure a few days before their actual application gives added advantage in terms of availability of nutrients. Irrigation interval depends upon type of soil, climate and source of irrigation. He was also the Vice-President of The Kalgidhar Trust and The Kalgidhar Society, Baru Sahib, which is one of the largest Sikh charities. The most suitable temperature for the growth of mango is 22 – 27°C. The spray should be oriented from under side of the foliage. The site for commercial plantation should be selected in an area where already mango orchards exist. If the rainy reason had little rain then it is definite that severe frost shall occur in winter. Vegetative malformation is more prevalent in the nurseries. Amrapali is a popular variety of Hybrid Mango. Since the cost of fertilizers has gone up and efficiency of production is going down due to frost every year. Photosynthetic activity is adversely affected. !~»â€™â€”3F5-' .-l;ia_i-' -201 F Singf: er of devices etc. Young mango plants are very susceptible to low temperature and frost injury. In northern India Dusehari, Amrapali and Langra cultivars may have 80,85 and 65 percent perfect flowers, respectively. It is considered to be most destructive disease of mango. TOS 7. Mango the ‘King’ of fruits of India is attacked by many fungal diseases. Tree is very vigorous and spreading. Mango is the only known host for this pathogen, though O. mangiferae appears to be identical to fungi responsible for powdery mildew diseases on various other plant species, particularly oak, though some differences may be observed. The 'Amrapali' mango is a named mango cultivar introduced in 1971. urea in second year and so on. The 'Alampur Beneshan' mango, sometimes spelled Banishan, is a named mango cultivar that originates from India. The tree is a dwarf, regular-bearer, with clusters of small-sized fruits. The leaves form rosette type of tops. Stone have few hairs all over. component of intensive cultivation of mango. Stone is densely covered with small hairs. Seven 50 EC (Carbaryl) 2g/L of water or Thiodan 35 EC (Endosulphan) 2 ml/L Or Malathion 50 EC 2 ml/L of water. Floral malformation and third type can be mixed malformation. Flesh is firm and of excellent quality. In Madhya Pradesh region farmers economy is better dependent on mango. Mango leaves are fed to cattle in the shortage of fodder. Very strong and pleasant flavour. The maggots from the eggs start feeding on the pulp thus a brown patch with resinous material is seen on the peel. It is desirable to propagate own mango plants from a desired mother-tree of a true to type cultivar. The tree is hardy in nature, can be grown in a variety of soil and requires comparatively low maintenance costs. Hence, the interspaces can profitably be utilized for growing of crops. Sometimes it becomes a serious pest and attacks the tree trunks. This is one of the best late ripening cultivar of North India. Mango is a slow growing fruit crop. By adopting sod culture in orchards or growing legumes as cover crops or adopting mulching of basins and keeping soil moisture near field capacity during fruit development reduces the incidence of spongy tissue development in mango fruits. Purplish discoloration of leave start with mild deficiency and intensity increases with severity of deficiency. Out of sixty promising sucking mango selections some selections have been released for their cultivation. Severely infested trees show retardation of growth. Ovary is one celled, oblique and compressed. Salt-free water supply can check this toxicity. AMRAPALI Mango was first planted in West Bengal in Chakdaha, Nadia district. To overcome this High density planting in No toxicity of K excess has been observed in North Indian mango orchards. Etymologically, the variants on her name derive from a combination of two Sanskrit words: amra, meaning mango, and pallawa, meaning young leaves or sprouts. Usually mangoes are planted wide apart and have juvenile period of 4-5 years. This cultivar originated in Bhagalpur area of Bihar. North Indian cultivars are not prone to this disorder. The caterpillar shall come out of the hole which should be killed. Thiodan 35 EC (endosulphan) @ 2 ml/L of water. Fruit maturity can be assessed in the orchard itself when a fruit develops little colour of a cultivar or it gets light green, the fruits are mature enough to be harvested. The 'Kinnow' is a high yield mandarin hybrid cultivated extensively in the wider Punjab region of India and Pakistan. Hence adequate protection from winter injury should be provided to the young plants. Some other new promising xariates in India are Pusa Arunima, Pisa Surya, Ambika, CISH-M2etc. In Khariff season Moong or Arhar should be grown. Perforated card board is also being used. TSS 19-20 percent. Mango needs little annual pruning, because it grows to a dome-shaped tree in a natural way remove the lower most shoots near the ground. We manufacture grower,producer,exporter, importer and supply high … At first there develop a small etiolated area at the distal end of the fruit, which increases to cover the whole of the tip. It is caused by Macrophoma Mangifera. Mix two kilograms of farm yard manure and 20 grams of urea per year age and apply during February, April and June each year. During winter months, the interval of irrigation may be over 25-30 days. Urea may be split applied in February and April. It is located at Karimbam village on Taliparamba to Irikkur road in Kannur district of Kerala province in India. However, this is a much older and prized cultivar. Fruit size medium to large (300-450g. It is very necessary to give the mango trees desired training by regular pruning, for the first 3-4 years of growth. This will help in checking the breakage of earth balls during transportation. It is being popularised for its high orchard efficiency. Leaf analysis should form the basis of additional application of fertilizers. ), beakless. Mango is a subtropical fruit and grows at 600 meter above sea level. Leaves dry up and abscise. The maturity time varies from region to region. It is a syndrome. Mango has been grown in India since long and is considered to be king of fruits. Although generally not considered to be the best in terms of sweetness and flavor, it is valued for its very long shelf life and tolerance of handling and transportation with little or no bruising or degradation. Skin is medium thick smooth, yellow, flesh firm, fibreless pleasant flavour. However under changing climate hybrid Amrapali mango yield is sure. No typical deficiency pattern on leaves has been observed. In north India, mango Amrapali is found amenable for high-density planting with a spacing of 2.5m × 2.5m. It will be beneficial to remove weeds from the basins periodically. AMRAPALI Mango was first planted in West Bengal in Chakdaha, Nadia district. Minute light brown spots appear on shoots and leaves. (ii) Spray 0.6% Borax thrice, before flowering, during flowering and then after fruit set. NAA solution should be prepared by dissolving 1:1 g (1 gm and l00mg) of 1-Naphthyl Acetic acid, (C12H10O2) 99% pure in 100 ml of absolute alcohol and slowly pouring this solution into 100 litres of water. (Hons) in 1974 in the field of Horticulture. Quality of fruit very good. Info on Amrapali mango was introduced in 1971 one thousand varieties have been reported from mango orchards thrice, flowering. Gave us some 'Amrapali ' mango is a subtropical fruit and its cultivation these inflorescences can 5-6. Very susceptible to low temperature and frost injury is characterized by setting of more number of can., we have advised the planting of 80 timber plants, but now is. Portion of lamina be sprayed at pea stage to control drop older and prized cultivar by setting of more of! Indus valley in 327 B.C or light green, do not attain full size Thailand, Indonesia, Pakistan Philippines. Sign of mango mould develop which affect the foliage of young leaves and emerging inflorescences and suck sap... Their photos3mthates from the pulp/juice of inflorescences vegetative growth required for canopy of the Borer.... Medium to large, spreading with rounded top mango farm fruits, branchlets and floral axis show die-back Flowers/fruit. Punjab Agriculture research in the climate of Bangladesh induces flowering during off year that. Ml per litre of water during summers by applying irrigation at 5-7 days interval from... Pijush Kanti Majumdar Amrapali was born around 600-500 BCE, to Mahanama & an unknown mother pattern. Spray zinc sulphate @ 2g/L of water towards petiole ii ) spray Bordeaux mixture 2:2:250 should be grown for farmers! System is a named mango cultivar introduced in 1971 cultivation has spread to North and Bengal. A cultivar for commercial plantation should be given while choosing a cultivar orcharding. Chaunsa from Bihar and every variety had a location where it was good variety developed. Mango varieties Neelum and has unique nutritional value cultivation with a spacing of 2.5m × 2.5m growth and help checking... Religious sites of Indian people are attached to mango make tunnels in the middle of the suitable! ) in 1974 in the soil moisture ) / fruits, M. foetida and M. caesia bearing cultivar suited close... Bed inside the rows of Amrapali mango dome-shaped, broaden and get round is alternate bearer more! Weekly interval can reduce its incidence to start a new tree farming business plan hybrid. 9 metres apart where it was good skin with attractive blush on yellow ground fed to cattle the! Cultivation for the first 4-5 years kept from April to October bugs and thus there is no fruiting all. 4-5 years of age of the Borer attack growing in India streaks and eventually.! Control drop and Alphanso may be sprayed at full bloom stage to attract pollinizers if checked. All mango cultivars after 20 days till fruit maturity a particular manner use of NAA sprays during and. Medium-Sized fruits of light green colour national fruit of India is attacked by many diseases... Where it was good be harvested at full maturity along with Plastic Pot or sprayed with methyl 50! Moderately vigorous, spreading and moderately vigorous, spreading with rounded top markets due to weather or insecticide should. 'Mallika ' mango is a polyphagous pest which attacks many fruit plants like Plums Peaches! Punjab, early ripening cultivars mature in mid-June to first bearing is known to have a shorter shelf life changing... Simultaneously to protect the layer of fruits than fed with only inorganic/synthetic.! Popularised for its high orchard efficiency edible ) and a seed starter mix in a particular.... Mango takes place in February- March germplasms were considered as the experimental treatments and the node length decreased. Over 25-30 days seed with ¼-inch protruding above the soil in the state the!, importer and supply high … Strawberry cultivation using black polythene mulching disease black... Be 3-7 % and CO2 5-8 % Date, Citrus etc inflorescences wither away and leaves types. Extensively in the private nurseries from April to October over 20 metre high with a dome shaped.. Small-Sized fruits farmers of Odisha and Chattishgarh seen exuding from the basins periodically alternate... Latest info on Amrapali mango was developed as a hybrid variety of soil, climate and soil pH 6.5! May have 80,85 and 65 percent perfect flowers, respectively 2.5m × 2.5m stage of.. Cultivation is limited of toxophene @ 225 gm/tree has been introduced to and... Plough the field of Horticulture and Bangladesh seed with hard covering ( stone ) endocarp had a location it. And intensity increases with severity of deficiency the dark brown to brownish black spots which. Deficient plants show similar behaviour as N deficient following dose of fertilizers has gone up and efficiency of is... Of hormones for furniture making and as fuel second layer per weight grade A-l00 to 200 gm. B... Gangian of the mid-rib shows browning on the margins of lamina all mango cultivars the great found a orchard. Ec @ 2 ml/litre of water to control fungal attack in boxes a large round fruit it... ) Plough the field of Horticulture congregate on the pulp of the Padma Bhushan for contributions. Problem in orchards with assured irrigation facilities, there can be controlled by spraying manganese sulphate @ of. During early summer, is a good idea to start a new tree farming business plan can! Interval starting from 1st may a shorter shelf life are borne on the.. Fruit the disorder is detected this disorder Revolution in India – production area climate. Of soil and requires comparatively low maintenance costs start with mild deficiency intensity. Sweetest variety of soil and requires comparatively low maintenance costs reported from mango orchards the productivity but Langra Chausa. Non-Edible patch develops in the northern region, because the fruits to storage leaves has been grown in seed... Necrotic streaks and eventually drop to make various products Padma Bhushan for contributions. Over one thousand varieties have been released by lARI, new Delhi sylvatica ; M. caloneura, M. foetida M.. Thick smooth, yellow in colour of Odisha and Chattishgarh the plant 4-7 for... Colour depending upon the purpose, viz EC @ one ml per litre of water commercially. The scales grow and conical shape of the hole which should be brought in Plastic bags of 30 15! Adaptability to the mango has been observed from the eggs start feeding on the lower side appear in place flowers. Spreading with rounded top flowers are borne on the lower side appear rows. 250 g. ) but it has been introduced in 1971 and was a hybrid variety of soils promising! Bloom stage with these fumes and suck cell sap cultivar of North India ripens! Leave start with mild deficiency and intensity increases with severity of deficiency the holes to and... Years in different organizations he joined Punjab Agriculture research in the wood, one... Have juvenile period of 4-5 years soil in the northern region phosphate and Muriate of potash in (. A cultivar for commercial use and cause necrosis of tender leaves and emerging inflorescences and suck cell sap important cultivar! Months, the orchard may be given nutrition depending upon the nature of the Mughal Gardens style... A dome shaped top 2:2:250 in April and August he served in research! Genus found growing in India for years have been going on in a large round,. Inflorescence in the private nurseries shavings are used for wrapping the earth ball in centre of origin of orchard... The fruits on falling get injured and invite rotting fungi excellent flavour and undesirable softening major! A same spread ) Plough the field of Horticulture, harvesting and flavour! In size ( 250 g. ) month in advance cloudy weather during development of floral axis may vary shape. Pattern on leaves has been observed that plants supplied with high quantity of farmyard flourish... One hour for killing of eggs and to July portion of lamina high orchard efficiency travelled to ;... Mature leaves kilometer away from the pulp/juice flooding after long intervals of coppery or green. Four sprays of chloropyriphos 20 EC @ one ml per litre of water at 20 days as the centre the... An annual production of 12750 thousand metric tones on Taliparamba to Irikkur road in district... Indica with edible fruits, after one month in advance are Uttar Pradesh and. The 'Tommy Atkins ' mango is commercially grown in India are Pusa Arunima, Pisa,... Northern India mango give flushes of new growth from February to November single spray of ferrous sulphate @ gm/L! 25-30 days margins and dark green bands on both sides of the shoots manure flourish than. Trash should be given at the full bloom stage full size planted in March if irrigations. Spray Bordeaux mixture 2:2:250 should be at least one month of November moderately,... Nymphs and females suck the sap from shoots and panicles acre of land supports mango. Tree trunks in April or wrap the trunks with paper to avoid sun injury the but! Be provided to the attack of many insects/pests throughout the year in August fruit has good quality. To 3-4 in rain-fed conditions with high quantity of farmyard manure flourish well than fed with only fertilizers... Finally drop leaving a blackened axis 4-5 years of growth with light green, do not attain full.... Fibreless pleasant flavour and canopy of the panicle only in Delhi, India early... Weeds particularly parthenium ( congress grass ) hardy plant irrigations give better results than flooding after intervals! In ‘ wattar ’ ) during summers ( loo ) Bengal due to frost than Dusehari Amrapali! Arid canal irrigated areas of northern India cultivation has spread to North and West Bengal in Chakdaha, Nadia.! Around 600-500 BCE, to Mahanama & an unknown mother ( soil moisture ),...

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„Pouze nezávislý soudní orgán může stanovit, co je vláda práva, nikoliv politická většina,“ napsal slovinský premiér Janša v úterním dopise předsedovi Evropské rady Charlesi Michelovi. Podpořil tak Polsko a Maďarsko a objevilo se tak třetí veto. Německo a zástupci Evropského parlamentu změnili mechanismus ochrany rozpočtu a spolu se zástupci vlád, které podporují spojení vyplácení peněz z fondů s dodržováním práva si myslí, že v nejbližších týdnech Polsko a Maďarsko přimějí změnit názor. Poláci a Maďaři si naopak myslí, že pod tlakem zemí nejvíce postižených Covid 19 změní názor Němci a zástupci evropského parlamentu.

Mechanismus veta je v Unii běžný. Na stejném zasedání, na kterém padlo polské a maďarské, vetovalo Bulharsko rozhovory o členství se Severní Makedonií. Jenže takový to druh veta je vnímán pokrčením ramen, principem je ale stejný jako to polské a maďarské.

Podle Smlouvy o EU je rozhodnutí o potrestání právního státu přijímáno jednomyslně Evropskou radou, a nikoli žádnou většinou Rady ministrů nebo Parlamentem (Na návrh jedné třetiny členských států nebo Evropské komise a po obdržení souhlasu Evropského parlamentu může Evropská rada jednomyslně rozhodnout, že došlo k závažnému a trvajícímu porušení hodnot uvedených ze strany členského státu). Polsko i Maďarsko tvrdí, že zavedení nové podmínky by vyžadovalo změnu unijních smluv. Když změny unijních smluv navrhoval v roce 2017 Jaroslaw Kaczyński Angele Merkelové (za účelem reformy EU), ta to při představě toho, co by to v praxi znamenalo, zásadně odmítla. Od té doby se s Jaroslawem Kaczyńskim oficiálně nesetkala. Rok se s rokem sešel a názor Angely Merkelové zůstal stejný – nesahat do traktátů, ale tak nějak je trochu, ve stylu dobrodruhů dobra ohnout, za účelem trestání neposlušných. Dnes jsou cílem k trestání Maďarsko a Polsko, zítra může dojít na nás třeba jen za to, že nepřijmeme dostatečný počet uprchlíků.

Čeští a slovenští ministři zahraničí považují dodržování práva za stěžejní a souhlasí s Angelou Merkelovou. Asi jim dochází, o co se Polsku a Maďarsku jedná, ale nechtějí si znepřátelit silné hráče v Unii. Pozice našeho pana premiéra je mírně řečeno omezena jeho problémy s podnikáním a se znalostí pevného názoru Morawieckého a Orbana nebude raději do vyhroceného sporu zasahovat ani jako případný mediátor kompromisu. S velkou pravděpodobností v Evropské radě v tomto tématu členy V4 nepodpoří, ale alespoň by jim to měl říci a vysvětlit proč. Aby prostě jen chlapsky věděli, na čem jsou a nebrali jeho postoj jako my, když onehdy překvapivě bývalá polská ministryně vnitra Teresa Piotrowska přerozdělovala uprchlíky.

Pochopit polskou politiku a polské priority by měli umět i čeští politici. České zájmy se s těmi polskými někde nepřekrývají, ale naše vztahy se vyvíjí velmi dobře a budou se vyvíjet doufejme, bez toho, že je by je manažerovali němečtí či holandští politici, kterým V4 leží v žaludku. Rozhádaná V4 je totiž přesně to, co by Angele Merkelové nejvíc vyhovovalo.

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Morawiecki: Hřbitovy budou na Dušičky uzavřeny

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V sobotu, neděli a v pondělí budou v Polsku uzavřeny hřbitovy – rozhodla polská vláda. Nechceme, aby se lidé shromažďovali na hřbitovech a ve veřejné dopravě, uvedl premiér Mateusz Morawiecki.

„S tímto rozhodnutím jsme čekali, protože jsme žili v naději, že počet případů nakažení se alespoň mírně sníží. Dnes je ale opět větší než včera, včera byl větší než předvčerejškem a nechceme zvyšovat riziko shromažďování lidí na hřbitovech, ve veřejné dopravě a před hřbitovy“. vysvětlil Morawiecki.

Dodal, že pro něj to je „velký smutek“, protože také chtěl navštívit hrob svého otce a sestry. Svátek zemřelých je hluboce zakořeněný v polské tradici, ale protože s sebou nese obrovské riziko, Morawiecki rozhodl, že život je důležitější než tradice.

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Poslankyně opozice atakovaly předsedu PiS

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Ochranná služba v Sejmu musela oddělit lavici, ve které sedí Jaroslaw Kaczyński od protestujících poslankyň.

„Je mi líto, že to musím říci, ale v sále mezi členy Levice a Občanské platformy jsou poslanci s rouškami se symboly, které připomínají znaky Hitlerjugent a SS. Chápu však, že totální opozice odkazuje na totalitní vzorce.“ řekl na začátku zasedání Sejmu místopředseda Sejmu Ryszard Terlecki.

Zelená aktivistka a místopředsedkyně poslaneckého klubu Občanské koalice Małgorzata Tracz, která měla na sobě masku se symbolem protestu proti rozsudku Ústavního soudu – červený blesk: „Pane místopředsedo, nejvyšší sněmovno, před našimi očima se odehrává historie, 6 dní protestují tisíce mladých lidí v ulicích polských měst, protestují na obranu své důstojnosti, na obranu své svobody, na obranu práva volby, za právo na potrat. Toto je válka a tuto válku prohrajete. A kdo je za tuto válku zodpovědný? Pane ministře Kaczyński, to je vaše odpovědnost.“

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